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Fetter Lane, Fleet Street, E.G. 

[Ail rights reserved] 




T O M \' CHI L I) 













r, Gr 

The favourable reception vouchsafed to ^' 40,000 
Miles over Land and Water" has induced me to 
yield to the kind wishes of many Friends and 
Constituents, and to record the impressions of my 
second circle round the world. 

Ethel Gwendoline Vincent. 

I, Grosvenor Square. 
May 3U/, 1892. 



Bv Tl 

The ( 

To TH 

New I 

The W 


Our Premier Colonv 


The Maritime Provinces, and through lake 
and forest, to the oueen citv . 

Bv THE Golden Wave to the Far West . 

The Canadian Rockies and the Sei.kirks 

To the Land of the Rising Sun 






New Nippon 


The Western Capital and Inland Sea 


X Cotitents. 

The Yellow Land .... 

The Celestial City. 

The FoKiiiDDEN City 

Shanghai and Hong-Kong 






Cochin China 



British and American Trade in Canada 
British Trade with Japan . 
British Interests in China . 




St. John's, Newfoundland 

Plan of a Manitoban Township 

The Ranche Pupil . 

Howe Pass 

Kananask' Us . 

Cascade .mountain, Banff 

Bird's-eye View of Banff 

Bow Valley 

Banff Sprini^s Hotel, Canadian National Park 

The Pool, Hot Sprin<js, Banff 

Mount Stephen, the King of the Canadian Rockies 

Train emerginj^ from Snow-shed 

Great Glacier. Canadian Rockies 

The Loops .... 

Frazer Canon .... 

'• A Little Mother " . 

The Red Lacquer Brid,i;e, Nikko 

Pa^joda of the Temple at Nikko 

Mausoleum of Ycyasu 

An Imperial Garden, Tokio . 

A Typhoon .... 

Street of Enoshima, Japan 


• 3 

• 3J 

. 66 

• 70 

• 7.3 


and 75 

• 11 

• 79 

. 80 

. 8r 


. 85 

. 90 

• 92 

. 94 


and 98 

. 120 

• >39 

. 142 

• 144 

• '5^ 

. 159 

. 1 6.3 


List of Illustrations. 

My Carriage at Kioto . 

A Chinese Street . 

Our Home on the Peiho 

How I went to Peking 

A Gate of Peking . 

A Street in Pekin'T- 

Her Ladyship's Foot 

All that is seen of the Forbidden City 

Homage to " The Son of Heaven " 

The Great W.ill . . , 

Harbour of Hon<j-Kon<^ 

Botanical Garden, Saigon 

. 189 

. 229 






'. -^ 

Land in sight when I awake at 5 a.m., a grey 
streak across the oval of the port. With what 
intense satisfaction wc gaze on the h'ne of barren 
rock, which has a suspicion of green horizon on 
the summit of the grey cliffs, only those can 
picture who have been at sea for some time. 

Presently we glide past Cape Race, with its neat 
signal station on the cliffs, and know that in a 
few minutes the arrival of our ship, the Nova 
Scotiau, will be signalled at St. John's. Wc see 
a few fish-curing sheds on the tiny bays of yellow 
sand, and some white specks that represent 
cottages. They are dreary little settlements, and 
near them the fishing-boats pass us, returning home 


Newfoundland lo Cochin China. 

after their rough night's work, for tliis is the 
inhospitable coast of Newfoundland, the Premier 
Colony of England. 

As the morning wears on and the sun rises, it is 
a pretty scene. The great blue restless ocean, 
with its mighty Atlantic swell, lashing itself in 
spray and foam, with a long white line breaking 
and disappearing, re-appearing and dying against 
the bleak rock-bound coast. Sometimes the cliffs 
are formed of strata of grey lava or limestone, at 
others they are of rich red sandstone, colours that 
arc intensified with the peculiar clearness of the 
atmosphere. Above all, there is a pure blue sky, 
with white clouds chasing each other and casting 
shadows along the coast. Now and again we 
pass large fishing luggers sailing swiftly by in the 
brisk breeze. Some have tawny orange or deep 
brown sails, others pure white ones, looking like 
wings spread in the sunlight, gliding swiftly and 
silently past. It is a rich bit of colouring to eyes 
tired and sad with the monotony of an impene- 
trable, all-surrounding line of sky and ocean. 

The approach to St. John's is romantic. The 
barrier of cliffs still rises to larboard, without an 
apparent break or indentation, whilst they say 
that we shall be anchored at the wharf in ten 
minutes. Another scanning of the coast reveals 
at length two rocks rising higher than the others, 
with a slight fall between them. The ship ploughs 

Our Premier Colony. 3 

.ilong broadside, and until exactly opi)o.sitc this 
opening. With a few final plun<^ings, and hist 
rollings and tossings, she is brought sharply round, 
and we face the harbour of St. John's. The great 
brown rocks, sparsely sprinkled with green, rise 
up forbidding our entrance, and inside these i.s 

St. John's, Newfoundland. 

another amphitheatre of granite against which the 
town of St. John's is built. The line of wharves 
forms a black foundation. The haven where we 
would be lies peaceful and blue in the midst. 
The first sight of St. John's and the last, always 
include the twin red towers of the Roman 
Catholic Cathedral standing out on a platform 
above the town. 

15 2 

NcwfoiLudland lo Coihin China. 

Now \vc arc passing immediately under the cliffs, 
with which we make very near acquaintance as 
we go through the Narrows. To add to the diffi- 
culties of this passage, there is a rock at the 
narrowest part called the Great Chain Rock, where 
in olden times a chain was fastened across the har- 
bour to guard the entrance. Another and greater 
danger, a sunken rock, lies hidden under the 
smooth water. A gun is fired from the lofty 
signal station, to tell anxious hearts of the incom- 
ing mail, and with a large part of the population 
of St. John's on the wharf (for they always gather 
to greet and speed the fortnightly steamer) we 
land in Newfoundland. 

On the kind invitation of Lady O'Brien and 
the Governor, we are driven by Mr. Cecil Fane, 
his Excellency's aide-de-camp and able secretary, 
to Government House. This is a handsome stone 
building, looking more so amongst its surroundings 
of wooden houses^ standing above the town in its 
own grounds. The view from the house into the 
open country is charming. In the far distance a 
range of purple mountains. Then patches of dark 
pine forests, alternating with green, park-like 
spaces. The Roman Catholic cemetery with its 
wooden crosses lying on a hillside. Beneath it in 
a basin, the little blue lake of Ouidi Vidi, which 
plays such an important part in the social life of 
St. John's. Here they yacht and boat, fish and 

Our Premier Colony 

bathe in summer. In winter they use it to sleiL;h, 
skate, and tobo;j:;c^an on, but above all they hold their 
annual regatta here. It is fixed for next week, 
and may be called the Epsom of Newfoundland. 
The population from all parts of the Island p^athcrs 
to sec it. In olden days each merchant chief had 
his yacht and crew of employes, and partisanship 
ran high, but now the races belong to the clubs in 
town, such as the Temperance, Athenaeum, etc. 

In the afternoon the Hon. Augustus Harvey 
took us for a beautiful drive of twenty-eight miles 
across the Island. Who, seeing that bare rocky 
coast in the morning, would have believed that the 
interior of the Island could be so lovely ! We 
drove along a good macadamized road, passing the 
pretty white wooden houses with red roofs and 
neat palings, the country residences of the mer- 
chants. Here is the one belonging to Mr. Baird of 
lobster fame. Each house has a flagstaff and 
floating flag ; indeed, St. John's is called the city of 
flags, for everyone who is anybody possesses one, 
and flies it proudly when in residence. There arc 
great clumps of purple iris growing wild by the 
roadside. We pass through many plantations of 
fir trees, junipers and larches. The great feature 
of Newfoundland scenery is water. It is every- 
where. Flowing in rivulets, covered with reeds by 
the roadside, enclosed in hollows in the hills as 
lakes, hurrying from the mountains as a gushing 

Nrd^fouiidlaiiii lo Cochin CJi'nuu 

torrent, [jrotcstiiifj anj^n'ily in rapids .ind foam 
aj^ainst the rocks in its course. It is tlic i^reat 
feature and the fjrcat charm, and one-third of the 
Island is said to be water. In one drive you may 
count as many as two dozen lakes. 

At times, as you look round, the country reminds 
you of Scotland, with the purple blue mountains in 
the distance and the dark patches of fir trees. At 
others there is a marshy and barren bit of bop; 
land, with cabins rccallii^cf the wilds of Connemara. 
Then some scene in the Tyrol is brought before 
you ; high mountains and deep valle}-s filled with 
dense pine forests, a lake hidden in their midst. 
Frequently a chain of mountains has a similar 
chain of lakes winding at its base. These lakes 
are divided by a narrow isthmus of land, or con- 
nected by flowing streams. They are full of fish 
of all descriptions. If England is the paradise for 
horses, this is the paradise for fishermen. Other 
sport can be obtained by the partridge-shooting 
in August and September. The partridges re- 
semble Scandinavian ptarmigan. There are also 
wild deer to be had by stalking the mountains 
forty miles in the interior. 

We always think of Newfoundland as the land 
of fog, lobster, and cod, and know it best in con- 
nection with the breed of Newfoundland dogs. 
This race is degenerating and threatened with 
extinction, and there are scarcely any good 

Our Premier Colony. 

specimens of these beautiful and intelliL,'i'nl {lnj:fs 
left in the island. Hut I tliink few have any idea 
what extremely beautiful scenery there is, and whcMi 
there is no fog-, the atmosphere is remarkable for 
extreme dryness and clearness, L^ivincjf the most 
vivid colourint^ and the sharpest delineations to 
the mountains. 

This was the case to-day ; and as we drove to 
the Twenty Mile Lakes, so called because they 
are twenty miles round, I thought I had rarely 
seen brighter, prettier, or more varied landscape. 
The water of St. John's comes from these lakes, 
and they claim to have the purest supply of any 
town in the world. Instead of beincf bare and 
desolate, the country is green and smilint^. There 
are a few widely scattered farm-houses, but as a 
whole not much cultivation is attempted. 

After a long ascent, we gain a glimpse of the 
sea. We have been driving across a narrow main- 
land, from the ocean to the ocean, and before us, 
gleaming softly in the evening sunlight, is the 
beautiful Bay of Conception. The surrounding 
cliffs are quite purple, the ocean is a golden sea 
broken up by green islands. Far below us is a 
cluster of houses, a fishing settlement, with a lobster 
factory and some flakes run out over the rocks. 
There are boats idly rocking at the qua)', whilst 
others are catching bait for a fishing schooner, 
lying at anchor in the bay. They told us of one 

8 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

of the governors who was b» ought here within sight 
of this bay to die. He thought it so beautiful. 
So did wc. Then we drove home quickly in the 
dusk, late for dinner, but charmed with the island. 
We found Sir Terence and Lady O'Brien just 
arrived from a few days' cruise by the " Out-ports " 
on the coast. They give us wonderful descriptions 
of the grandeur of the scenery. The government 
steam yacht, in which they journeyed, will start 
with the judges on circuit in a few days. 

TJiursday^ Aug. 6t/L — We awoke to a lovely 
spring morning, with the breeze whispering 
amongst the trees, and the Union Jack flapping 
gently against the flagstaff in Government House 
garden. Spring has just come. Asparagus and peas 
are coming up in the garden, strawberries are ripen- 
ing and the hay is ready to cut. We have gone back 
three months in our season. The climate of New- 
foundland is abominable. The winter is inter- 
minably long and severe, lasting from the begin- 
ning of October to May. There are incessant fogs, 
which envelop everything in a cold damp pall. 

Nor is the island exempt from these fogs even 
during its short summer. The climate is also 
subject to extreme and rapid changes, from heat 
to cold, in a few hours. The summer has been 
unusually delayed this year, and had we come 
three weeks earlier, we should have seen an ice- 
berg in the middle of the harbour. 




Oiir Premier Colony. 

Newfoundland is about the size of Ireland, or 
one-third more. Its population is some 200,000, 
but of this number 28,000 live at St. John's, which 
is therefore the centre of all Hfj, commercial, 
political and social. The remainder of the popula- 
tion is chiefly settled on the coast, in fishing 
villages called the " Out-po/ts," whilst the interior 
of the island is sparsely settled, and in some 
parts unexplored. The population is dwindling, 
and there is no immigration, of which they are 
jealous, as reducing the means already deficient 
of living, but there is emigration to Canada and 
the United States. 

The people are of English, Scotch and Irish 
descent, but those from England are chiefly from 
the west coast and Devonshire. The Premier, 
Sir William Whiteway, is a Devonian. And a 
curious little fact exemplifies this. If you ask" 
for cream, it is always Devonshire clotted cream 
that is brought. 

Newfoundland was the first of England's 
colonial possessions. Sebastian Cabot discovered 
the island in 1497, and claimed it for Henry VII. 
With the discovery of America, all nations came 
forward to claim a share, but it was England and 
France who chiefly engaged in the fisheries, which 
were then a source of great wealth. Sir Gilbert 
Humphrey and Sir Walter Raleigh annexed the 
island for Queen Elizabeth. Even at that time 


I o Ncivfoundland to CocJiin China. 

100,000/. worth of fish were annually exported. 
The ships left England in March, and returned in 
September, and these voyages formed a nursery 
for English seamen. In 1635 the French obtained 
permission from England to dry fish on the shores 
of Newfoundland. This may be said to have laid 
the beginning of the troubles which are now so 
active. The island was kept in a deserted con- 
dition by the merchant adventurers up to 1729. 
They persuaded the authorities at home that it 
was uninhabitable, in order that they might retain 
the fishing rights in their own hands. Masters of 
vessels were obliged to bring back to England 
each soul they embarked, under penalty of 100/. 
When at length this tyranny gave way, a 
governor sent from England, and the island 
colonized, the fishermen were still so poor as to 
be in complete subjection to the merchants under 
the '^ supplying system." This baneful " truck " 
practice begun so long ago, continues in use unto 
this day, with equally evil results. The only 
support of the fishermen (who form the bulk of 
the population) is fish. Upon the result of the 
fishing season the year's comfort and prosperity 
depend. But this, to be done on a profitable 
scale, requires a considerable plant. There are 
only three classes in Newfoundland : the luer- 
chants, the planters, and the fishermen. The 
last class are in durance to the first, through the 

Oji?' Premier Colony. 


medium of the planter. The planter obtains from 
the merchant the necessary outfit for the fisher- 
men in clothes and goods, and this is sold on credit. 
On his return from the fisheries (the chief of 
which are off the Great Bank), he seizes the catch 
and repays himself, and the merchant, who dis- 
poses of the fish. Thus the fishermen are kept 
in a hopelessly poor and dependent posi- 

Of course, since our arrival, we have heard 
every side of this much-vexed Fishery Question. 
But at least we can now fully understand the " life- 
and-death*' importance of the question to the 
island, of the curtailment of their fishery grounds 
by the French shore dispute. The life of the cod- 
fish and lobster is the life of the Newfoundlanders, 
and to lessen their catch of fish is to lower pro- 
portionately their already low standard of living. 
The question of the French obtaining bait and 
erecting lobster factories is discussed at every 
dinner table. Mr. Baird, by defying Sir Baldwin 
Walker, is called the village Hampden. They 
feel deeply the apparent want of sympathy of the 
Home Government, and indeed it cannot be easy 
for Her Majesty's Ministers to understand the vital 
interests involved in this dispute to the islanders 
without a personal visit to St. John's. 

We should like to have visited the disputed 
fishing shore off the islands of St. Pierre and 

12 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

Miquelon, but it lies 135 miles clown the coast, and 
the only means of communication is by a fishing 

We went sight-seeing in St. John's in the morn- 
ing. Our first visit was to the adjacent square 
stone building, the House of Assembly. It is a 
miniature Houseof Commons, contained in a lofty 
room, with long windows. There is the Speaker's 
chair, the table, the ministerial and opposition 
benches, though the latter are only occupied by 
the eight members in opposition, whilst the minis- 
terial benches boast a cohort of twenty-six, 
of whom all but two are said to be in receipt of 
an official salary. There is also a Legislative 
Council, or Upper House ; and an Executive 
Council, or Cabinet, which meets weekly at 
Government House. 

Sir William Whiteway, the Premier, returns by 
the next steamer from the Delegation to England, 
but his colleagues are here, and we meet them 

The Roman Catholic cathedral is the next most 
prominent building at St. John's. Its situation on 
a plateau high above the town, and facing the 
harbour, tells in its favour. Inside the railed-off 
square there are four beautiful marble statues. 
The Cathedral is finely proportioned inside, and 
over the high altar there is a fine bas-relief 
representation of the Dying Christ. The more 

Our Premier Colony. 


you travel, the more struck you are with the 
activity of the Church of Rome in all parts of the 
world, and particularly in the Colonies. We found 
it so in Australia and New Zealand. In Eastern 
and Central Canada the finest buildings in the 
cities are the Roman Catholic cathedrals. So it 
is at Ottawa, at Montreal (where they are build- 
ing one with a dome after the model of St. 
Peter's), and at Halifax. Here it is the same. 
One wonders whence the money comes, and 
whether it is true that the Roman Catholics, with 
no State endowment, are more generous in the 
support of their religion than us Protestants. 
We visited Bishop Power, for we hold a circular 
autograph letter from Cardinal Manning (my 
husband's godfather, now gone to his rest), written 
in Latin, and addressed to all the Archbishops, 
Bishops and Clergy of the Roman hierarchy in all 
parts of the globe. It ensures us a welcome from 
them everywhere. 

We then went to the English cathedral, which 
lies lower down in the city, and is a fine Gothic 
structure designed by Sir Gilbert Scott, but it 
presents a sorry contrast to the other, as there is a 
blank where the tower should be, and, save for a 
few stained glass windows, it is bare and undccor- 
ated. There is a heavy debt of 20,000/. on the 
cathedral, to meet which several public-spirited 
gentlemen have banded together and insured their 

•■ \- 


14 Neii) found laud to Cochin China. 

lives in its favour. They feel that they have made 
sufficient sacrifices, and that having built the fabric, 
it must be left to their sons to decorate it. 

Then we descended to Water Street. It is the 
principal street, lying parallel with the harbour, and 
a somewhat untidy and unsavoury avenue. It is 
a real descent to reach it, for the other streets 
climb up from it at right angles, and each one 
is a mountain to ascend. There is one cab-stand 
here for the whole town. The vehicles on it 
are of antiquated date, the seat for the driver 
dovetailing into a back seat for a passenger. 
There are frequent stand pipes ready for the fire 
brigade, who have stations with the horses stand- 
ing ready under suspended collars, and all the 
new improvements. The pressure of water is so 
good that, with hoses attached, the jets will pass 
over the cathedral. Thrice already destroyed by 
fire, St. John's now takes all human precautions. 
There are several banks, a fine hotel, from without 
at least, but which is said to defeat its exterior pro- 
mise inside, a general hospital, penitentiary, orphan- 
ages, sailors' homes, and a technical and high school. 
The education of the island is in a far advanced 
state, with compulsory and free education. The 
museum in the post office contains specimens of 
the marble, coal and gypsum found in the island. 
Newfoundland is rich in mineral wealth, and only 
requires capital for its development. 

Ottr Pi'cmier Colony, 


We had a heavenly afternoon for a tea picnic 
to Logy's Bay. Indeed the beautiful drives and 
expeditions seem endless, and Logy's Bay is only 
one of the many lovely coves and bays that indent 
the coast. We dip over the hill and look down 
on an exquisite little picture, with a blue bay 
surrounded by headlands of red and green cliffs, 
and the sea shimmering beyond. Far away on 
the horizon there is a gleaming white pillar. It 
is a floating iceberg. We wish, oh ! so much, as 
we eat strawberries under the cliffs, that it was 
nearer to us. 

Before we descended into Logy's Bay, we knew 
that it contained a fishing settlement, by the 
pungent odours of highly flavoured fish that 
ascended to us, and over the bay there are many 
extended flakes. These flakes are formd by rough 
supports made of fir poles covered with branches 
of fir-trees. Each codfish is split, salted and laid 
open on these flakes. It takes six weeks of ex- 
posure to cure the fish, and there is a good deal of 
labour involved. Each morning the cod must be 
laid out on the flake. Each evening it must be 
gathered in, stacked and covered with bark, to 
which stones are attached to keep it down. This 
fish is then exported to Roman Catholic countries 
like Spain, Brazil, Portugal, Austria and Italy, 
where it forms the staple of food for the poorer 
population on fast days. It is worth about 2d. 

1 6 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

per lb. The small boats that vvc see outside the 
bay, are busy collecting bait. The bait they 
obtain to catch the cod are caplin, herring and 
squid, according to the season. We have just 
missed seeing a lobster factory, as they closed by 
law on August 5th. The factory, it appears, only 
consists of an open shed and a stove. As the 
lobsters are only worth here about three shillings 
per hundred, it seems that a large profit, by ex- 
porting them fresh, might be made in England. 

In returning, we drove round Lake Quidi-Vidi 
and on reaching the top of a hill looked down 
on a typical fishing settlement. The granite rocks 
of the coast shut it into a narrow cove, through 
which courses a stream that finds a narrow outlet 
to the ocean. The wooden houses are huddled 
together, finding foundations on and against the 
rocks, whilst the flakes are run out in all directions 
over the stream, and men and women are hard at 
work splitting, salting and drying the last arrived 
boat-load of fisli. 

There was a dinner party at Government House 
in the evening, where we met Lady Walker, wife 
of Sir Baldwin Walker, Mr. Bond, Mr. Harvey, 
and other members of the Government, as well as 
Mr. Morine, the leader of the opposition. The 
next day was Sunday, and we experienced a 
sudden and disagreeable change of climate. It 
was bitterly cold, and we were glad of fires. But 

Our Pmuicr Colony. 

wc have not yet had a real Newfoundland 

We are in great difficulty as to how to leave 
the island, and find ourselves steamer-bound. 
That tardy line, the Allan, has a fortnightly 
service via Halifax to St. John's, but we shall be 
obliged to take a cargo boat. 

Monday, August loth. — A midnight embarkation 
on the Black Diamond Line s.s. Coban, from the 
deserted wharves of St. John's. The donkey 
engine is at work all night, and in the cold grey 
of early dawn we slipped out of the harbour. 
There ensued two days and nights of abject 
misery, only relieved by the sight of land at seven 
o'clock on Wednesday evening. We enter Glace 
Bay on the peninsula of Cape Breton. The 
channel entrance is so narrow that we executed 
some wonderful nautical manoeuvres before 
anchoring at the wharf. We are landing on a 
barren shore, the chief object of interest being a 
coal shoot with some trucks of coal on it. We 
are near the great Sydney coal mines, and the 
country is as bleak and desolate as our Black 
Country. The sun is sinking, but the air is warm 
and moist. 

Wc land at this uninviting place, and after 
some searchings amongst a half-dazed popula- 
tion, who seem to show surprise, mingled with 
resentment, at our intrusion, we find a ramshackle 




i8 Ncivfoundland to Cochin China. 

country buggy, in which to drive fourteen miles 
to Sydney. We are told the track is rough. 
The light is fast failing. There is only one 
narrow seat for the somewhat bulky driver and 
ourselves. For a moment I cannot sec where I 
am to sit. But every second it is growing darker, 
and with no alternative I scrambled up, and 
fortunately being small, I was wedged in securely, 
and during the very rough drive was perhaps 
the less shaken. The four-year-old pony sorely 
tried my nerves at starting by shying, and 
turning sharp round — a fatal thing in these 
lockless buggies. Our good driver — the local 
constable — negotiated the worst places, the holes 
and rocks and frail wooden bridges, with great 
care, and saved us all he could. Still, we suffered 

We passed the two great coal mines of Sydney 
which supply all the coal to Newfoundland, 
and much to Canada. It is soft and dirty fuel. 
We saw the lights of the miners' cottages, and 
passed some of them returning with an electric 
lamp in their caps. On and on we drove. The 
twilight failed, and a pale crescent moon rose, but 
its dim light only added half-seen terrors to the 
road, as we drove through dusky pine forests and 
heard the rush of unseen waters, whilst the lamp 
of the luggage cart in advance looked like a will- 
o'-the-wisp dancing up and down. On and on 


Oil?' Premier Colony. 


for what seemed like hours. No dweUing-placcs 
in sight, no human being seen, no sound heard, as 
we crossed in the darkness that isthmus of land 
between Glace Bay and Sydney. 

After a weary while we at last saw the welcome 
lights of Sydney, and drove into a sleeping 
village, only to be told that every room in the 
place was full. At length a priest and a commer- 
cial traveller, fellow-passengers from the steamer, 
found a room, which they gave up to me. It was 
in a little public-house, but the bedroom was 
lighted by electricity ! 

We were up at 5 a.m., and in a torrent of rain 
drove to the station. The Intercolonial Railway 
only opened this new line from Sydney across 
Cape Breton eight months ago. It communicates 
with the magnificent harbour of Sydney and the 
exceedingly beautiful Bras d'Or Lakes. We 
travelled by the shores of several " guts," or inlets 
from the harbour. Then opens out the broad 
expanse of the lake itself, surrounded by moun- 
tains, along the foot of which we are creeping. 
The name Bras d'Or has such a pretty origin. 
When the French, in exploring Cape Breton, first 
saw the lake, it was autumn, and the shores were 
all golden in their autumnal glory ; hence they 
called it the Golden Arm. For miles we are pass- 
ing along its shores, which the waters are gently 
lapping under a leaden sky, and the great mouh- 

C 2 

•! I 

20 Newfoundland io Cochin China. 

tains covered with fir forests, rise ^doomy and 
forbidding on the further shore, bathed in clouds 
and mists. It is a beautiful, thouj^jh depressing 
scene. The lake closes in, and its banks nearly 
meet at the Narrows, which the train crosses on 
an iron trestle bridge from one shore to the other. 
There is excellent fishing in this lake, and now 
that the railway has opened it up, it is sure to 
become known and largely visited. 

At the Straits of Canso, the contents of the 
train, including passengers, are embarked on a 
ferry, and cross the narrow strip of sea that divides 
Cape Breton from the mainland of Canada. Wc 
disembark in Nova Scotia. 



A LONG railway journey. The light streainin^ij 
into the berth of a sleeper of the Inter-colonial 
Railway awakes me, and a few minutes afterwards 
I emerge from between the curtains, to sec the 
morning sun on the dancing waters of Bedford 
Basin, the land-locked harbour of Halifax. For 
about ten miles we are skirting this harbour before 
running into the town. 

Most people would agree in thinking Halifax a 
charming place. There is nothing in the primi- 
tive city, with its straight, narrow streets of 
wooden houses, most of which require a new coat 
of paint, to make it so. There arc few public 
buildings worthy of notice. But the charm lies in 
its position on the peninsula of land, with the 
deep bend in the North-west Arm on one side, 
and Chebuctoo Bay on the other, leading into 
Bedford Basin. Thus there is water on every 

': )»• 

2 2 Ncwjouiidland io Cocliin China. 

Halifax has a large official society, and takes 
some pride in being thought very English in its 
habits and ways. It owes this to being the 
one military station left in Canada where there 
are British troops, and also to its harbouring a 
naval station, with a resident Admiral and three 
war-j^hips at anchor in the bay. The Lieut.- 
Governor also resides here, and so Halifax' is full 
of official residences. Each province in Canada 
has a lieut.-govcrnor, who receives the appoint- 
ment for five years at the hands of the Governor- 
General, with a moderate salary and an ofificial 
residence. He is generally some prominent and 
popular local man, who is thus rewarded for 
political services by the Premier of the day, who 
advises the representative of the Crown, and practi- 
cally confers the post. Each province also has its 
local parliament, or legislature, which is indepen- 
dent of the Dominion Parliament, and forms its 
own laws of internal economy, constituting a body 
like our County Councils. Thus, in Canadian 
capitals, their public buildings always include the 
Parliament House, a Government House, and 
Ministerial offices. 

In the afternoon Mr. I'rancklyn came and took 
us for a drive in the beautiful park at Point 

' Licence has been taken somewhat to alter the route 
actually travelled in the Maritime Provinces, so as to ht it in 
!)etter as a continuation of my previous book, "Forty 
Thousand Miles over Land and Water." 

The Maritime Provinces, 


Pleasant. We skirt along the blue bay, dotted 
with white sails, for there is a regatta in progress, 
until we reach the well-named Point Pleasant. 
This promontory is covered with a magnificent 
pine forest, through which wind miles of splendid 
roads, made by companies of the Royal Engineers 
when stationed here. 

On one side the park is bounded by a deep 
inlet of the sea, running a long way inland, and 
which is called the North-west Arm. At a certain 
point there is a sunlit vista looking up this 
narrow bay, which is very beautiful. There are 
pleasant country-houses out here, in one of which 
Mr. Francklyn resides. It is a perfect afternoon, 
with warm sunshine, and a pleasant breeze 
whispering and sighing in the fir-trees. 

Stmday, August 2nd. — In the morning I went to 
church at St. Paul's. This is a very old wooden 
building with a spire. There are the same 
timbers as were used for its construction in i794. 
when the Hon. E.Cornwallis landed in Chebuctoo 
Bay with 2000 settlers. He planned this site for 
the church, and built it on the design sent out by 
the Imperial Government, which was on the model 
of St. Peter's, Verc Street. In 1787, when the 
first Bishop was appointed, he took it for his 
cathedral. It has taken part in all the great 
functions connected with the history of Halifax ; 
and the walls are covered with mural tablets to 

\ ■- 

24 Nciofoundland to Cochin China. 

the memory of the generals and admirals who 
have died on the station. 

We were told to go and sec the public garden, 
which is very well laid out with carpet beds and a 
miniature river. The garf ..: is a resident of 
Halifax, and was sent ho*., to England a short 
time ago, to model it on our London parks. In 
the evening we attended the Presbyterian Church 
to hear Principal Grant preach. He is the able, 
sympathetic and popular Principal of the Kings- 
ton University. The Presbyterians have a strong 
following, and fine churches throughout Canada, 
probably owing to the large number of original 
Scotch settlers. 

From Halifax we should have gone to St. 
John, New Brunswick, by Annapolis, through 
the beautiful country celebrated by Longfellow, 
and called the Land of P3vangeline, and across 
the Bay of Fundi, but there was doubt as to the 
hour of arrival of the steamer to be in time for 
a meeting of the United Empire Trade League. 
I must here digress a minute to explain that it 
was no part of our original Canadian tour to 
practically be "stumping'' the country from Hali- 
fax to Vancouver on the subject of Imperial 
Preferential Trade. The meetings were thrust 
upon my husband, and, once begun, each city 
claimed its meeting in due course. Albeit, I must 
confess that he fell in gladly with the arrange- 

The MaritiJiic Provinces. 


mcnt. I may fairly say that for over six weeks 
in Canada, I was the victim of the United Empire 
Trade League. 

In our schoolroom days we learnt that St. John 
is the capital of New Brunswick, and Halifax 
the capital of Nova Scotia. In the weariness of 
a hot study and the drowsiness of a summer 
afternoon, we may vaguely wonder of what use 
this, and much else that we learn, will ever be to 
us. It is pleasant now to have knowledge 
triumphantly vindicated, and geography by per- 
sonal visits made easy. 

Lying on several peninsulas formed by the 
river of St. John, the harbour, and the Bay of 
Fundi, the city is surrounded by water. You 
cannot be many minutes in the town without 
hearing of the fire of 1877, that great epoch 
in local history. Beginning in a blacksmith's 
shop, it destroyed nine miles of streets and an 
entire portion of the town. We were shown 
the one building that was left untouched in the 
midst of the conflagration, and for what reason 
no one has ever been able to ascertain. The 
town was rebuilt with red sandstone, granite and 
brick. It looks so handsome and substantial when 
compared to the wooden cities of Halifax and 
other Canadian towns. 

TheMayor(Mr. Peters), the President of the Board 
of Trade (Mr. Robertson), met us at the station 

26 Neivfoundlaiid to Cochin China. 

and drove us about the town, and pointed out to 
us such public buildings as the Custom House, 
the hospital, the asylum for the insane, etc. My 
experience goes to tell that they are the same in 
all cities of the world. We passed rapidly from 
the summit of one peninsula on to the next, 
looking down streets that always seem to lead to 
water. There are pretty views from these heights 
of the large city, containing 40,000 inhabitants, 
spread out over these successions of hills, with the 
harbour dotted with sails below. Far away 
into the country, the river is seen winding 
amongst grey, overhanging cliffs and pine-clad 
mountains. They claim for it scenery as fine as 
the Hudson. 

But the prettiest view of all is from the Canti- 
lever Bridge, Here the wide mouth of the St. 
John river flows through the harbour to the sea, 
interrupted by rocky islands, clothed in green. 
They have a great curiosity here in the shape 
of a reversible waterfall. The tide at the mouth 
of the river rises and falls as much as forty feet. 
As the river flows seawards it is forced by the 
volume of water coming down the river over a 
ridge of rock, and forms a waterfall into the 
harbour at low tide. When the tide turns, the 
salt water is forced backwards up the river, 
and forms a waterfall the reverse way. 

St. John was founded by the United Loyalists. 

The Maritime Provinces. 


The other day there was a touching incident of 
a brave boy who went out in a storm here and 
saved the hfe of a child, perishing in the attempt. 
Subscriptions poured in for the erection of a 
pubHc monument. They proposed to erect it 
on a spot we were shown, but in excavating they 
came upon the well-preserved coffins of twenty 
of these United Loyalists. 

The city is the centre of a great lumber tride ; 
30,000 yards of timber are cut on the banks of 
the river annually and floated down to St. John's. 
They have free and undenominational education. 
The streets are paved with blocks of cedar. 
Electric light is in general and domestic use. 
Altogether, St. John is a most enlightened and 
advanced city. 

We got into the "cars" at night for a long 
journey of two days and two nights to Toronto. 

Through the State of Maine we sped at night ; 
one of the two American total Prohibitionist 
States. Though saving 200 miles by this route, 
it seems a pity that the C. P. R. could not keep 
their line in Canadian territory, as, in the event 
of war with America, or one in which she was 
a neutral ally, her connections could be severed. 

During this long journey of 1500 miles from 
Cape Breton, through the Maritime Provinces, to 
the more cultivated and open country of Ontario, 
the scenery has been beautiful but monotonous. 

28 Ncivfoundland to Cochin China, 

There are two features which repeat themselves 
over and over again to the eye, the ear and the 
senses : they are that Canada is a land of many 
forests, and that Canada is a land of many 

\'ka ;nany hundreds of miles we passed through 
the midst of these enduring spruce forests, the 
narrow track whose path has been roughly cleared 
by burntr.g, extending with its thin thread of 
iron 'ni-nu<:h their densest growth, lost through 
their i •ack.Ci.s depths. On either side of the 
<;!earin^througi: '..cse mighty forests, there is a belt 
of blackcnc'.. Stun,^.^ '^grey, armless stems, where 
the fire has passed over them. Sometimes even 
there will be one green living tree left standing 
among the dead. And these dull grey mutilated 
trees look quite pathetic in their pale nakedness, 
leaning hither and thither, and finding support 
across one another, as if falling in their last 
agony, or lying dead and uprooted on the 
ground. They exercise quite a fascination as 
they continue for mile after mile in their dying 
contortions, whilst in the background there are their 
living brethren, so green, hardy and dense in their 
growth. The ground beneath is strewn with 
blackened snags that are partly covered with green 
moss and ferns, their fresh growth mingling with 
these dark reminiscences of man's ruthless hands. 
In sedgy places there arc beds of waving bulrushes, 

The Maritime Provinces, 


and sometimes a few wild flowers, such as the 
fox-glove, the mimosa, and the golden-rod. 

Hundreds of acres of these lumber forests are on 
every side, and indeed, a large proportion of the 
Dominion is covered with these mighty stretches 
of pine and spruce. There are other varieties such 
as maple, birch and poplar, but the spruce fir is 
the chief growth, as it covers all the land that is 
not cleared or occupied by water. We see piles 
of ready-cut timber, stacked for transport, or cars 
laden with it at every station. The rivers and 
lakes are full of floating timber, and abandoned 
rafts. Frequently the whole surface of the river 
will be blocked with lumber, which, carried by the 
current, arranges itself transversely in floating 
down. This generally happens near a town or 
village. For miles away up these deep valleys, 
there are men busy lumbering all the summer. 
They cut down and strip the trees of bark and then 
float the lumber down to the nearest place for 
export. We constantly pass sawing mills where 
water power is used for the machinery. The bark 
is only useful for *' kindling " or firewood. Some 
of the wood is crushed to pulp and used for the 
manufacture of paper. 

Occasionally in the middle of these forests the 
engine will startle us with an unearthly whistle. It 
is a sign that we arc approaching a human habita- 
tion, and in a rough clearing we pass two or three 



Newfoundland to Cochin CJiina. 

wooden huts, with a potato patch mingling; witii 
the black stumps, and women and children at the 
door. One pities their solitary life, shut in by the 
impenetrable forest, and wonders how they obtain 
supplies. Sometimes there is a larger clearing 
with more attempts at farming, but where the 
fields, though divided off, are still a mass of charred 

This work of clearing by the Eastern settler must 
be terribly disheartening. There is, first of all, a 
dense under-growth to be hewn through and piled 
up ready for burning. This when dry kindles the 
conflagration which is to help so materially in the 
task. After a spell of dry weather and with the 
wind in the direction he wishes to clear, it must 
be joy to the settler to see the flames leaping up 
and hungrily devouring the trees. The fiercer and 
longer the fire lasts and the cleaner it burns, the 
more pleased he is, and when it dies down he must 
look sadly around at the trees still standing, know- 
ing that now each one must be cut down by 
his own labour. Then each blackened stump and 
snag must be grubbed up singly. This is work 
done by the sweat of the brow. It is tedious, 
laborious and apparently endless. Occasionally 
you come across a beautifully cleaned piece 
of ground, which is pleasant to look upon, but 
generally the land is roughly cleared, in fact you 
wonder how the few cows and sheep find sufficient 

The Maritijuc Provinces. 

green sustenance among such a black outlook of 
burnt stumps. The enormous waste of valuable 
timber by this rough-and-ready method of clear- 
ing seems to us reckless prodigality, but the settler 
surrounded by miles of similar forests cannot sec 
it in this light. 

The variety of rough wooden fences, with their 
ingenious inventions to save labour and time, 
become a source of interest. The roughest kind 
are formed of the roots of trees, turned on their 
sides, the roots forming a thorny fence. It is 
picturesque, untidy, but practical for its purpose, 
and is called a ** snag" fence. Others are formed 
of timber stakes of every description, some with 
barbed wire. This, however, is too expensive to 
be largely used. But the prettiest of all are the 
snake fences. Very easy of construction, they run 
along in graceful zig-zags. 

The land cleared, and the ground fenced off, the 
building of the house comes next. This is a land 
of lumber, and of course the house is made of 
woocl. They are simple and easy of construction, 
being of one story with a door in the centre and a 
window on either side. The door must be covered 
with wire netting, for the flies in the forest amount 
to a pest. They are lined with planked wood 
inside and out, and the roof is covered with 
shingles or flat strips of wood nailed on like tiles. 
Between the outside and inside there is a lining of 


NcTvfoundland to CocJiin China. 

paper tarred thickly over. Tliis makes the house 
air-tight. In Canada a large proportion of the 
dwelling-houses are built of wood. Montreal and 
Toronto have streets of handsome stone houses, 
and in all Canadian towns the public buildings 
and offices in the city are of stone or brick. Still, 
wooden houses largely predominate throughout the 
Dominion. It seems curious, but arctic as the 
winters are, these wooden houses are more suited 
than stone to the climate. In the latter the mortar 
absorbs and gives off damp in a thaw, whilst the 
wooden houses are dry, air-tight and extremely 
comfortable. Most of the houses have furnaces in 
the basement, which heats the warm air in the 
pipes of each room, or at all events a stove in the 
hall. This and double windows are a necessity in 
the winter. 

During this long journey, we are again im- 
pressed with the volume and extent of the lakes 
and rivers. The country is absolutely fretted with 
these fresh-water lakes, which are full of salmon 
and trout. Some are very large, like Lake Megan- 
tic, which we pass, and which is twelve miles long ; 
or Moosehead, which is forty miles long and from 
one to fifteen miles broad. Others are only like 
large ponds. Then there are broad rivers, deep 
and strong; wide rivers, shallow and rapid, and 
mountain torrents, brown and babbling. But it is 
always water everywhere, still or running, silent 

The Maritime Provinces. 


or noisy, blue or green according to its depth. 
If you read for a little while, or your attention is 
turned away from the car window, on looking up 
again there is sure to be more water in sight. 

We now re-visited Ottawa, Montreal, and 
Toronto in the interests of, and for meetings of, 
the United Empire Trade League, after a lapse of 
six years. At the capital kindly, enthusiastic, 
and hospitable was the official and parliamentary 
welcome to my husband, but we heard much of 
the " scandals," and of the loss to the country of 
Sir John Macdonald. Of the former subject we 
weary, as of the extravagant language which fills 
the papers, the following being a specimen of the 
daily head-lines : — 

"Boodle and Bungle." "The Slime of the 
Serpent is over Them All." " A Story of Greed, 
Incompetence, Extravagance and Muddle." 
" Another Public Works Scandal," etc. 

Montreal, with its natural attractions of the 
St. Lawrence and the Mountain, is little changed. 
But Toronto has grown enormously, and is now 
approached through some miles of suburbs. The 
Torontonians claim that their " Queen City '' has 
increased in the last few years more than any 
other on this Continent, not excepting any in the 
United States. They may well be proud of it. 

On Saturday, August 22nd, we left Toronto, 
and five hours in the cars brought us to Owen 


> ij 

34 Neto/oiindland to Cochin Chimin 

Sound. This part of the line was laid by an 
English engineer, who they say had never laid a 
railway before; it was taken over by the C.P.R. 
and was incorporated into their great line. It is not 
difficult to believe that this was the case, for the 
car narrowly escapes derailment by the roughness 
of the road. 

Owen Sound is the point of departure for the 
C.P.R. steamers across the lakes of Huron and 
Superior. I think it is a preferable route to the 
railway, as it saves two days and two nights in the 
cars. The steamers are very comfortable and 
well arranged. They are constructed to carry a 
large cargo. On this voyage the cargo consists of 
agricultural machinery going out west for the 
harvest, and soon it will be the grain of the north- 
west which they will be carrying to the east. 
They have a capacity for 40,000 bushels of grain, 
and they are constructed in such a way that the 
grain can be shipped direct to and from the steamer 
by the grain elevator. 

For several hours we steam through the Georgian 
Bay or southern extremity of Lake Huron. It is 
a pretty inlet with forested banks, and a great 
expanse of smooth blue water. It is difficult to 
realize the vast area of space covered by these 
Canadian lakes. Lake Huron, which we have 
been crossing all night, covers 28,000 square miles; 
Lake Superior, which we arc about to enter, has 


The Miin'/iiiic Provinces. 


30,000 square miles. Lakes Erie, Winnipeg;, 
Michigan, and Ontario, must be added to these 
miniature oceans. And we arc not surprised to 
find, that Canada claims to have one quarter of 
the whole of the fresh water of the <^lobe on her 

The next morning the banks of Lake Hin-on 
are drawing closer together, leaving us a narrow 
channel staked out in the centre. We are passing 
a regular procession of barges. There are as 
many as three being towed in line, and as the 
passage is narrow and devious, we could shake 
hands in passing. Also, as we salute each one, 
and are saluted, with a threefold whistle, the noise 
is continuous and wearing. 'J hcsf. barges are 
laden chiefly with lumber, but some have coal, 
grain, and ore. 

We enter the narrow mouth of the Sault Stc. 
Marie River, commonly called by the Americans 
the " Soo." This river is the outlet between the 
waters of Lake Huron and Lake Superior. There 
is a fall of forty-two feet. It is a broad and muddy 
river, and on the right hand we have American 
soil, and on the left Canadian. Perched on the 
bridge in the crisp morning air, the views are very 
pretty. The mountains, as always, are covered 
with the dark blue-green of the familiar pines. 
The banks are clothed in brilliant green, just mellow- 
ing into yellow under autumn's golden hand. We 

D 2 

6 Neiofoundland to Cochin China. 

are shown a quarry of valuable variegated marble 
in the mountain side, which is proving inexhausti- 
ble. Then we pass the wreck of the Pontine. 
She was run down by her sister ship four weeks 
ago, and lies helplessly across the course, her bows 
stove in, and the bridge and hurricane deck only 
above water. They are pumping her out, gallons 
of water pouring from her rent side. 

Ten miles of this ascent of the river, and bending 
round a corner, we come in sight of Sault Ste. Marie. 
Like so many other places, the town has been 
created by the developing energy of the C.P.R., 
whose cantilever railway bridge we sec crossing the 
river, but it is typical of the energy and " go " of the 
Americans, that on their side of the river there is 
a town, whilst on the Canadian it is only a village. 
At Sault Stc. Marie there are some pretty rapids 
which you can shoot in a canoe. Communication 
between the tvv'o great waterways of Lakes 
Superior and Huron is by a lock, where the water 
rises and falls sixteen feet. The lock is on the 
American side, but the Canadians are making a 
deeper one of twenty-two feet. This Soo Canal 
is of the greatest commercial importance. Sixty 
vessels, in the summer season, pass through it 
daily, or more, they allege, than through the Suez 

There was a long procession of steamers and 
barges waiting on either side for their turn. It is 

The Maritime Provinces. 


so shallow that little way can be allowed to the 
ships in passing in and out, and for two hours and 
a half we sat and were quite amused watching the 
skill which packed three large steam barges into 
this narrow canal. It must not be thought that 
these steam barges are like our dirty barges on 
the Thames or on English canals. They have a 
tonnage of 1500 or 2000 tons, and are as smart 
as white paint and polished brass can make them, 
being lighted, too, by electricity. 

These great lakes have a complete through 
connection to the ocean by means of rivers, 
locks, and canals. Recently the whale-back 
boat was taken from Chicago by this route to the 
Atlantic and across to London. But as the com- 
merce from the West increases, the canals will 
require widening and deepening. This through 
waterway will have an important bearing on the 
commercial development of Canada. Its draw- 
back is that from November until April the lakes 
are frozen. We, who travel through Canada in 
the summer, forget what a different aspect the 
country assumes, when for six months of the year 
it is frost and snow bound. 

A few hours after passing the Soo Canal, we 
had left the flat banks behind us, and passed out 
on to the ocean- like waters of Lake Superior, 
across which we steamed for ten hours. 

At eight o'clock there is the great purple pro- 

38 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 

montory of Cape Thunder in sight. It is a bold 
outline against the pale morning sky, clear, with a 
keen north wind. It shelters inside the circular 
bay of Thunder, with Port Arthur at its head. 
We pass Silver Island, where thousands of dollars' 
worth of silver have been raised and sunk 

After the mine had been opened, the sea broke 
in, and a crib had to be constructed. The silver is 
there, but the difficulties in raising it seem insuper- 
able. The whole of Cape Thunder is formed of 
mineral deposits. 

We land at Port Arthur. It is a sad place. 
The C.P.R. has ruined the rising town by 
choosing Fort William, five miles further up the 
river, for its lake port. The once thriving place is 
deserted, the shops closing, the large hotel empty. 
Such is the power of a great monopoly ; it creates 
and destroys by a stroke of the pen. 

Before leaving the Alberta at Fort William, the 
time is put back an hour. It recedes as we travel 
westward, and advances for east-bound travellers. 
The time of the Dominion is taken from Montreal, 
and is numbered, for convenience and business 
purposes, consecutively, that is to say, they have 
no a.m. or p.m. to confuse their train-service, and 
their watches have the double numbers, and one 
p.m. becomes thirteen, and two p.m. fourteen, and 
so on. A proposition has just been made in the 

The Maritime Provinces, 

Dominion Parliament to equalize the time, but it 
will not pass, at all events, this session. 

Fort William was one of the advanced posts of 
the Hudson Bay Company. It is now a swamp 
laid out in streets at right angles, with wooden 
houses, overshadowed by some enormous grain 
elevators. Doubtless it has a great future before 

We wait here five long hours for the west-bound 




Our journey to the Far West, through golden 
wheat, began at Fort William ; from there the 
Canadian Pacific takes us across to the ocean. 

The C.P.R., with its 2990 miles of railway, is 
the iron girdle that binds Canada together from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans. She gives 
cohesion to this conglomerate whole, with its 
varieties of climate and production. Every mile of 
the line is worth a mile of gold to the country, for 
at every place where she lays down a station, that 
place becomes a town, a centre of population, 
civilization, and wealth to the surrounding district. 
This railway has been the great explorer, the 
great colonizer, the great wealth producer of 
Canada. It is the artery of the body of the 

One has constantly to remember that six or 
seven years ago all this country through which 
we are passing was an unexplored wilderness. 
A little band of plate-layers, heade 1 by a surveyor, 

To the Far West, 


true pioneers, must have forced their way through, 
hewing trees, blasting rock, and making the silent 
woods resound with the voice of civilization, 
occasionally coming across the track of some 
Indian encampment or the marks of a bear. It 

must have required 


forethought and 

organization from headquarters to have the plant 
and stores ready to push on day by day, whilst 
the railway in rear acted as the pioneers* single 
communication with the outside world, as they 
plunged deeper and deeper into the forests. The 
average speed of construction was about five miles 
a day, and the greatest length laid in one day 
was twelve and a half miles. The portion of 
line between Port Arthur and Fort William was 
the most difficult to devise. Indeed, several 
times the engineers despaired. The railway is 
divided into divisional sections, with a suoer- 
intendent at each. These again are divided into 
sections, with a surveyor in charge ; and we 
frequently pass their lonely section houses. Every 
portion of the line is inspected once a day, the 
workmen using a trolly, which can be lifted on and 
off the track. It is a single line, and there is only 
one passenger train daily east and west. 

The trains are very long and heavy, often con- 
sisting of eight or nine cars some eighty feet in 
length, weighing as much as fifty tons each. They 
would jump the track if lighter. Our train to- 

42 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

day was of this length, and carried a human 
freight of 286 persons, exclusive of the numerous 
officials. The sleepers or sleeping-cars are most 
elegant, with their polished pine wood inlaid with 
mother-of-pearl, and their pale sea-green brocade 

The colonist cars on these trains are excellent, 
and always, we noticed, well filled. They have 
berths like the sleeper, only with no upholstery, 
but the colonist can buy a mattress and pillow at 
Montreal for a dollar or two. They have a stove 
where they can cook their own provisions, and on 
landing from the ocean steamers they get into this 
car, live in it, and come as far west as they want 
to without change or stoppage. 

From Fort William we passed through a wild, 
rocky country, following the line of the Kaminis- 
tiquia, a shallow river scrambling over a rocky 
course. There are a few of these soft liquid 
Indian names, embodying some symbolical or 
romantic ideal, still left ; but they are fast dying 
out, and the practical settler is changing them to 
a more prosaic but pronounceable nomenclature. 

It was through this lonely district, then, un- 
explored by white man, that for ninety-five days 
Wolseley, in 1870, led his troops against the 
Indians. They marched 1000 miles from Fort 
William to Fort Garry, utilizing the water-way of 
the lakes and rivers where possible. At Savanne 

To (he Far West. 


we sec two of his flat-bottomed boats, lyintj^ rottin^^ 
ill the stream near an Indian village. 

We have dinner in the private car of Mr. I low- 
land and Mr. Wilkie, the chairman and general 
manager of the Imperial Bank of Toronto. 
Seated at the end of the train, we watch the twin 
lines of railway uncoiling themselves in a straight 
line for mile after mile. An occasional section- 
house, a station, which is often only a wooden shed 
on a platform, a board with the number of the 
section on it, and, at long intervals, a huge red tank 
for watering the engine, is all we see. Night 
closes in on this lonely country, and we sleep in 
our berths, while the engine steams and pants 
along into the darkness, hour after hour through 
the long, long night. 

In the cold early morning we reach Rat 
Portage, passing from the state of Ontario into 
Manitoba. Rat Portage is a wooden village of 
1400 inhabitants (this is considered quite a goodly 
population for this sparsely-peopled country) ; 
and has the largest flour mill in Canada. It lies at 
the outlet of the beautiful Lake of the Woods, 
which is forty miles long and studded with 

A brake has broken and the train is divided, 
the first half taking on the dining-car. Hungry 
and impatient, the passengers wait for another to be 
attached, and stand on the carriage platform ready 

44 Ncivfotindlanci to Cochin China. 

to rush on board. But, as it passes, a howl of 
disappointed hunger goes up, for some knowing 
ones have jumped off the cars, and filled it before 
it leaves the siding. 

We are still travelling through the same rock- 
bound countrj'', ungainly masses of rock protrud- 
ing through a scrub growth of dwarf trees. We 
continually pass beautiful lakes, placid sheets of 
water hidden away in hollows. This is succeeded 
by a run through some " muskeg " or black peaty 
bog land, where flourish rank grasses against a 
background of bushy poplar trees. 

Thirty or forty miles from Winnipeg the 
country opens out and gradually assumes a prairie 
character. The land is quite flat now, covered 
with coarse yellow grasses, and sprinkled with 
wild flowers. It is a rich feast of colours. There 
are great patches of gorgeous wild sunflowers, 
masses of purple and white michaelmas daisies, 
growing more plenteously here on the open prairie, 
than when cultivated in our cottage gardens at 
home ; there are bluebells and lupins, blue, pink, 
and white, marsh mallows, cyclamen, and acres of 
that weed-like growth, the golden rod. Isolated 
houses, becoming more frequent, tell us we are 
nearing Winnipeg. We cross the Red river and 
are in the station. 

Winnipeg is the old Fort Garry settlement 
of the Hudson Bay Company. Twenty years ago. 

To the Far JVcsL 


or in 1 87 1, its population was 100, now, in 1 891, it 
is 30,000. 

Thie town is set down in the midst of the prairie. 
Main street follows the winding of the old Indian 
trail which takes in the deep bend of the Red 
river. The City Hall in this street, or "on" as 
the Canadians would say, is a very handsome 
new-looking structure. It front of it stands the 
column erected to the memory of the soldiers who 
fell in the North-West rebellion of 1870. It is 
surmounted by a volunteer on guard, wrapped in 
his fur coat, and with his fur cap on his head. 
The streets are paved with blocks of wood, but 
the foot pavements are still boarded ; indeed 
Winnipeg is a strange mixture, with Eastern 
civilization meeting in this border city, the Western 
or rough-and-ready methods of the settler. It is 
only interesting on this account. 

In the streets there are bullock carts bringing 
in cradles of hay from the prairie ; sulkies, which 
arc constructed of two wheels and a tiny board for 
a driver's seat ; and buckboards, used for purposes 
of all kinds. Nor must I forget the little carts with 
their tandems of dogs. These are a mongrel breed, 
and are much used, especially in winter, when they 
are driven four, six, or a dozen in hand in sleighs. 
As we get further west, the breed of horses 
improves. There are country yokels with burnt 
faces, coarse straw hat, and flannel shirt, gazing 


46 Newfoundland to Coihin China, 

open-mouthed at the store windows, for Winnipeg 
is to them what London is to our country lads. 
Here is a family party of Indians emerging from 
a shop with numerous parcels, to the evident joy 
of the squaw. But what strikes you so much is, 
that you may pass from this handsome street of 
fine stores, straight out on to the broad expanse of 

On the block of Government land stands the 
fine group of stone buildings of the Parliament 
Plouse, together with the Ministerial offices for the 
Province of Manitoba, the Governor's residence, 
and the wooden barracks enclosed in a square. 
We stayed at the Clarendon Hotel, whose days are 
I fear numbered, as the Northern Pacific Company 
are just completing a magnificent red sandstone 
hostelry. It is shown as one of the sights of 

Mrs. Adams, wife of an old Royal Welsh brother- 
officer of my husband's, kindly took m.e for a 
drive in the afternoon. On the outskirts of the 
town the Assiniboine river takes a deep bend, in 
which there is some woodland. Trees are scarce 
on the prairie, and what there are — poplar, oak 
and maple — are all stunted in their growth from 
exposure to the north-west blast, which sweeps in 
winter across the great waste, a piercing, biting 
wind blowing from over acres and acres of snow. 
In this green belt there are many handsome 

To the Far West. 


houses, built in an ambitious style of architecture, 
with towers and porticoes and balustrades. They 
were chiefly constructed during the great " boom " 
of nine years ago, a disastrous event that has left 
its mark. The town still suffers from the troubles 
which quickly followed. Families are yet living 
under the cloud of the financial bankruptcy which 
then overtook them. 

In 1872, Winnipeg, with a sudden awakening, 
realized the immense future before her as the 
capital of the Far West. Land was quickly bought 
up. Large prices given and realized. Houses 
were built on a magnificent scale. Crowds 
flocked in from all parts of Canada to share in the 
coming prosperity, A complete collapse followed. 
The bubble had burst. 

The meaning of a " boom " may be thus simply 
exemplified. A buys a piece of land from B, 
and pays half the price down as a first instalment. 
He sells to C at an increased price, who, in his 
turn, does ditto to D. At length B, the original 
seller, calls for payment. C and D are unable to 
meet the call, and are ruined in endeavouring to 
do so, and the land is thrown back on A, who is 
in the same position, and B has it thrown on his 
hands, and never having in the first place received 
full payment, is also ruined, for he has speculated 
with the money. All classes had taken part in 
this " wild land speculation," and all were involved 

4S Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

in the collapse. Houses were closed (for they 
could not be sold, as there were no purchasers) or 
are only, as we now see them, partially lived in. 
Winnipeg is slowly recovering from this ** boom," 
and with the youth and energy of a young city 
will renew her prosperity. 

Passing the ruined gateway of the old Fort 
Garry, we appropriately come to the Hudson Bay 
Store. It is contained in a larr^e block of build- 
ings, and is a new departure in the trade once 
absorbed by that great and powerful fur-trading 
company. They first explored the country, 
owned it, and kept up friendly relations with the 
Indians. It was one of those great trading 
monopolies, owned by merchants, and which have 
done so much tor the wealth and commerce of 
England. The Hudson Bay Company has accom- 
plished in a minor degree for Canada, what the 
East India Company did for India. This shop 
may truly be called the Army and Navy stores of 
the West, for it contains everything from brocades 
and Paris mantles (which are bought by the 
squaws) furs, carpets, groceries, to Indian blan^ ot 
pipes and bead work. In this bead wo .*iw 
blending of colours is exquisite. At th last 
Louis Riel rebellion, the wholesale department 
outfitted and provisioned at twenty-four hours' 
notice, 600 soldiers for thirty days. 

We then visited the tennis club. I am im- 

To the Far Wc$f. 


pressed with the immenst,' utih'ty of this popular 
game, which, if useful in l^nijland, performs a 
large social duty in all Canadian towns. It forms 
a mild daily excitement, and a meeting place for 
all, and is especially useful in a country where, 
with the impossibility of obtaining servants, en- 
tertaining is a difficult matter. 

Canon O'Meara took us one morning to the 
outskirts of the city to see the cathedral. Lying 
out in the country and built of wood, it resembles 
a simple village church. The surrounding 
cemetery is full of handsome monuments, and 
here lie many victims of the boom. The most 
interesting monument is the granite sarcophagus, 
engraved with seven names, surrounded by laurel 
wreaths of the victims of the last rebellion. Their 
remains were brought back here to be buried, 
with an impressive public funeral. 

We visited the Bishop of Rupert's Land in his 
adjoining house. He is Metropolitan of eight 
bishoprics, and has an enormous diocese reaching 
into the unexplored regions of the Mackenzie 
River. He has organized a college on the model 
of an English University, and which confers 

Studying the working of the Church in Canada, 
one ecognizes some arguments in favour of 
Disf Lblishment. In Canada there is no State 
cut ment, and the clergy are supported by 


50 Newfoundland to Cochin C/iina. 

voluntary contributions. This money comes 
partly from pew rents, and is greatly assisted 
by the envelope system. By this method the 
parishioner covenants to give a certain sum a 
year for the maintenance of his church, by fixed 
weekly Sunday instalments. He is furnished with 
fifty-two envelopes, on which his name is printed, 
and these contributions are entered in a book. 
There appears to be no difficulty in raising funds 
by these means, particularly if the clergyman is 
popular. If he is unpopular, or his doctrines un- 
acceptable or extreme, he suffers by the falling off 
of his income. This system, moreover, has the 
advantage of giving every man an interest in his 
church. A clergyman observed that several 
members of his congregation appeared at church 
for the first time on the establishment of this 
envelope system. " Oh, yes," they said, in 
response to his remark, " we have got some stock 
in this concern now." 

It works particularly smoothly where the bishop, 
adapting himself to the needs of a new country, 
admits the principle that those who pay must 
choose. They require, however, a Clergy Dis- 
cipline Act as much as we do. 

Mr. Robinson took us in the afternoon for a drive 
across the prairie to Sir Donald Smith's model 
farm at Silver Heights, where there are three 
splendid specimens of the now extinct buffalo. 

To the Far West, 


some of the few left of those vast herds that 
used to roam the prairie. The farm takes its name 
from the adjoining wood of silver poplar trees. 

C. visited the venerable French Archbishop 
Tache. He told him that he came out forty-six 
years ago, and that it took him then sixty-two days 
to travel from Montreal, what he can now perform in 
sixty-two hours. He showed the inkstand from 
which his uncle, the Premier of Quebec, Sir Etienne 
Tache, signed the (Confederation Act of Canada. 

TJiursday, August 2'jth. — Before leaving Winni- 
peg Major Heward gave us an early inspection 
at the barracks of the Mounted Infantry. They are 
smart and well-mounted on brancho horses, reared 
in the west. We also inspected the chief of the 
three fire stations. They have a chemical 
steamer. In this the water is mixed with carbolic 
acid gas. Fire being supported by oxygen, the 
carbolic gas, when thrown on it, extinguishes the 
supply of oxygen, and with it the fire. The fire 
bell, in sounding, throws open the stable door and 
the horses trot out by themselves and place their 
necks under the suspended collar, which descends 
and is fastened by a patent bolt. 

The west-bound trains all stop at Winnipeg for 
five hours to allow time for the colonists to visit 
the Railway and Dominion Land Offices, and to 
obtain information respecting selections of lands. 
The land in the North-West Provinces has now 

E 2 

52 Newfotindland to Cochin China, 

been surveyed and allotted thus for twenty-four 
miles each side of the line. In a township of 
thirty-six sections of 640 acres, or one square mile 
to each section, the Dominion retains roui^hly one 
half, whilst the C.P.R. retains the other. There 
are two sections reserved for school purposes, 
that the value of the land may make the schools 
free and self-supportin^^, two sections for the Hud- 
son Bay Company, and the Canada North-West 
Land Company have bought others. The diagram 
on page 53 will show the division of section^. 

The station was crowded with large parties of 
emigrants, as many settlers leave their families 
here, whilst choosing their sections further west. 
There are bundles of bedding, tin cooking utensils, 
with bird cages and babies in promiscuous heaps. 

As we pass out of the station we see the enor- 
mous plant and rolling stock of the C.P.R., which 
has here its half-way depot between Montreal and 
Vancouver. They have twenty miles of sidings, 
which are now full of plant waiting to be pressed 
forward, to bring down the harvest to the coast. 

We are out on the prairie at once, on that great 
billowy sea of brown and yellow grass ; monotonous 
it is, and yet pleasing in its quiet, rich, monotones 
of colour. The virgin soil is of rich black loam. 
The belt of unsettled land round Winnipeg is 
caused by the land being held by speculators, but 
after that we pass many pleasant farms, clustering 

To the Far West. 


more thickly around Portage le Prairie, a rising 

town. We pass a freight train entirely composed 


640 Acres. 


The above diagram shows the manner in which the 
country is surveyed. It represents a township — that is, a 
tract of land six miles square, containing 36 sections of one 
mile square each. These sections are subdivided into 
quarter sections of 160 acres each. 

of refrigerator cars, containing that bright pink 
salmon from British Columbia, which is a luxury 
in the east and a drug in the west. The engine 

54 Ncwfoiuidland to Cochin China. 

bears a trophy of a sheaf of corn, to show that the 
harvest in the west has already begun. 

Out of the whole year we could not have chosen 
a more favourable moment for visiting the North- 
West, as the harvest is in full swing. We are at 
this moment passing through a sea of golden grain, 
acre after acre extending in an unbroken line to 
the horizon. Indeed we are told that these wheat 
fields form a continuous belt some forty miles deep 
on either side of the railway. 

It would be difficult for anyone living even in 
the east of Canada, to realize the enormous interest 
shown in the crops and weather out here. For 
months and weeks beforehand it forms a general 
topic of conversation, but, as August closes in, it 
becomes the one and all absorbing concern. The 
newspapers are scanned for the daily weather 
reports. Warnings arc telegraphed broadcast 
through the land. As Professor Goldwin Smith 
says, in his book " Canada and the Canadian 
Question," "Just before the harvest the weather 
is no commonplace topic, and a deep anxiety 
broods over the land." 

The interests at stak are enormous, involving 
as they do the question to many of prosperity or 
ruin. One cold night, or one touch of frost may 
destroy the labour of a year. This year the 
promise is exceptional, and the prospect was bright 
until a week ago. Then there were ominous 

To the Far West, 


whispers of frost. These early and late frosts are 
the scourge of the farmer, and the lateness of the 
harvest, owing to an exceptionally cold summer, 
increases the anxiety. Day by day, hour by hour, 
the temperature is discussed with earnestness, in- 
creasing with intensity as evening approaches. The 
other night there were people in Winnipeg going 
up and down Main Street all night and striking 
matches to look at the thermometer placed there. 
The interest to all was so vital that they could not 
rest. There are warnings published in bulletins to 
farmers, to light smudge fires to keep the frost 
from the wheat. These fires of stubble, lighted to 
th« north or north-west of the fields, by raising the 
temperature two or three degrees, keep off the 
frost, and the dread of smutted wheat. We see 
these smudge fires smouldering as we pass along. 
The virgin soil will yield as much as forty to 
fifty bushels of wheat an acre, and from fifty to 
sixty of oats. Manures are unknown and un- 
wanted by these western farmers. The land has 
only to be "scratched with a plough," and the field 
will often yield a rich harvest of 500 acres of 
wheat. The hum of the harvest is heard in all the 
land, and we see for miles the golden grain waiting 
to be gathered, and the *' reapers and binders ' 
hard at work. This machine is an ingenious 
American invention, which cuts and binds at the 
same time. 

rhere is a string inside which is given 

56 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 

a twist, a knife comes down and cuts the strings 
and throws out the sheaf. It is pretty to watch 
the rhythmical precision with which sheaf after 
sheaf, thus cut and tied, is thrown out on the track 
of the machine. The sheaves are then piled into 
generous stacks and left for a fortnight to dry. 
Labour is at a premium throughout Canada, 
and machinery, chiefly of American manufacture, 
is more largely used than in England. Sometimes 
two chums will farm 200 acres alone. Nearly all 
this grain we sec is the far-famed Manitoba No. 
I hard. It is the finest wheat in the world. 

We are now approaching Brandon, which is a 
great wheat centre. This town has the largest 
grain market in Manitoba, as is shown by five 
elevators. "It is the distributing centre for an 
extensive and well settled country." We should 
have stayed here, but were deterred by accounts of 
the hotel accommodation. Then came the pleasure 
of an orange sunset, gilding the grain into more 
golden glory. We passed the celebrated Bell 
Farm at night where the furrows are usually four 
miles long, and the work is done by military 
organization, " ploughing by brigades, and reaping 
by divisions." 

At five o'clock we are left cold and shivering in 
the just broken dawn on the prairie side at Regina. 
We look wistfully after the disappearing train, 
with the warm berths inside the car. Deceived by 

To the Far West. 


the high-sounding designation of Capital of the 
Xorth-West Provinces, we had broken our journey 
at Regina. There is a frontage to the line of 
some wooden houses and stores, which extends 
but a little way back, for the population of Regina 
is only as yet 2000. The prairie extends to the 
sky line on every side. It is a dreary prospect, 
aud we are mutually depressed. 

There being nothing else to do, I retire to bed 
for some hours — the Sheffield-born landlady giving 
us a true Sheffield welcome. 

At one o'clock matters seem brighter, for 
Colonel Herchmer, commanding the Mounted 
Police of the North-West Territory, has kindly 
sent a team for us to drive two miles out across 
the prairie to the barracks. From the distance, 
the dark red buildings look quite a town, sur- 
mounted by the tower of the riding school. This 
force is organized on military lines, and consists 
of 1000 men, who maintain order over the Indian 
Reservations, and an area of 800 miles. Their 
uniform of scarlet patrol-jacket and black forage 
cap, with long riding-boots is extremely smart. 
You meet them in all parts of the North-West 

After lunching with Mrs. Herchmer, we inspected 
the officers' and men's mess rooms, the canteen, 
store room, kitchens and forge, the reading-room, 
bowling alley and theatre, and the guard room, 

58 Nciufoundland lo Cochin China, 

where we were shown the cell in which Louis 
Riel was kept after his capture. The force is 
under strict military discipline. They have a 
football and cricket team, and a musical ride equal 
to that of the Life Guards. 

The horses are all " bronchos," or prairie horses, 
bred chiefly from Indian ponies. They cost loo 
dols. to 120 dols. each, and arc short and wiry. 
They need to be strong, for the men must be five 
feet eight inches in height, and measure thirty-five 
inches round the chest, whilethe Californian saddles 
they use are very heavy. These saddles are after the 
model of the Spanish South American ones, with 
a high pommel in front and a triangular wooden 
stirrup. The horses are guaranteed to go forty 
miles a day. There are many gentlemen in the 
ranks of the force, some of whom have failed in 
ranching and other walks of life. The wild 
roving life on the out-stations maybe pleasant, but 
there is no promotion from the ranks. 

A drive of two miles further out on to the 
prairie brought us to one of the Dominion 
Schools, kept for the children of the Indian 
Reservations. Mr. Hayter Reed, the Government 
Inspector, who showed us over the school, told us 
that they do not force the parents to give up the 
children, but persuade them. It is uphill work at 
first, civilizing and teaching English to the little 
brown, bright-eyed children, with lank black hair, 

To the Far West. 


whom we saw in the schoolrooms. The bath and 
the wearing of boots is a severe trial to these gipsy 
children at first. 

The Government acknowledges in the building 
of these schools its responsibility towards the 
natives. They made treaties with the Indians, 
giving them rations, and setting apart certain 
lands or Reservations for them, such as the Black 
Foot and the Sarcee. The Americans did the 
same with their Indians, but did not keep their 
treaties as we have done. However, like all other 
" indigenes," they are dying out with the advance 
of the white man's civilization. We drove home 
past Government House, and in the evening 
M. Royat, the Lieut.-Governor, presided over an 
enthusiastic meeting of the United Empire Trade 

Since very early morning, and all through this 
interminably long hot day, we have been crossing 
the great desert prairie. Hour after hour has 
dragged wearily on, and still we look out from the 
car on to the symmetrical lines of the rolling 

For over 4CXD miles, from Retina to Medicine 
Hat, this vast steppe extends. There is no green 
thing on it — not a tree, or bush, or shrub — but it is 
covered with coarse grass, burnt to a sere yellow. 
The prairie is trackless as a desert ; lonely as the 
ucean ; vast and colourless as a summer sky. And 

6o Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

yet the prairie pleases, its loneliness fascinates, its 
very monotony charms, the deep stillness soothes, 
the tints arc so pale and quiet. There is the faded 
yellow of the grass, and the faint blue of the sky 
meeting on the horizon in that never-ending 
undulating line, unbroken and uninterrupted. 
The atmosphere is so clear that the blades of 
grass stand out alone, and a distant sage bush is 
intensely blue. Occasionally the haze makes the 
mirage of an ocean on the sky line. The only 
variety to this unvarying scene are the great saline 
lakes we frequently pass. A blue haze hangs over 
them, caused by the active evaporation, and now 
and again we see a shining patch of pure white 
crystal, which is the crust of salt left from an ex- 
hausted lake. At other times these dry basins arc 
carpeted with a rich red and purple weed, that 
forms an oasis in the wilderness of burnt- out 

We see many buffalo trails, for though these 
animals have been extinct for some years, their 
prancings beat the trail so hard, that they are still 
in existence. As manv as 160,000 were killed 
yearly, and with them disappeared the chief 
sustenance of the Indians. The prairie is strewn 
with their bleached skulls and carcasses. By the 
side of the stations there are stacks of their gigan- 
tic bones, artistically built up with the skulls facing 
outwards. Gophers start up and skurry away at 

To the Far West. 


the noise of the train. They correspond to the 
prairie dog of America, but arc smaller and about 
the size of a rabbit. 

Wc are impressed with the comparative fertility 
of the Canadian prairie, when contrasted with the 
similar belt of saline desert in America, for barren 
as this looks, parts of it are good for cattle ranching. 
We do, later in the day, occasionally pass a few 
settlers' dwellings, and presently the first of the 
Canadian Agricultural Company's farms. There 
are ten of these farms, consisting of 10,000 acres 
each, and situated at intervals of thirty miles 
between this and Calgary. We see on them 
frequent "fire breaks," or a ploughed acre left 
bare to prevent a fire from spreading in the crops. 
There are men, too, stationed along the line firing 
the grass, so that a spark dropped from the engine 
should not, by blazing this grass, spread to the 
ripening corn. 

We inquire what is the use of the mounds 
by the tracks, and are told these are snow brakes. 
In this flat country the smallest rise is sufficient 
to make a drift, against which the snow piles to a 
great height. 

We pass Moosejaw. The name is an abridg- 
ment of the Indian one, which literally means, 
with-a-moose-jaw-bone." At Maple Creek there 
are large stock yards, where the cattle are brought 

62 Nciofoinidlaud (o Cochin China. 

down from far distant ranches, and even from 
over the American border at Montana, and put 
on the train to Montreal and exported to 

The car had been up to 95^, but the intense 
heat was beginning to subside. With the refresh- 
ing coolness and the sun declining, we are also 
gladdened by the sight of a gradually rising 
slope on the dead level of the plain. It is the 
beginning of the Cypress range. Then we see 
a bush, some trees, some prairie flowers, and 
soon we are dropping down into the compara- 
tively fruitful valley of the South Saskatchawan, 
and, crossing its broad river, we reach Medicine 

It is delightful after the stifling atmosphere of 
the cars to get out and stroll in the station garden, 
which is full of old-fashioned English flowers, 
stocks, geraniums, verbenas, floxes, and migno- 
nette. There are a picturesque party of Indians 
with their squaws and papooses on the platform. 
We have seen some at all the stations selling 
polished buffalo horns, mocassins and bead work ; 
but try and " kodak " them as we often did — and 
the instant they saw the small black box, the 
men turned away and the women put their shawls 
over their heads. 

On leaving Medicine Hat, we ascended the 
valley above the river and passed on to a more 

To I lie I'lir 11 \s/. 


fertile prairie. There was just here a great 
meeting-place for the buffaloes, and the ground 
is full of their "wallows" or hollows made by 
the weight of their unwieldly bodies. Alas, 

that the law afr.'unst th 

slaughter came 
been wantonly killed ! 
at the atrocious hou 
of a warm berth into a 


\ears after they had all 

We reach Calgary 
two a.m., and turn out 
bed at the hotel. 

Siinda)\ August loth. — We attended morning 
service ?t the pretty little wooden church, the 
Bishop of Saskatchawan officiating. 

Calgary is the capital of Alberta and is in the 
centre of a great ranche country. Like all these 
towns out west it is an unfinished conglomeration 
of houses, laid out in imaginary streets at right 
angles, in which there are few houses and more 
gaps. The whole is held together by a principal 
street, in which there are two or three pretentious 
new stone buildings. From here the houses 
straggle away into the country, the unoccupied 
lots being joined to them by a boarded foot-path. 
These towns have no depth, they are all surface 
and length. Laid down on the prairie there are 
no trees near them and they have a bare un- 
finished ugliness, peculiar to their new growth. 

You are reminded at every turn of the reason 
for Calgary's existence, for its shops indicate the 
ranchers' wants. There arc many saddlers, dis- 

64 Ncivfonndland to Cochin China. 

playing Californian saddles, stock whips and 
lassoos ; others have camp bedding and furniture ; 
cpnncd goods, that stand-by of the rancher, are 
evidently in great demand. The dry-goods stores 
are full of flannel shirts, slouching broad-brim- 
med hats and "chaps," or the cowboy's leather 
leggings reaching to the thigh. Nearly evervone 
you meet is English, there are few born Canadian . 

The streets are full of cowboys riding thr'-'r 
long-tailed, half-groomed bronchos at a hand 
grilop, or of sulkies with the unmistakable 
rancher, with shirt open at the throat, slouch 
hat, and tanned face. The chief subject of con- 
versation is the dimensions of the ranches, the 
number of head of cattle and horses on each. 

In the afternoon a Police team came vv'th Mrs. 
Mclllree, to drive us oijt^ to see one of these 
ranches. Out here anything from a single horse 
to a four-in-hand is called a " team," but this was 
one in our sense of the term. 

We galloped across a trail on the prairie, and 
then wound through a " coolie," as they call the 
little valleys lying in between the rolling hills, 
and which are so frequent in this country. There 
are hundreds of gophers popping out of their 
holes, and as we see them close, sitting up with 
their long bodies, they look like tiny kangaroos. 
We espy coveys of prairie chickens, which are 
like our grouse. 

To tJic Far ]Vcst. 


As we reach the open ground there is a splendid 
country spread out before us. Var as the 
eye can reach, extending into the foot-hilL' at 
the base of the Rockies, there are miles and 
miles of rolling upland pastures, that resemble 
our Wiltshire downs. The whole of this vast 
area has been ** taken up," and is a succession 
of ranches. We can see the little wooden houses 
with their outbuildings, scattered at long intervals . 
Those innumerable specks on the downs are 
the cattle and horses, literally " feeding on a 
thousand hills," We are following the sweeping 
bends of the Elbow river, which lies below us in 
a cool green ravine, full of trees, in pleasant con- 
trast to the brown hills around. 

The ranche we are going to belongs to Mr. 
Robinson, and used t'^ be called the l^lbow Ranche, 
but has lately changed its name to the Chippen- 
ham, in accordance with the idea of calling the 
ranches hereabouts after the great English hunts. 
Messrs. Martin, Jameson, and Go.-don-Cumming 
(the latter of whom we met at the hotel with his 
pet black bear), have called their ranche the Quorn. 
One ranche differs not from the other, except in 
degrees of comfort. They are all built of wood, 
generally with verandahs, and after the simplest 
model of a square house, with a door in the centre 
and uMudows on each side. There are no trees 
or shrubs, or creepers scfircely even an attempt 



66 Nca'/oiiJifl/and to Cochin China. 

at a garden ; a rouci^h paling alone divides them 
from the prairie. I^ol,^s walk in and out and 
arc purt of the family. The plains are bare. 
Yet what a world of romance lingers round the 

I'he Kanclic Pupil. 

expression, " out ranching in the West." We 
dream of sunrise and sunset on the open prairie, 
of wild gallops in the early morning with the 
dew on the grass, of camping out under the 
starlight. But I trow the rcalit\' is far removed 

To the Far West, 


from the ideal, and that it ends with a bunk in 
the cowboy's hut wrapped up in a blanket, with 
tough prairie beef and doughy bread for their 
fare. I am sure if some fond mother could see 
her darling" boy in his cowboy's dress, and his 
quarters in the log hut, she would never be 
happy until she had him by her side again. It 
is clearly a case of " where ignorance is bliss," etc. 
But still, for a strong constitution there is nothing 
to fear, and sobriet}- and industry may lead to 

We look at the " corral '' or wooden pen, sub- 
divided into partitions, where, after the animals 
have been driven in, the one required is gradually 
separated by being shut off in pen after pen^ until 
a narrow passage is reached. Here wooden 
barriers are let down and he is thus confined in a 
cage. They can then brand him u ith an iron 
stamped with the mark of the ranchc. If it is a 
colt to be broken, they saddle, bridle and mount 
him before leaving the pen. Then comes the 
struggle, in which the rough rider requires great 
skill, tact, and experience, for a liorse will do any- 
thing to unseat his rider the first time. Unmerci- 
full)' sharp bits an-? used, but the horse is guided 
more by the rein on the neck. The boys ride 
loosely when galloping over the prairie, leaving 
the horse to look out for the holes, and he rarely 
makes a mistake. 

I" 2 

68 Newfoundland to Cocliin China. 

The horses on this ranche arc bronchos, but they 
have not sufficient blood for the English market* 
and, added to this, the branding detracts from their 
value. They are worth about 120 dols. each. 
This firing is said to be a necessity, as the 
ranches are often 500 acres in extent. The 
animals roam at will, with perhaps a couple of 
men, living in a log hut twenty miles away from 
the ranche, told off to look after them. Twice a 
year they " round up ; " that is, the owners meet 
and appoint a place, where the cattle are driven in 
and claimed by their owners, who know them by 
their brands, and colts and calves are then marked. 
This rounding up is done in the spring and the fall 
of every year, and is beginning now. The brands 
are some of them very ingenious in device. 
Settlers advertise in the newspapers for lost animals, 
giving their brands, which are well known to all 
the country round. 

Docs ranching pa}- ? They tell us it can and 
does, but, as in every other walk of life, hard work, 
capital and experience are required. Those who 
are wise, before beginning ranching on their own 
account, go through a cowboy apprenticeship on 
some ranche. Our driver in Calgary confided to 
us " that them young men didn't do no good to 
themselves out here, but they did good to the 
country, for they fr^el}' spent the remittances from 

To the Far West. 


We came home by the Indian Sarcee Reserve. 
On an open space over the river we saw some 
poles placed together with a suspended hook. It 
is the place where the Indians "make their braves." 
In this terrible ordeal their young men have this 
hook twisted into the muscles of their chests and 
are drawn up b)' it. They must utter no cry of 
pain. Indian encampments are met with all over 
the prairie. You know their " topee " tents, by 
the poles sticking up in the centre, in distinction 
to the ordinary tents of the half-breeds. They 
have numerous horses and cattle, which are 
rounded up with others. They are kept by an 
inspector within their reserves, and there is a large 
fine for anyone selling them intoxicating drink. 
They appear innocent and harmless, and only 
given to paltry thieving. 



Since our arrival at Calvary we have been 
mancEuvring to see by what means we could escape 
the start at 2 o'clock in the morning. As the 
C.P.R. has only one train westward each day, 

1 1 owe J'asb. 

you must continue )'our juurney at the >ame time 
as you previously arrived. Now w c have received 
permission to travel b}- a freight train, and Mr. 
Niblock, the Superintendent of the division, has 
kindly lent us his private car. 

The Canadian Rockies and the Sclkirks. ; i 

The freight train was due between six and seven 
o'clock, and it was somewhat annoying, as we had 
risen at 5 o'clock, to have to wait about the plat- 
form at the station until nine. Early as it was, 
the town was astir with sportsmen in their buggies 
with their guns and dogs, off for a day's shooting 
on the prairie. For this bright morning is the ist 
of September, their \2th of Align st^ and there will 
be massacre amongst the prairie chickens ere 
nightfall. The shooting is open to all, and you 
may roam over anybody's land. 

We can sec the " Rockies " for the first time this 
morning. Since we have been at Calgary the 
mountains have sulked in clouds and mist, and 
Calgary docs not, as some people would have you 
believe, lie under \}cii:. Rockies, but fifty miles away. 
In the clear morning air, they appear nearer to 
us than they really are. 

We arc soon well into the foot-hills, those grassy 
rounded slopes, which are the first rising ground 
from off the prairie, and which lead up to and end 
in the Rocky Mountains. The blue Bow river flows 
merrily in the valley ; there are hundreds of 
horses and cattle feeding on these river terraces, 
for there arc ranches lying up to and under the 
foot of the Rockies. 

The great Mmi)hithcatr(.' of mountains, which 
has been coming nearer by leaps and bounds, is 
beginning to impress us with its barren purple 

72 Xcw/oiDidlami to Cochin China. 

scars, and just as vvc arc entering among them 
our guard stops the train, and takes us out to see 
the Kananaskis Falls in the Bow river. We hear 
their dull and distant thunder before we see the 
clear mountain torrent, sliding down over ledges 
of rock, forming a long white-flecked rapid, before 
taking a final leap over a precipice. The con- 
ductor then invites us to climb up into the caboose, 
and scrambling up, we are perched inside the turret 
of the van, where there are windows that command 
the view on all sides. We share this elevated 
position with the brakesman, who is ready to run 
along the platform on the top of the waggons, and 
turn on the brakes, for each waggon has a separate 
one, connected with a wheel at the top. We sub- 
sequently discussed whether to give this amiable 
conductor a tip, but came to the conclusion that it 
was superfluous, on learning from the car atten- 
dant that his salary, calculated at three cents a 
mile, gave him an income of 500/. a year. 

We are now breaking through the outer barrier 
of the Rockies, and penetrating deeper into the 
mountains by a valley. The railway is challenging 
the monarchs, for they rise up on every side and 
could so easily crush us, as we wander through the 
green valley by the side of the Bow river, our 
travelling comrade for many days to come, its 
waters are pale emerald green now, but later on 
will be milk-blue with the meltinir snow and 

The Canadian Rockies and the Selkirk's. 73 

i^round-up moraine, brought down by its moun- 
tain tributaries. 

Wc shoot " the gap," described as 
■' two vertical walls of dizzy height." 
It would be truer to say that the line 
turns sharply round a projection 
of rock, whilst a mountain ap- 
proaches from the other side. It 
is ii fraud! AtCanmorewe rest 
an hour. As we get out of 
the cars, the intense stillness 
of the valley strikes us. Wc 
look up to, and are covered 
by the shadows of the three 

Kaiiiinaskis I'alls, 

Acll-defmcd slanting peaks of the Three Sisters 
and the Wind mountain. When we start again 
the mountains continue to increase in grandeur, 


/Vf K\fou n dla nd to Cm li in L h in . i . 

though I think that Baroness Macdonald's rhai)- 

sodies quoted in the Annotated Time Table, 

exaggerate the beauty of this part of the Rockies. 

It is curious to notice the remarkable difference 

between the two ranges we are passing throu;4h. 

Those to the left arc 

fantastically broken 

into varied shapes 

and forms penetrated 

by crevasses, full 

of deep blue and 

purple -red shadows. 

Whilst the range to 

the right is formed of 

grey and white lioary- 

headed peaks, and look 

brilliantly cold and 

white, in the strong 


We approach the 
Cascade Mountain. 
*' This enormous mass 
seems to advance to- 
wards us and meet us 

(.ascade Mountain. 
It entirely blocks our 

further progress, and the truin seems to be going 
t^ travel up it. We api)car to touch it, but in 
reality it is many miles awa\-. This Cascade 
Mountain gives }ou more idea than anything else 
of the colossal proportion of the mountains, whicli 

The Canadian Rockies and the Sclkirks, 75 

ycu lose by proximity, and by their uniformly 
large scale. It also shows you the deception 
caused by the clearness of the atmosphere. For 
the silver cascade which we sec falling down its 
side is ten feet across, and yet it looks lilsc a 
thread of cotton. The mountain we could well- 
. * j^jgj^ touch is five 

I A miles or more away. 

It is a striknifj sen- 

Another half-hour 
and we reach Banff. 
As a whole, I think 
this part of the 
scenery disappoint- 
ing, but people talk 
so much about it, because it 
is their first experience of 
the mountains, coming as it does 

' * too after a thousand miles of 

Cascade Moun- . . 

tuin, IJanff. prau'ic. 

\Vc are hot and tired after our 
journey, and have long to wait for " the rig," which 
is repeatedly telephoned for. When it does appear 
it is drawn by a vicious roan, fresh from a ranch c, 
which shies and bolts in a terrifying way. There 
arc two miles of a badish road, which wc do not 
sec for the clouds of dust that accompany us. This 
tlust is the drawback to Banff. The mountains 






^ ilia 11^ 

f IIIM '""^ 


1.4 IIIIII.6 




m,.. 0%. 






















WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 



"<iP MfS> 




76 Newfound land to Cochin China. 

have not come up to our expectations. Will it 
be so also with Banff? To-morrow will show. 

Wednesday, Scptevibcr 2nd. — A day to be re- 
membered. A day of complete satisfaction. 

Cradled in the stillness of the mountains, closed 
in by them in solemnity and darkness, the babble 
of the Bow River joinin<^ its waters with the Spray, 
we fell asleep. This mornini,^, the sun of a most 
perfect day awakes us, and the sound of the rushing 
waters is the first to greet our cars. My windows 
form two sides of the room, and I dress with the 
sun streaming in at the one and the breeze at the 
other, and a panorama of mountains seen from 
them both. The air is exhilarating to intoxication ; 
the atmosphere intensely clear. We do nothing 
all day, we live in the companionship of the moun- 

We have been with them in the early morning, 
when the pale-rose tints, the opalescent blue, the 
delicate pearl-grey, lay lightly on their rugged 
summits, and made them seem so near and tender. 
We have seen them in the heat of noon, looking 
strong and hard, with black shadows in the cre- 
vasses and their great stony veins and muscles 
standing out in relief in the sunshine. They seem 
full of manhood, defiant, and self-sufficient. We 
have watched these same mountains in the gla- 
mour of declining days, soften again as the shadows 
steal up the pine woods, leaving patches of sun- 


TJic Canadian Rockies and the Selki7'ks. 77 

light. One side of the valley is in gloom, whilst 
the other is bathed in golden light. Their grey 
peaks stand out as if cut with a sharp-edged knife 
against the even paleness of the sky. A few fir 
trees at their summit look like green needle-points, 
and the trail of pines climbing up the mountain, 
like soldiers marching in single file trying to scale 
the fortress heights. 

'/ ,\. 

In the centre of the valley there are two great 
mountains, and as I write they are becoming 
wrapped in purple-blue gloom, with sable .shadows 
in their granite sides, and whilst the valley is in 
darknes?:, the peaks are still bright with the last 
gleams of fading daylight. Behind this mountain 
again, there are three acute peaks, which stand 
fiom behind its dark shoulder, and they are rosy- 
red with an Alpine after-glow. 

78 Neivfimndland to Cochin Chinn. 

As we sit out after dinner in the gloaming', the 
mountains are still dimly visible. They have lost 
their individuality, and their soft full outlines arc 
limned against the luminous sky. Stars rise from 
behind them; there is one of intense brightness, 
and several shooting ones make a bright pathway 
across the mountains. 

There are mountains of every description at 
Banff, It is this variety that gives such charm 
to the place. Some are entirely clothed with 
pines, others partly so, with barren summits. 
Others again are nothing but rock and granite from 
base to summit, from earth almost to heaven, and 
down their sides there are marked deep slides, 
where the rock and limestone has crumbled into an 
avalanche of stone and dust. The changes on 
their unchanging surfaces arc the most beautiful. 
Like human nature, hard on the surface, they have 
hidden soft and susceptible moods. The pine- 
clad mountains are sunnier and more pleasing, but 
it is those of adamantine rock that fascinate you. 

They say that no view is perfect without water. 
The Bow River here gives the poetry of motion, 
and makes music to echo against the hills. It has 
the most perfect miniature falls I ever saw. They 
are pretty, yet not tame ; they are noisy, yet not 
thundering ; they murmur and quarrel without pro- 
ducing soul-agonizing sounds. They charm, but 
do not exercise the dangerous fascination of 

TJic Canadian Rockies and the Selkirks, 79 

Xiaeara. Their water is creamy blue in the sun- 
light, and cerulean in the shadow of the ravine, 
down which in bars and trails of foam it rushes, 
until it throws itself over the fall, in a snow-white 
cloud, flecking the rocks on the banks with 


All the mountains have names — such as the 
Twin Brothers, the Sentinel, the Devil's head ; but 
these names are meaningless. You know and 
^\T,\\ to love each by its own individual character- 
istic. The hotel in their midst scarcely mars the 
scene, for it is a picturesque structure perched on 
a natural platform, built of yellow wood, and with 



So Ncwfottndland to Cochin China. 

a roof of warm red shingles, and green trellises to 
cover the foundations. Its situation is so perfect 
that }'ou scarcely improve your view, or want to 
drive about the valleys. Vou may, perhaps, come 
a little nearer to the mountains, or see their 
reverse sides. There is one, however, the Twin 
Brethren, which gains by coming near to it, 
because you can stand absolutely under a mam- 
moth rampart of granite, shot straight into mid 
air, horizontally upward. It strikes fear into yoii 
as you gaze up to it, and as with these mountains 
comparison is the only thing which gives you 
even the remotest idea of their superb size, a 
great rock, as big as a small hill in itself, broke 
off some years ago and lies on the ground, amid 
smaller stones, as wc ought to call them, but 
which are really large rocks. Wc can trace the 
exact place where it cracked away from the 
symmetry of rock, leaving an unseemly cavit}- 
and a long moraine of debris. The air is so dry 
that everything is like tinder. Forest fires are 
frequent, and wc mark their track up the mountain 
sides and see the smoke of one or two. A ^^w 
mutilated trees are all that are left of the mag- 
nificent primeval forest, and the pines we see are 
a second and third growth. 

Though the mountains stand around so silent 
and stately, there is a great unrest beneath them. 
A volcano burns below, which may break forth 























us I 





be, i 

The Canadian Rockies and the Selkirks. 8 i 

at any time, for Banff has several liot mineral 
pools and springs, sure indication that the earth 
here is only an upper crust, with hell-fire beneath. 

The temperature of these springs is 127 degrees 
Fahrenheit, and there are baths for the outer man, 
and taps of water for the inner. 

Thursday, September ^rd. — A day of blankest 
disappointment. A cruel change from yesterday. 
From early morning 
the mountains have 
been blurred and blot- 
ted out by an im- 
penetrable haze of 
smoke. The sun, 
though ready to give 
us all it did yester- 
day, has not shone, 
and has been only a 
fiery ball suspended 
in the air. It is 

caused by a forest fire raging destruction, it may 
be, many miles from here, but the smoke, from 
the smouldering, spreads and hangs like a curtain, 
lasting often for many days. We canoed up the 
Bow River to the pretty Vermilion Lakes. 

Friday, September ^th. — I could not resist a 
peep out of my window at four o'clock. The 
outlook was more promising I thought, and went 
back to bed cheered. We left the hotel at six. 


'ool. ] lot Spriiv^s, 


8,2 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

Colddespair settled on us all, for the mountains 
loomed gloomily through a colourless haze. Ex- 
ceedingly cold and depressed, we huddled into 
the sheltered corner of the Observation Car, a car 
for the view, open on all sides. I had heard so 
much of the magnificent scenery that 1 had 
looked forward keenly to this crossing of the 
Rockies, and it seemed I was to be disappointed. 
After all, it is only like the disappointments you 
meet with in life, as, nine times out of ten, the 
thing most wished for, is a disillusionment when it 

Range after range of mountains is unfolding 
before us. They approach : we pass immediately 
under them, and they recede, only to give place to 
others as grand and massive. All are of solid 
rock, colossal masonry piled up to magnificent 
proportions, their zeniths crowned with pinnacles 
and spires, with square and round and pointed 
towers. In one place you distinctly see the steps 
leading up to a broken column. The most im- 
pressive one is Castle Mountain, though the isolated 
helmet-shaped peak of Lefroy, 11,200 feet, is tlie 
loftiest. This mountain stands in solitary majesty 
by itself in the valley. There is no ascending or 
descending range near it. You can see the battle- 
ments, with their loop-holes regularly jagged out at 
the summit of the bastions, and a tower at either 
end. They are faintly yet clearly discernible. It 

The Canadian Rockies and the Scl kirks. "^2^ 

is truly a Giant's Keep, and I think the finest 
mountain in the range, though they are all so 
sublime and grand in this wonderful valley that it 
is scarcely fair to discriminate. Running con- 
currently with the track is our dear old friend, the 
Bow. We have lived continuously with it for three 
days, and feel quite friendly towards it. 

Soon we see the beginning of the glacier range, 
and feel the awe inspired by those eternal ice- 
bound regions where winter reigns for ever, and 
none can live, and where even nature cannot 
vegetate. The glaciers lie frozen on to their 
surface, finding foothold in a crevasse or basin, 
hollowed out probably by their own action. 
Under one of these glaciers lie the Trinity of 
Lakes, called the Lonely Lakes of the Rocky 
Mountains, one beneath the other, with Lake 
Agnes touched by the glacier. At Laggan we 
have a heavier engine attached, and extra bolts 
and brakes screwed on. 

We begin the ascent of the Rockies ; the cross- 
ing of the Great Divide. It is gradual and not 
nearly such a dramatic incident as the crossing of 
the Great Divide of the Americans. In fact, the 
gradients are so gently engineered that, though 
the engine makes a great noise about it, you 
scarcely believe you have reached the top, and 
are looking for something more exciting when you 
see the wooden arch at the summit, on which is 

G 2 

84 NewfoHiuiland to Cochin China. 

inscribed " The Great Divide." In this case it 
alludes mockingly to the tiny stream which here 
divides and flows towards the Atlantic on one side, 
and the Pacific on the other. There is here a deep 
green lake, called Summit Lake. 

We begin the descent by a succession of per- 
fectly equal curves that incline first to the right 
and then to the left, bearing us downwards all the 
time. And now comes what is by far the most 
memorable scene in the Rockies. It is deeply 
impressive, and is only too swiftly passed. It is 
called the Kicking Horse Pass. We must turn 
for a moment from the sublime to the ridiculous 
for the origin of this name. When the party of 
surveyors reached the summit of the pass a white 
pony kicked off its pack. This gave it the name, 
which will now always cling to it. We cross the 
Wapta river on to its left side, and plunge wildly, 
recklessly, into a deep gorge. Deeper and deeper 
we rush down into the canyon, darker and more 
impressive the situation becomes as we cling to 
the mountain side, whilst the river tears down yet 
deeper than us, until it appears a caldron of foaming 
silver in the gloom at the bottom of the gorge. 
And, look, up on one side is a perpendicular 
mountain of which, so far down are we, we cannot 
see the summit ; on the other, there are those 
supremely graceful spires of Cathedral Mount, 
pointing with silent finger to the sky. If you look 
















Page S;. 

The Canadian Rockies and t lie Selkirks, Sq 

down into that immensity of depth, and then up 
as far as the eye can reach, this is wliat vou see. 
First, the silver river gleaming in its black channel ; 
on a level and opposite to you a bank of bright 
green moss and ferns and tangled growth ; then 
tiers and tiers of pine trees wending skywards, 
until thev reach the base of the rock, whence 
spring those airy towers. The great Duomo 
head of Mount Stephen beyond forms a superb 
dome to these sentinel spires that are so light and 
gracefully poised in such close proximity to 
heaven. Straight, in front, and shutting in this 
marvellous gorge, is the angular peak of ISIount 
iM'eld. Just past the summit there are a number 
of graves of men who died of mountain fever, 
which broke out whilst they were making the line. 

Mount Stephen, called after the first President 
of the Railway, Lord Mount-Stephen, absorbs our 
attention next. It is certainly the most superb 
mountain of the Rockies. On its "swelling 
shoulder" is seen a shining green glacier, " which 
is slowly pressing forward and over a vertical cliff 
of great height." The cyclopean masses of rock 
are richly veined in red and purple. As the train 
humbly creeps round the base, the summit is 
entirely lost to us. Opposite are the swelling 
mountains of the Van Home range ; they touch 
the muddy, shingly bed of a river. 

We breakfast at the pretty hotel at Field, and 

86 Ncwfouudlaiid to Cochin China. 

feci disgusted that the claims of nature must be 
satisfied, whilst Mount Stephen in its glorious 
might and strength, and its limitless surface of 
adamantine rock, raises its hoary zenith immedi- 
ately above us. We made the greatest mistake 
in not staying a day here, and, by ascending 
a neighbouring mountain, being still more im- 
pressed with its colossal proportions. 

On leaving Field, we travel between the " orderly 
array of peaks of the two ranges of Otter-Tail and 
the Beaver Foots." 

At Falliser, the driver allows us to ride on the 
engine through the Second Kicking Horse Pass. 
It runs madly down into growing darkness, closer 
and higher the mountains draw. The boiling 
river disputes the narrow chasm with us, and it is 
a hand-to-hand struggle in which the line has 
frequently to give up to the river, and to cross 
over from side to side to gain a footing. The 
engine tears wildly down hill, reeling round the 
sharp curves at an angle of 20^, with the train 
doubling itself. You cannot hear yourself speak 
for the noise of the foaming river and the panting 
of the engine. As we plunge into the dread dark- 
ness of a tunnel, the engine whistles, and the echo 
is dying, dying, dead, to us — as we arc lost in 
blackness. It is wonderful to see the driver 
control this huge, puffing, black monster by a 
gentle pressure on two valve handles, which it 

The Canadian Rockies and the Se I kirks. 87 

resents with an indi<Tnant snoit. VVc emerge into 
light and space again at Golden. We come 
suddenly back to a commonplace life, as repre- 
sented by this wooden mining village. It is fare- 
well to the Rockies. 

I think most people have an idea that the 
engineering feats of the Pacific Railway were per- 
formed in the crossing of the Rockies. They do 
not realize, any more than we did, that we have 
another and far more difficult range to surmount, 
before reaching the Pacific coast. The Selkirk 
range is more beautiful and grander. It has more 
snow and glacier peaks than the Rockies. 

We are in a green valley, with the Selkirks dimly 
seen to the left, whilst the Rockies arc diminishing 
to a low range to the right, and we have found a 
new river in the broad Columbia. We are re- 
minded that we have crossed the Great Dividing 
Watershed, for this river is running the opposite 
way down to the ocean. 

It is but a short breathing space, for almost at 
once the mountains close together, and we are in 
another of those lovely gorges, each one of which, 
woi ' 1 make famous any railway. Through a per- 
fectly formed natural gatewayof narrow that 
it can be crossed by a slender sapling, the tempes- 
tuous waters of the Beaver River hurry to join the 
Columbia. This is a smiling little valley, full of 
bluc-green pines, mingling with the tender greens 


88 N eivfoundland to Cochin China, 

of youn,G[ poplars, and the yellow moss and lichens 
covering the rocks. From this valley we pass into 
the heart of the Selkirk's. 

We have become accustomed to the line climbing 
up the mountain side, and we can tell how rapidly 
we are now doing this by the dwindling of the 
Beaver River, by whose side we were a minute 
ago, and which is now far away down in the valley. 
Its pale green waters trace out the most perfect 
curves of the letter S, and flow in a park with pine 
woods. And it is all so far away — down, down — and 
would be such a teriffic fall. Immediately opposite 
to us are the mountains, and we are equal to about 
half way up them, and through the haze they 
appear to us so very near, and so very large. The 
panorama is magnificent ; the detailed picture is 
impressive, when, from gazing down boundless 
depths, the eye is lifted through miles of pine 
forests, up to grey crags, too high for vegeta- 

Growing by the side of the line there are gigan- 
tic pines, Douglas fir and cedar. They are so 
straight, without curve, or be . knot, that one 
cannot help thinking what splendid masts they 
would make for some bir^ ship. Many of their 
tops are on a level with us, whilst, by peering 
down, we can with difficulty see their roots. But 
like all these Canadian forests, the finest trees are 
dismembered or mutilated by burning, and their 

The Canadian Rockies and the Selkirk's, Sq 

graceful, frinc^c-likc foliage is often brown and 

The railway is now i;oing to cross several deep 
gullies on wooden trestle-bridges. These bridges 
appear frail and weak for the purpose, the valleys 
being deep, and the trains so heavy. They creak 
and groan ominously as the train passes on them. 
Water-butts and a watcher are stationed on them, 
in case of fire from a spark of the engine. The 
Stony Creek Bridge, over a deep V-shaped valley, 
is one of the loftiest railway bridges in the world ; 
hundreds of square yards of timber were used in its 
construction, and it rests on three piers, 295 feet 
above the ravine. We hp enchanting peeps up 
these bright green guliics, with their noisy rills 
jumping and scrambling down anyhow, so long as 
they reach the bottom of the valley, and we rush 
to one side of the car to be pleased by this, and 
then to the other, to be frightened by gazing into 

Roger's Pass, the culminating beauty of the 
Sclkirks — named after the engineer — is approach- 
ing. There are two mountains, Mount Macdonald 
and Mount Hermit, but they are so mighty, that 
if you have not seen them you have no chance of 
picturing them to yourself. To give you some 
idea of their colossal proportions, Mount Mac- 
donald is one mile and a quarter in a vertical line 
above the railway. The bottom is a stone's throw 

90 Neivfoitudlaud to Cochiu China. 

from the car. Mount Hermit is ccjual in size on 
the other side. These mountains were united, but 
some great convulsion of nature has sph't them 
apart. This is a moment in your existence, and 
you would give much to prolong it ; the scene is 
indescribable. The other mountains of this pass 
are covered with snow, and seven or eight thousand 
feet above us are many glistening glaciers, pure as 

It is sad that this part of the line is spoilt by 
the snow-sheds, constructed of massive timber, and 
into which we are shot and blinded with smoke 
and coal grit, emerging frequenth^ to get glimpses 
of these wonderful mountains, with their pale- 
blue and green glaciers hanging above us, — 
glimpses which are imprinted on the memory for 
long, as we shoot into another of these exasper- 
ating snow -sheds. It is ungrateful to grumble at 
them, for the difficulties of this part of the line, 
with snow in winter, are enormous, and we 
must always bear in mind that were it not for 
the enterprise of the Company we should not 
at this moment be sitting comfortably in a car, 
passing throui^h the finest scenery in the world. 
There may be grander, but it has yet to be dis- 

Emerging from Roger's Pass, by a deep bend 
on the mountain side, we have a sudden transition 
into the fir-clad valley of the Illicilliwact, the river 

TJic Canadian Rockies and the Selkirk's. 91 

of this name far below, and for many miles scek- 
iiiL; the bottom of the valley, the railway doing 
likewise. Straight ahead the white ghost of the 
great glacier of the Selkirks. 

We left the train here, and stayed at the pretty 
Swiss chalet of the Glacier house. It lies half-way 
up the valley and under the glacier, with the 
hoary peak of Sir Donald frowning down on it. 

The afternoon had cleared up, there was even a 
gleam of sunshine, and the first thing to do was to 
walk up to the Glacier, through a beautiful pine 
forest, whose interlacing branches are covered 
with hanging trails of white moss, resembling an 
old man's beard. The ground is soft, and covered 
with a bright-brown saw-dust from the decaying 
trunks that lie around. We cross the path of a 
mighty avalanche, which, sweeping down from a 
mountain below Sir Donald, hurled itself across 
the valley, huge rocks, trunks of trees and debris 
being piled across the pathway. The green 
moraine on the mountain shows how soon nature 
recoups herself. There are wild gooseberry and 
currant bushes, and we eat plentifully of wild 
raspberries and blueberries. 

As you stand under the Glacier, you see that it 
has filled in the side between two mountains, and 
the white rounded outline at the summit is ex- 
quisitely pure. It is where it joins the crumbling 
moraine that it is most beautiful, because here 



Ncu^ found I and to Cochin CJi'nia, 

there arc caves of intense blue, of pale j:]^reen, and ot 
that indescribable opaque aquamarine, only seen in 
perfection in the horseshoe bend at Niai,^ara. l''rom 
these ice caverns, from under tlie L,dacier, torrents 
of water are always pouring forth. It is the echo 
from the mountains, that makes such a little 
volume of water cause such a roaring, rushing 
sound. Looking down in proud cold sadness on 
the glacier, is the blue-grey peak of Sir Donald. 
It is such a cold, unsympathetic peak, rearing its 
barren head so proudly above its compatriots. 
Facing homewards, there is that other snow- 
capped range, with Ross peak and an immense 
glacier on its shoulder. They are fields of ice and 
snow untrodden by the foot of man, and covered 
with eternal snows. As \-ou look round this perfect 
valley, you are so shut out from the world, that 
you wonder how you ever entered it. The two 
iron bands at the platform by the hotel form the 
only link beyond those impassable walls, 

A gentle gloom settles down over the valle\'. 
We stroll about after dinner, amidst the deathlike 
stillness of the mountains, broken only by the 
murmuring from out the darkness of the ice 
stream. Looming closely above us, overhanging 
as if it would slide down, is the dead and white 
ghost of the glacier. We sleep under its shadow. 

The glorious morning sunshine is touching Sir 
Donald and the snow peaks, whilst the valley wc 




to > 
of til 








fit h 


a fee 








two 1 

tllC Vc 

The Canadian Rockies and the Scl kirks. 93 

arc in lies so deep down, that it is still in shadow. 
The pleasure of awakening in such glorious sur- 
roundings makes us feel the pleasure of living. 

We spend the morning in climbing a mountain 
to Mirror Lake, winding up and up in the shade 
of the red-stemmed cedars, and at each precipitous 
curve, the snow-sheets on the line dwindle, and we 
seem to get mi)re on a level with the surrounding 
mountains. The Ross Peak and Range look 
specially beautiful today. The crevasses are so 
strongly marked with blue shadows, the peaks are 
such a soft silver grey, and in the very bosom of 
Mount Ross is the virgin snow of a pure glacier, 
fit house for the Ice Maiden. I have never any 
wish to explore mountains such as these. There is 
a feeling that we desecrate them by trying to come 
nearer to them, and that nature never meant us to 
know them, except from below, and then only 
with admiration akin to awe. I like to feel that 
their summits are untrodden by human foot, that 
they have been so for ages, and will continue so 
until the end of time. 

On descending, we were glad to find we had 
two more hours at Glacier, the west-bound train 
being late. 

Directly the train leaves Glacier it begins to 
drop down into the valley below, by leaps and 
bounds, so quickly do we run from side to side of 
the valley by " the Loops." These Loops describe 

94 Newfoundland to Cochin Cliiiia. 

circles across the valley, and first wc face and 
touch the base of the Ross Peak, then return, bv 



doubling back a mile or more, until we lie under 
the Glacier House. We describe yet one more 
loop, and then the train shoots head- foremost into 

The Canadian Rockies and the Selkw/cs, 95 

the valley. Looking back and marvcllinji^ how 
the train can possibly mount up this deep pinc- 
filled ravine, you see the p^reat gashes cut across it 
by the railway embankment. We arc rushing 
downwards at great speed, but not at greater 
speed than the IlHcilliwaet River, which races us. It 
foams and gushes as we steam and whistle, and so 
we go down the gorge together, until wc arc deep 
in the gloom of its cold shades. We thunder 
through snow-sheds and over delicate trestle- 
bridges until we are buried in the Albert Canyon. 
Here wc get out to sec the IlHcilliwaet compressed 
into a rocky defile of inky depth and blackness. 
It foams with anger. Wc pass other and similar 
canyons, and so on for another hour, with ever 
varying and beautiful scenery. 

Then a change creeps over the mountains, they 
are all round on their summits and mostly covered 
entirely with dense fir forests. There are no more 
rock and ice-bound peaks. They are opening out 
a little. Now, as we get lower down, we begin to 
see some specimens of those splendid fir trees, for 
which British Columbia is famous. Again, these 
dreadful forest fires have ravaged them. The river 
and railway have descended the valley together, 
and continue side by side on the plain, until at 
IcMigth the last curve is rounded, and we run into 
Rcvelstoke. As we walk on the platform we feel 
such a difference in the temperature. The Pacific 

96 Ncivfouudlaiid lo Cochin C/iiiia. 

air is so soft and warm after the keen dryness of 
the mountain atmosphere. We meet the Columbia 
River again after a day's absence. It has been 
flowing round the northern extremity of the 
Selkirks, whilst we have been crossing their sum- 
mit, and has grown into a navigable river. The 
observation car is taken off, sure sign that the 
crossing of the Selkirks is a thing of the past. 

Before finishing with this part of our travels, I 
should recommend anyone to profit by our 
experience, and to stay one day at Field, and to 
allow of sufficient time for two days at Glacier, as 
I think anyone would consider it quite worth while 
to take a freight train back to Golden, returning a 
second time over the Selkirks by the next day's 
train. There is a great want (which is, I believe, 
in process of being supplied) of a detailed guide- 
book, and by next year doubtless the increased 
traffic will warrant an additional train a day. 

We think that we have seen the last of the 
mountains, but a few minutes after leaving Revel- 
stoke, and crossing the Columbia, we are entering 
the Gold Range. 

It is getting dusk, we are satiated with moun- 
tains, and I am as weary of writing about thcni 
as you, forbearing reader, of reading these de- 
scriptions. Night comes to relieve us both. One 
is glad, however, to think that this Gold Range 
" seems to have been provided by nature for tlic 

TJic Ciinadian Rockies and the Sc! kirks. 97 

railway, in compensation perhaps for the enormous 
difficulties that had to be overcome in the Rockies 
and Selkirks." At Craigellachie the last spike 
of the Canadian Pacific Line was driven on 

November ;th, 1885. 
With what rejoicings and 
triumph the surveyors 
and engineers must have 
seen the finish of their 
long and desperate strug- 
gle. We pass through a 
forest fire this night, 
and see isolated trunks smouldering like fiery 
cones, whilst others in falling send out a shower of 
sparks, that kindle fresh flames in many places. 

We awake the next morning in the Fraser 
Canyon, and are going through magnificent scenery 


9S Newfoundlaiid to Cochin China. 

i ■• '*^^- v*^ % :• d' 


for many hours. We hanij over 

the side of the canyon, and 

look down on the waters swirl- 

in^t; and rushini^ at our feet, 

whilst over and over 

again the rocks seem 

to bar our progress, and 

we either rush into a 

tunnel, or creep round 

them on ledges of 

rock with the help of 

trestle-bridges. J3reak- 

fast at North Eend, like everything that tlie 

C.P.R. does, is excellent, for when they are not 

able to run a dining car over the mountains, 

they provide excellent meals at hotels, such as 

this, and those at Field and Glacier, all of which 

are run by the coin- 
— — _— _^-^ pany. 

We fly o\cr the 
fertile plains of Co- 
lumbia, and run on 
to J^urrard's Inlet by 
Tort Moody. This 
is the beginning of 
the sea, — so soon to 
be our home for some 
time. We see much 
lumber lying about 

The Canadian Rockies and ihc Selkirk's. 99 

the low wooded banks opposite, and floating; 
b)' the shore. W^e turn a corner, run quickly b)- 
the railway workshops, and amidst clouds of dust 
reach Vancouver. It is a great comfort to wash, 
unpack, and to settle down for two quiet days. 

" And what do you think of our city ? " is the 
question addressed to all newcomers by the resi- 
dents of Vancouver. This question is the invari- 
able opening to a conversation, we have noticed, by 
the residents of all new cities. In this case it is 
very pardonable, as five years ago the site of 
Vancouver was a smoking plain. A fire had swept 
away the newly-risen city. As soon as it was 
k-nown that the C.P.R. intended Vancouver to be 
the terminus to their 3000 miles of railway, build- 
ing recommenced with renewed vigour. Like 
everyone else, we are astonished by the number of 
streets and handsome stone buildings. The vacant 
building sites that we see amongst them, are the 
object of much booming and land speculation. 
Cordova is now the principal street, but, as it is 
low down on the wharf, at no distant date it will 
jirobably be abandoned to offices and wholesale 
warehouses, whilst Hastings Street, on the block 
higher up, will be the fashionable avenue. Real 
Estate offices abound in Vancouver, and everyone 
appears to dabble more or less in land speculation. 
Newcomers arc always bitten, and up to the moment 
of sailing we hesitated (but finall)' rejected) about 

II 2 

lOD Nciofowidland to Cochin China, 

bccominfj possessors of a corner block in Cordova 
Street. There have been many successful specu- 
lations and large sums made in an incredibly 
short space of time. Ten per cent, is what every- 
body expects on their investments. Opinions arc 
still divided as to whether Vancouver really has 
so great a future before it. Some say it is already 

The harbour of Vancouver is thought sufficiently 
beautiful to be compared to that of Sydney. It 
is a perfect site for a city, with the wooded ranges 
of mountains rising on the further shore of the 
harbour, though it was not until sunset of the 
second day of our arrival, that the clouds rolled 
away sufficiently for us to see them. The two 
peaks, called the Lions, are wonderfully faithful 
outlines of the lions in Trafalgar Square. The 
Indian Mission village lying under the mountains, 
looks clean and bright. 

Vancouver has a beautiful park. We drove 
eight* miles round one afternoon and were 
delighted with it. It is the virgin forest preserved 
in its natural forest glades, with magnificent 
Douglas firs, spruce, white pine, cypress, aspen 
poplar, mountain ash, and giant cedar, whilst 
bracken ferns and mo.=s grow luxuriantly on the 
decaying trunks. The road is traced by the side 
of the sea and English Bay, and the smell of the 
salt water mingles with the fragrance of the pines 

The Canadian Rockies and the Selkirks. loi 

and cedars. Some of these pines arc colossal in 
girth and height, though not equal to the big trees 
of the Yosemitc, The cedars arc great in circum- 
ference, but not of such height, and the finest 
specimens are sadly mutilated by lightning. 

The seeds of eternal enmity were sown between 
Vancouver and Victoria when the former became 
the port of the railway. This animosity is carried 
to great extremes. A Victoria man will not ensure 
his life in a Vancouver office. Sarah Bernhardt 
is coming here next week, but because she refused 
the Victorians' offer of .1?looo more, Victoria has 
determined to boycott the performance at Van- 
couver, and make it a failure. Their childish 
jealousy may be likened to that between Mel- 
bourne and Sydney, and Toronto and Montreal. 
We are sorry not to have time to go to Victoria. I 
believe it is very pretty, for everybody out here 
has said : " Oh ! you must see Victoria, it is so 
pretty, and so very English." This, abroad, is not 
precisely a recommendation in our eyes. 

Our last afternoon in Vancouver, we went across 
to Burrard's Inlet, to see the Moodyville Saw 
Mills. The enormous trunks are raised, attached 
to hooks, by a pulley out of the water on one side, 
passed under a saw whose two wheels whirl through 
and cut up the timber in a few minutes. It is sawn 
into three planks by another machine, laid on 
rollers, passed down on the other side of the mill 

102 Ncivfoiuidland to Cochin China. 

and shipped into the steamer loading at the wharf. 
In three minutes a tree that has taken 300 years to 
grow (you can reckon its age, if you have patience, 
in the concentric rings on the trunk), will be sawn 
upj in fifteen minutes it will be cut, planed and 
shipped. The trees we saw operated on were 
chiefly Oregon pines. 

15cfore leaving Canadian soil, there arc several 
things to mention, which we have observed in 
travelling across the continent. Canada is in 
many ways quite as much American as English. 
They have the American system at hotels of making 
a fixed and inclusive charge of from three to four 
dollars per day. They also have the varied menu. 
which I counted at one hotel to include fifty items. 
True, Oolong, Ceylon, besides English breakfast, 
tea, and fancy bread of all sorts, is put down to 
swell the items. Still we have often wished that 
the assortment of food was smaller, but better 
served. The Canadians use as much ice water, 
and consume as largely of fruit at all meals, as 
the Americans. Carriages are as expensive as 
in America, the reason being that tramways 
and electric cars are universally used as means 
of locomotion. Their railway system of drawing- 
;'.' n cars, sleepers, and dining cars arc identical. 
.lor 'Mn iheir mode of speech be wholl}- excepted, 
lor ct 'r^'e born and bred Canadian often speaks 
with an equally pronounced accent as any 

The Canadian Rockies and the Se I kirks. 


American, and makes use of many of their ex- 
pressions, such as " on such a street, a dry-goods 
store," etc. 

In the universal and domestic use of electric 
light, Canada, like America, is twenty years ahead 
of us. Each little city has it, but then this is a 
new country and there are no great monopolies as 
in England to be considered. It is the same 
with the telephone. All public buildings, offices, 
shops, and almost every private house in a city 
has its telephone. A great amount of business is 
transacted through it, and ladies use it for their 
daily orders to tradesmen. The convenience is 
great, but the incessant tinkling of the bell invades 
the sanctity of home, viz. privacy. A lady re- 
cently arrived from England rightly called it " the 
scourge of the country.'^ 

As in America, domestic servants are scarcely 
obtainable. I found most Canadian ladies thought 
themselves lucky with one servant, and in luxury 
with two. A nurse is an unknown necessity to 
many mothers, who tend their children entirely. 
This accounts for the number of children travelling 
(we counted nineteen in two cars on one journey) 
and in hotels. There is no one to leave them with 
at home. If unavoidable, they arc none the less 
a noisy nuisance. 

Canada, if she is to be developed, requires 
a better line of steamers than the Allan to 

I04 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

compete in speed and luxury with the great New 
York liners. She must be populated, and so long 
as the White Star and other lines offer such far 
superior accommodation for the same rates (four 
pounds) so long will the emigrants select that route. 
Every trip the looo emigrants landed at New 
York, are lOOO able-bodied English, Scotch, or 
Irish men lost to Canada. A strong government 
should initiate a large immigration scheme, vote a 
handsome subsidy and ask the Imperial Govern- 
ment to contribute a similar one. As we have 
travelled from the Atlantic to the Pacific, we have 
passed through thousands of miles abounding in 
natural resources, of mineral wealth and lumber, 
lying in their primeval state, undeveloped and un- 
populated, whilst her rivals across the border are 
increasing rapidly the wealth and prosperity of 
their country by a free immigration, only wisely 
refusing to be made, like England, the " dumping " 
ground for the paupers of other nations. 

Canada languishes for the want of population 
and capital. Give them to her, and she will 
become the finest country in the world, and our 
most prosperous as well as most loyal colony — 
British to the heart. 


i. i 



On Wednesday, September gth, 1 891, we embarked 
on board the Pacific s.s. Einpress of Japan. We 
congratulate ourselves upon having a roomy cabin 
exactly amidships on the main deck, and the un- 
precedented luxury of two drawers and two cup- 
boards. Otherwise our voyage does not promise 
well. The C.P.R. thoroughly understands its 
opportunities, and their putting on three new 
steamships, the Empresses of Japan ^ India, and 
Chinay is justified by the large number of saloon 
passengers. Thirty passengers have been their 
average up to the last voyage, when it was sixty, 
and this time it is 130. We hope that the 
resources of the ship will not break down under 
this strain, but consider it doubtful. The stewards 
are all Chinese, and excellent they appear, espe- 
cially our table steward, who boasted the aristo- 
cratic name of " Guy." 
It was a miserable day, the rain coming down in 

1 06 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

torrents, and under the wet awnings we dawdled 
about until the mails, five hours late, arrived. At 
six o'clock we left the wharf and went " forward" to 
see this ship of 4000 tons pass through the confined 
channel of" The Narrows." We could almost have 
touched the overhanging branches of the trees in 
the park, so closely did the ship hug the bank. At 
midnight we stopped opposite to Victoria to take 
on board some more passengers. They were in a 
sorry plight, for they had been sitting on an open 
barge in pitch darkness, and in pouring rain, for 
six hours. 

The next day was cold, gloomy, and rough. 
Scarcely a soul but was sick and sorry. The 
usual whale excited but a feeble interest along the 
row of deck chairs, occupied by people in varying 
stages of malaise. We must expect bad weather. 
In truth we had a miserably cold cheerless voyage 
across this Northern Pacific Ocean, and it was such 
a contrast to our bright and sunny passage across 
the South Pacific, from San Francisco to Auck- 
and, six years ago. The ship takes a northerly 
course until we get to the mouth of the Behring 
Sea. Here we had a miserable Sunday. Such an 
angry grey sea, crested with white horses, seething 
and boiling around us. It was abominably rough. 
Everybody was sea-sick again, and, to complete 
the tale of woe, there was a dense sea-fog, the 
decks dripping with this clammy moisture and 

To the Land of the Rising Sun. 


from the spray, as the Empresses nose was buried 
in the ocean's waves and, quivering from stem to 
stern, she rose and shook herself. The discordant 
shriek of the fog-horn was hoard all day. Every- 
body agrees that life on board ship is bearable 
if you can be on deck, some even may go so far 
as to enjoy it, though I cannot say that we be- 
long to that number, but when, as on this occasion, 
that refuge was denied to us, we were indeed 
miserable. We had service in the saloon, the 
little remnant able to appear, and all joined in those 
familiar prayers, that seem to bind us together 
on the stormy ocean as " one family in heaven 
and earth." The Bishop of Exeter, who, with 
his son, the Bishop of Japan, is on board, preached 
the sermon. Weary of being knocked about at 
the mercy of the waves, there was not a soul on 
board but was thankful when night came, and 
we sought such rest as wc could find in our berths. 

We shall have a Wednesday missing all our 
lives, that of Wednesday, September 17th, and 
wc have lost a whole day, besides sundry and 
many half-hours by the putting back of the ship's 
clock. We are now just half-way round the 
world from the Greenwich meridian. 

The next day we saw one island of the Aleutian 
group, and the " early birds " saw a snow-cone on 
it. These islands extend for many miles at the 
entrance to the Behring Sea, and we discover that 

1 1 


io8 Nciojoiiudlanci lo Cochin China. 

in the event of a shipwreck our boats have orders to 
steer for this island. There arc a number of mis- 
sionaries, from thirty to forty, on board, who, with 
their wives and numerous families are bound fur 
(^hina. Some of them are very intolerant, as was 
shown when the officers got up a dance, and there 
was some question as to where the piano would 
come from : " Oh ! " said one, " the devil will be 
sure to provide that." 

The last two days we experience a sudden 
change from the intense cold. We awake one 
morning to find a tropical downpour, accompanied 
by a damp heat that enervates everybody, and 
this is accompanied by the tail end of a typhoon, 
and a grand sea. All ports are closed, the heat 
below is terrific, and the ship labours and rolls 
heavily. And thus ends a most disagreeable and 
lonely voyage, for we have not seen a single sail 
since leaving Vancouver. 

There is no sensation in the world more 
delightful than landing in a new country, and 
especially when it is in such a different corner of 
the world as Japan. 

Our expectations arc vague and enthusiastic, 
but, alas ! the approach to Yokohama through 
the beautiful channel of islands is lost to us. Wo 
are on deck at 5 a.m., only to see the lights of 
the numerous light-houses on the coast extin- 
guished, and then blotted out in blinding mists 

,1 <!:' 

To the Laud of the Ri<iinc^ Suit, log 

of rain. Fu^n, the sacred mountain, whose cone, 
dominating the whole island, we hud been taught 
to watch for in our first view of Japan, is lost 
to us. Sullen clouds and the gloomiest grey sky 
hang over Yokohama. 

The departure from the Emprtss of Japan is a 
scene of more than usual confusion, but we get 
safely down the one gangway, thronged with 
passengers and their luggage, and into the steam- 
launch sent for us by the Government, and are 
soon speeding along the pretty Bund to the 
Grand Hotel. The first morning on shore after a 
long voyage is always a harassing one. There are 
letters to be posted, the money of the country to 
be obtained, departure of the next steamer to be 
ascertained, and here in Japan, above all, passports 
to be seen about, for you cannot leave the Treaty 
Ports without one. We afterwards found that in 
an incredibly short space after arriving in any 
town, the police always came to inquire for a 
passport. Then we had to engage a guide, with- 
out which you are assured you cannot travel in 
Japan. I may at once say that, though we had 
an excellent guide, we found him an unnecessary 
nuisance, and parted with him in a few days. In 
going into the interior of the country you require 
one to cook and arrange, but keeping to the more 
beaten tracks you can comfortably manage with- 

I ro Ncwfonndland (o Cochin China. 

or course we have spent the whole of our 
first day in Japan in jinrikishas. ICveryone docs 
so. Nor can we resist a visit to the curio shops, 
though we harden ourselves against temptations, 
knowing that we shall have but too many oppor- 
tunities to spend in the future. We were glad 
of this afterwards, for we heard that the curio 
dealerSjOn learning the large number of passengers 
leaving Vancouver on the Empress of Japan ^ had 
met together and by agreement raised their prices. 
In the afternoon we went for a drive round the 
Bluff, or European Settlement. Yokohama is a 
treaty nort, and at these ports, which were first 
opened by the efforts of Commodore Perry to 
foreigners in 1868, a concession of land was allotted 
to the Europeans, where alone they arc allowed 
to reside. And very charming houses they have 
built here, coloured red and green, or grey, and 
buff, with well-kept roads and pretty gardens, 
fenced in with bamboo hedges. We drive round 
by the race-course, with its grand stand and white 
railings just like our Epsom course. The Mikado 
visits Yokohama once a year to come to the 
races, and we see his private box on the top of 
the stand. Then home by the sea-shore and 
across a plain of rice fields^ descending through 
tlie Settlement once more. 

Yokohama is a cosmopolitan place and enjoys 
the glamour of being the landing-place in a new 

To (he f. and of the Risiiii^ Sun. i r i 

country and the first sij^ht of a new nation, but 
it contains nothintj of interest. Along the Bund 
or sea wall is a row of grey verandahcd houses, 
looking very Eastern amongst their palm trees. 
Behind the sea front there are two or three streets, 
chiefly containing curio shops, interspersed with 
many grey walled go-downs with their forbid- 
dinf^ barred and shuttered windows. People stay 
at Yokohama, some because the hotel is com- 
fortable, some, like the American ladies, who, 
though bringing large boxes of dresses, are so 
fascinated by the Chinese tailors' prices, that they 
stay to have more made, others again to haunt 
the curio shops, and really the selection of 
articles made with a view to the wants of the 
ordinary traveller is so good, that you can 
scarcely do better, we determined afterwards, 
than shop at Yokohama. Others again arc so 
foolish as to be marked for life, by employing the 
services of Hori-Chigo, whose advertisement runs 
thus : " The celebrated Tattooer, patronized by 
T.R.I I. Princes Albert Victor and George, and 
known all over the world for his fine and artistic 
work. Designs and samples can be seen at the 
Tattooing Rooms." 

Tlmrsday^ September 2^tli. — Such a glorious 
day, and we took a sudden determination to go at 
once to Tokio, a short hour's journey. Wc found, 
on arriving at the station, our luggage surrounded 

ii2 Netufonndland to Cochin China. 

by a group of the smallest of porters in neat blue 
uniforms, and caps with yellow bands, dubiously 
surveying my large basket, which was ultimately 
transported by the help of all. The railways in 
Japan were built by English engi ^, and 
worked by them, until the Japanese ler.. c to do it 
for themselves. They are perfectly English, and 
the names of stations, directions, even the mile 
posts are written in both languages. The fares 
are extraordinarily cheap, and the third-class 
crowded, whilst the one first-class carriage on each 
train is almost exclusively used by Europeans. 
There are newspapers in the waiting-rooms ; they 
have the French system of locking you in the 
latter until shortly before the arrival of the train ; 
and the American check system for luggage. 
There was a funny little toy train waiting for us on 
the very narrow gauge, drawn by a tiny black and 
yellow engine. The long carriages Vvith their seats 
lengthways have as many as twenty-two windows, 
and they are lined with Lincrusta-Walton paper. 
There is a wooden tray with a tea-pot filled with 
hot water, and glasses for the tea, which the 
Japanese are always drinking. When we stop at 
the stations there is such a cheerful chorus of 
clicking high-heeled clogs, as the men and the 
little ladies, with their smiling brown babies on 
their bent backs, tippet and shuffle along. 

The short run between Tokio and Yokohama ii 

To the Land of iJic Rising Sun, 


perfectly flat, with nothing but rice fields, or if 
there is a little eminence it is crowned by the 
dwarf forestry, which is the peculiar feature of 
Japanese scenery. 

Tokio or Tokyo, is the official capital of Japan. 
It is the old Yedo of our schoolroom geography. 
The Minister of Foreign Affairs had sent his secre- 
tary to meet us at the station, with a carriage simi- 
lar to an English victoria, drawn by pretty thick- 
set black Japanese ponies, and with the Indian 
custom of a running sayce, who jumps off and clears 
the way at the corners. To the right of the broad 
canal, along which we are driving, we see a grand 
structure, which we suppose to be an official building 
at least, and are surprised when we are told that it 
is the Imperial Hotel. It is as palatial inside, with 
its broad staircase and passages, and marble dining 
hall, and its crowds of obsequious servants, who, 
hands on knees, slide down in deep bows at every 
corner, and that drawing in of the breath like a 
L^cntle gasp, which in Japan is a sign of great re- 
spect. The government iiavc shown much enter- 
prise in assisting to build several of these large 
hotels by grants of lands and subsidies, thus en- 
couraging foreign travellers to come and stay. 
They serve also as places where imperial guests, like 
the Duke and Duchess of Connaught (who stayed 
here), and the Czarewitch, can be entertained, as 
the palaces, owing to their complete absence of 


114 Neivfotuidlaud to Cochin China, 

furniture, according to the custom of the country, 
cannot be rendered habitable for the reception of 

Tokio, beautiful Tokio, with its multitudinous 
little brown-caved houses, crowded in lowly com- 
pany together, its broad moats, with the green 
water, over which the mists gather at night and 
disperse in the early morning sun, its great walls, 
formed of blocks of stone piled up obliquely with- 
out the aid of mortar that guard the Shogun'.s 
Castle, and the pale-blue grey skies, with the clear 
bright atmosphere, which lends such a charm and 
softness to the picturesque scenes around. The 
charm of Tokio is undefinable. It is so subtle as 
only to be felt. But wherever you go, you will 
be always coming back to those miles of solid 
masonry and those moats with their grassy banks, 
with a single row of twisted dragon-shaped fir 
trees at the top — trees, that like all else in Japan, 
are dwarfed, and where perhaps two or three solemn 
rooks will perch and caw hoarsely, or even a red- 
legged stork, with outstretched wings, will flap idly 

I shall never forget the delight of our first drive 
in Tokio. It was enough to be drawn swiftly and 
silently along in the midst of those broad white 
roads, shaded by avenues of graceful willows, and 
see all the strangely fascinating life of ever}'-day 
Japan passing swiftly by, without going to see 

To the Land of the Risiiio Siiu. 115 

anything in particular. For the motion of these 
jinrikishas, the only practicable mode of progression 
in Japan, is delightfully eas)' and pleasant. The 
coolies in their dark blue cotton breeches and loose 
jacket and large mushroom-shaped hats, go at an 
easy trot of six miles an hour, and they will do 
forty miles in one day. This patient, toiling, 
perspiring race never seem to tire, and their bare 
brown legs, with their large muscular development, 
with sinews and veins standing out, and their high 
regular action, trot as steadily as the rough docile 
ponies. Their feet are bare, or covered with a 
straw sandal, kept on by a ribbon passed round 
the great toe. We see many shops hung with 
hundreds of these sandals. Their cost is infini- 
tcsimally small, but the roads are strewn with 
cast-off ones, for they only last for a few journeys. 
We are driving along by the Inner Moat ; for 
there are three separate moats surrounding the 
Castle, and then crossing over a bridge we pass 
under an ancient stone gateway, and find ourselvr:. 
between this and another one, equally massive and 
with iron-plated doors studded with nails. We arc 
shut in by these curious walls of obsolete masonry. 
Huge blocks of granite arc piled up obliquely, one 
resting on the other for support, without being 
filled in by earth or mortar. They are broader 
at the base, slope inwards, and stand by their 
own weight. Again and again we came upon these 

I 2 

Ii6 Neiofoundland to Cochin China. 

Titanic walls in the ancient buildings of Japan, and 
never ceased wondering how they were first placed 
in position and then held so^ for centuries. Pass- 
ing through the second archway, we are in a 
great open space, and above us are the white walls 
and brown ctinkic^ roofs of the Mikado's palace. 
There is the grey stone bridge lighted by clusters 
of electric lamps, across which the I2ist Mikado 
and the successor of the Shoguns passes to the 
palace, around whic'^ '-n^^c^/ mysteries leaving the 
imagination free t.^ picture the interior, for it is 
invisible to cveryoL?. The . . bors of thai delight- 
ful " Social Departure, it i.^ ^... \ --ow it, but they 
dare not record how the permission was obtained. 
It is said that Mr. Liberty was the last to see this 
enchanted abode, but then his visit was from a 
professional view, to give his opinion on the 
decorations, as one of the great aesthetic decorators 
of the day. 

The office of the Imperial Household, whither wc 
were bound to call on Monsieur Nagasaki, the 
Emperor's Master of the Ceremonies, lies under 
the Imperial Palace. The sentry at the gateway 
stopped us, but after some parleying we were 
allowed to proceed on foot, as none but titled 
Japanese are allowed to pass in a jinrikisha. The 
officer who accompanied us was typical of the 
politeness which is the pleasantest feature of the 
Japanese, and requested a souvenir of our visit in 

To the Land of the Risino Sun. 1 1 7 

a visiting card. In coming away wc passed the 
Minister of Justice in a victoria, with a jinrikisha 
roped behind, containing his detective, 

Tokio is one of the ten largest cities in the world, 
and v.'ith its population of 1,400,000 spread out 
over an extended area, the distances arc great. It 
has tramways, drawn by the diminutive ponies, 
and an ear-piercing horn heralds an antique 
omnibus in the principal thoroughfares. It has 
electric light, gas, and telephones. Nor is it want- 
ing in handsome public buildings and ofifices like 
the Admiralty, the Ministry for Foreign and 
Home Affairs. The Houses of Parliament are 
a skeleton of poles, for, just completed last year, 
they were burnt down immediately and are now 
rebuilding. We arc passing an enclosure with 
rows of white-washed buildings, little barracks, 
suited to the little soldiers we see marching bravely 
along in the streets, and crowned with the sixteen- 
pctalled chrysanthemum, the royal insignia, which 
is everywhere and on everything. 

Before the afternoon light fails we visit the 
temples at Shiba Park, the park benig a grove of 
trees under which picturesque groups of children 
and nurses wander, or ladies stroll about, with 
their jinrikishas following them. 

The entrance to this succession of mortuary 
chapels, where the remains of the 7th and 9th 
Shoguns are buried, is by a gorgeous gate of red 

ii8 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 

and j^rccn and i;old — a Ljatc such as \vc grew to bo 
familiar with, in the ceaseless succession of temples 
in Japan, for all these Buddhist shrines have a 
wearisome sameness in common, however beautiful 
the}' ma)' individually be. There is a quiet court 
inside, filled with rows of stone pillars, with a circu- 
lar pagoda with open holes at the top. They arc 
lanterns offered as a mark of respect by the 
Daimyos or great nobles to their master. h>ery 
August, from the 12th to the i6th^ lights are kept 
burning there to entice the spirits to return during 
their time of wandering, and not to journey by 
mistake to hell. Another stone court with more 
lanterns, and a pagoda-erection to a Minister of 
War, whither, should a war occur, they hope his 
spirit would return to watch over it and bring them 

We approach the Temple, with its black roof of 
crenellated copper, and the overhanging eaves, from 
each up-curved point of which hangs a tinklini^ 
bronze bell, and wc can see that this sombre out- 
side is only a wooden shell to preserve the gilding 
and brilliant colours of the exterior. 

Our feet are bound up in cotton shoes, and wc 
enter by a side door into an exquisite little 
sanctum, where the roof is all of lacquer, inlaid 
with mother-of-pearl, and the panels on the walls 
are carved in marvellous repousse work, with 
flowers and animals. A softened lisrht comes 

To the Land of the Rising- Sun. 1 19 

ihi'oiiL^h the open door, and the j^old and red and 
blue and i^recn, melt into a harmony of rich colour- 
ing^, whilst the petal of each flower, the stalk of every 
leaf, the plumage on the wings of the birds, stand 
out in startling relief ; and these panels represent 
storks, with their long red legs, doves with their 
silver-grey plumage, parrots with red and green 
tails, and peacocks with fan-spread tails. Or there 
arc such flowers as the sacred lotus, the emblem of 
Buddhism, the chrysanthemum and the pink peony. 
One panel of exceptional beauty, is an exquisite 
spray of tiger lilies, carved in high relief. Tradi- 
tion says that this was so greatly esteemed by the 
Shogun, and that the two nails we see were used to 
hang a cover over it, that no one should see it but 
himself. The priest throws open the golden 
trelHs-work of a shrine, and shows us three 
memorial tablets with the Shogun's names inscribed 
on them. Around it there is a collection of china 
vases, paper lanterns, and lacquer stands. Passing 
behind the screen formed of bamboo bound with 
silken cords, we come to a square room covered as 
usual with matting, and with the same florid 
decoration, where there is a row of lacquer boxes 
each tied up with a cord. They contain the 
Buddhist books, and are used for the daily 

Through a grove of glossy-leaved camellias we 
pass, and mount up some flights of ancient steps 

1 20 Ncix)fo7indland to Cochin China, 

to another temple. This is the I'rayintj Room iti 
front of the Shogun's Tomb, and is only entered 
by the Mikado and iXrchbishop, when they come 
to worship the great departed on the day of his 
decease. We pass behind this, and ascend yet 
more moss-grown steps, to the tomb of the 
Great Shogun, which is surmounted by a bronze 
urn, and enclosed within stone parapets and iron 
railings. The tomb bears the three-leaved 
asarum, which is the crest of the House, and 
is seen on many buildings of the date of that 
dynasty. Since the fall of the Shoguns — or 
military usurpers of executive power — and the 
re-establishment to the Imperial City of the 
present dynasty of Mikados, it has been replaced 
by the Imperial Chrysanthemum. All is so quiet 
and solemn here, and the memorial above the 
tomb is so simple, as compared with the magnifi- 
cence that goes before, that as Mitford says, *' The 
sermon may have been preached by design, or it 
may have been by accident, but the lesson is 
there.'' The 9th, 12th and 14th Shoguns arc 
buried at Shiba, and their three temples, their 
three praying rooms, and their three bronze urns, 
stand in precisely similar lines with the one we arc 
at present by. 

In the evening we take jinrikishas and go into 
the native quarters. If Tokio is charming in day- 
light, it is simply a fairyland at night. There are 

To the Land of the Rising Sun. 121 

\V) lamps, save for a few electric beacons, that send 
out their far-reaching flashes over all the city, but 
the streets are lighted by innumerable pendulous 
drops of light, that dance and quiver and dart 
about, and cross and disappear quickly round 
corners. They are the paper lanterns which hang 
from the shafts of hundreds of jinriktshas, or are 
carried by pedestrians, for everyone in Japan 
carries his own lantern after dark ; and some are 
pale pink and others red or blue. Now their soft 
lie^ht is reflected on the waters of the moat, 
or glides quickly and noiselessly round the 
stone ramparts and reappears like glow-worms on 
the other side. Now we pass the crimson light 
streaming out of the little box-like police station, 
or the barrow of the street vendor with the bulb of 
light shining mysteriously from behind his hang- 
ing curtains. Soft even light falls across the 
street from the windows of opaque paper, and we 
can trace the shadows crossing them. Then as we 
stealthily fly past, we see the dark interior of a 
shop lighted by a single lanip, under which squats 
a Rembrandt-like figure, intently working, for in 
those busy human hives late at night and early 
morning sees them still at work, or again the leap- 
ing flames of fire in the centre of the floor light up 
a family group. Then there is the street vendor, 
with his flaring torches, and his wares spread out 
against a wall. There is a festival held in some 

I 22 

Ncivfouudlaud to Coc/iiii CJiina. 

particular street, lij^hted with iKinj^in-,^ desii^ns of 
crimson paper lanterns, sluni^ from bamboo poles, 
to the jj^od of writinjj^. Then as we return home 
through the dark quiet alleys, we hear the fre- 
quent and melancholy sound of the bamboo flute 
of the blind shampooer, as he feels his way, stick in 
hand, along the street. I le sounds but two notes, 
but they have the wail of a world of sorrow in them, 
that goes to the heart. 

Early the next morning we climbed up some 
steps and passed into the lovely groves of Ueno 
Park. The evergreen trees are still here, but the 
avenue of cherry trees is bare and leafless, " which 
presents a uniquely beautiful sight during the 
blossom season, when the air seems to be filled with 
pink clouds," and you can scarcely pass under the 
trees for the showers of falling blossoms. A little 
farther on there is a sheet of water covered with 
flat green leaves, which three weeks ago was a mass 
of pink and white lotus bloom. The blossoming of 
the cherry, plum, lotus or chrysanthemum arc 
looked upon by the Japanese as national festivals. 
In fact they are their only holidays, for they have 
no Sunday or day of rest. The Japanese may be 
said to have little or no religion. The upper 
classes never worship at all, and the lower orders 
are either Buddhists or Shintoists (Shintoism beinj,' 
thcworship of many gods), but they practically only 
go to the temples to offer prayers, accompanied by 

To I he Laud of tJic Risiuo- Sun. 12^; 

iiU)noy to the L;()tls, ifthcy lia\c any special request 
to make, sucli as for a pjood harvest, or recovery 
from sickness. 

Tl- arc many httle tea-houses at Ueno Park, 
and iiicir waiting damsels smile in a friendly 
manner and beckon us in, but we cross the road 

and leave this pleasant 
the simple peopl 

easant corner 

ol the park, where 
ink tea and amuse 

themselves, and pass under one of those solemn 
archways hewn out of single blocks of stone, a 
torii or bird's rest. They are such grand yet 
simple monuments of a dead past, and are found 
at the entrance to all the temples in Japan. We 
wand*" p the stone-paved avenue, through the 
solcn. illness of the great cryptomeria avenue, 
towards the Buddhist Temple at the end. This 
Temple, with its neighbouring pagoda, is more than 
usually brilliant, being recently restored, but the 
charm lies in its surroundings — in the quiet fir 
groves, and the clumps of camellia trees, in the 
pink blossoms of the monkey tree, and the solemn 
cawing of the rooks, in the click-click of the 
wooden sandals of the dear little waddling ladies 
as they saunter along the pavement, with their 
close-shaven children by their sides, so exactly like 
the Japanese dolls we know at home. But in the 
centre of this peaceful scene is a switchback railway, 
whose noisy clatter profanes the stillness, but of 
which the Japanese are truly proud. We pass a 

124 Newfoundland to Cochin Chnia. 

fortune stone. It is old and chipped, covered with 
hierof^lyphics and bespattered with dirty pellets of 
paper, which are chewed first into a pulp and then 
thrown at it. If they adhere, it is considered a 
lucky omen. 

After quickly passing through the Museum, a 
white Moorish building erected for the Exhibition, 
and which is as dull as museums usually are, we 
had one of those fascinating drives through the 
streets to the shop of the most celebrated cloisonne 
maker in Japan, and by special appointment to the 
Mikado. There was nothing exposed in the shop 
front, but leading us to the inmost recesses 
at the back, one by one with reverent care, each 
article was produced from its wooden case and 
foldings of crepe and cotton wool, and placed with 
justifiable pride before us, for this prince of de- 
signers, Namikawa, is the greatest living artist in 
Japan, and exists only for the production of the 
masterpieces of his art. The exceeding tenderness 
of the pale grey, darkening into lilac, forming the 
background for a cock whose plumage, faithfully 
delineated, is shown by the outline of every feather, 
the rose pink, the translucent yellow — it is impos- 
sible to convey the delicate tones of colour, or the 
life-like drawing of his plaques and vases. 

We subsequently saw the many processes through 
which cloisonne passes, and it is not until you have 
seen the skill and delicate workmanship required, 

To the Land of the Rising Sun. 125 

that you really begin to appreciate cloisonne. 
And the same may be said about lacquer, which 
requires knowing to be fully understood. First the 
vase must be fashioned in copper, then the designer 
must delineate from memory some intricate design 
of flowers or birds or landscape. This again has 
to be reproduced in tiny pieces of wire, pinched 
and twisted deftly into shape and soldered on to 
the copper. The interstices of the wire are filled 
in with the brilliant colours that we see in the 
saucers by the side of the workers, and the mixing 
of these is the secret which ensures success. Five 
times the colours are " filled," and five times burnt 
in the kilns, and then the polisher with his different 
coarsenesses of stones polishes it into a burnished 
and chaste work of art. 

Apart from temples, there is not much to see at 
Tokio, but it is the streets which fascinate you so 
completely, that waking and sleeping you dream 
of these, and you want to be always out and 
amongst the bright life that flows through them. 
To get any idea of Japan you must always 
remember that everything is so ridiculously 
small. Life here is in miniature. Everything is 
lilliputian ; beginning with the little houses, con- 
tinuing with the little men and women and their 
tiny children, and ending with the little ponies, for 
there are no horses in Japan. And so to imagine 
a Japanese street, you must picture to yourself 

1 26 N CIV found land to Cochin China. 

rows of little brown houses, many of only one 
storey, with large overhanging eaves. The in- 
terior is wide open and only raised one step 
from the street, and you look across the brightly 
burnished floor through the opening of the 
paper sliding screens, which arc thrown back in 
the daytime, and catch pretty glimpses of the 
home life in the back yard. Many of the shops 
are hung with funereal-looking purple and black 
hangings, inscribed with white hieroglyphics giving 
the names and nature of their wares. You recog- 
nize the chemist's shop by the gold tablets setting 
forth the details of the pharmacopoeia within. 
There are barbers' shops, with a half-shaven cus- 
tomer V ith upturned chin seated in the chair; 
drapers' with samples of bright-coloured stuffs hung 
round a revolving wheel outside ; toy-shops where 
are sold those paper kites and tiniest of shuttlecocks, 
or hobgoblin horses and animals of impossible 
shape and size, with which the children play in 
the street. There are others hung with nothing but 
strings of straw sandals, or wooden clogs ; grain 
shops where the clean white green and red seeds 
are sorted into baskets of samples. Mere is one 
for the sale of sake, the brandy of Japan, piled up 
with huge barrels, and with those tapering blue and 
white bottles which we are accustomed to use for 
flower- vases, but which are really manufactured to 
hold this popular beverage. And then the china 

To the Laud of tJic Rising Sun. i 2 7 

shops ; they are an incessant delight, with their 
hundreds of dear little common blue and white rice 
bowls, their artistic tea-pots of pale gjreen ware 
with a spray of apple blossom, their hibachis, or 
china flower-pots of deep blue, green or bronze 
ware, which are used for the hot ashes to light 
the pipe with, and are found on the floor of all tea- 
houses. Again, we must look at this stationer's, 
where that soft crinkled tissue paper is sold, and 
the brushes with which the Japanese write so 
swiftly and deftly, that the ink is absorbed 
without blotting into the paper. In Japan they do 
everything upside down. The horses stand with 
their tails in their mancrers and their heads where 
their tails should be. Locks revolve contrariwise, 
and the carpenters plane towards, instead of away 
from the person. So with writing ; they write from 
the bottom of the page to the top, and from right to 
left, and the number of their characters is appalling. 
You must know from 3000 to 4000 characters to 
write Japanese at all, and an educated man will 
require some 6000 ; and the disappointing thing 
is that when a foreigner has mastered this, the 
Htcrature opened up to him offers no reward for 
liis labour, as it practically does not as yet exist. 

See this fruit shop, where bunches of pale grey- 
green water-grapes, brown pears, and plentiful 
supplies of green figs are spread temptingly out, 
interspersed with bunches of those luscious orange 

128 Neivfouiidland to Cochin China. 


persimmons that melt in the mouth, and taste like 
a ripe apricot ; this umbrella emporium, where 
paper umbrellas, oiled to make them waterproof, 
are open inviting inspection ; a tea-shop, where the 
tea is kept in gigantic jars striped purple and 
green ; a greengrocer's, with oblong sweet potatoes 
in their pink skins, and turnips of abnormal 
length ; a basket shop, where bamboo baskets of 
every shape and size are to be had ; or a fish- 
monger's, where the delicate pink and rainbow 
scaled fish, are exposed daintily for sale on bright 
blue and green china dishes. Nor must I forget 
the confectioners' shops, where from a tiny oven 
heated by charcoal, we see the most attractive 
little pink, green, chocolate and white sugared 
cakes turned out and placed in alternate rows on 
trays. It is most amusing to see the extreme 
economy of the heating arrangements. Four tiny 
pieces of charcoal, turned over and husbanded 
together by a pair of iron tongs, suffice to cook a 
meal. The Government do not allow shops to 
sell European and Japanese goods together, so 
that now and again you pass one full of Man- 
chester atrocities, gaudy stuffs, ill-shaped English 
umbrellas, cheap lamps, boots, hats, and under- 
clothing, which you turn away from, to seek once 
more the tasteful display of the native stores. 

And what a medley of scenes there are, and 
what a flow of life confined in these narrow streets 












k ;i 


A Liril.K MO'lllKR. 

Page I 

To the Land of the Rising Sun. 1 29 

with their one-storeyed houses. Coolies harnessed 
by ropes to drays full of rice, answering^ one 
another with their musical patient cry of Huydah- 
Houdah ; itinerant vendors with bamboo poles 
slung across the shoulder, and suspended trays 
filled with every imaginable variety of article ; 
Buddhist priests with their shaven heads, and 
white dresses with flowing sleeves, covered with 
black crepe. 

Mingling with the crowd of dear little men and 
women in their graceful flapping kimonos, are 
the little girl " mothers," who at the age of ten 
bend their backs and have a baby brother or 
sister tied on. Happy babies they are, brown and 
contented, as are their scantily-clothed kindred, 
who obey an instinct of nature in making mud 
pies and dust castles by the roadside. Here is a 
closed van on wheels, painted black, being drawn 
by policemen. It is a " Maria " with a prisoner 
peering out between the bars. 

Every now and again we meet a funeral. The 
coffin is a square deal box, slung on bamboo 
poles, for the deceased has been placed in it in a 
sitting posture with the knees up to the chin. It 
is only another form of the economy of material, 
that forms such an especial feature in all things 
Japanese. However, this people understood long 
before we did, the use of lovely wreaths of coloured 
flowers, to mitigate the gloom of mourning, and the 


1 30 Newfoimdland to Cochin China, 

cofifin is hung with them. Ancestor-worship takes 
a prominent part in Japanese reh'gion, and now we 
understand at last the use of those elaborate 
gold and lacquer cabinets, with outer and inner 
folding doors, that you so often see in England. 
These cabinets are intended as the shrines where 
the little golden memorial tablets, in the form of 
small gravestones, and engraved with the name of 
the deceased, are kept at home. The deceased is 
always given a posthumous name, as, not believing 
in the immortality of the soul, but rather in its 
transmigration into an animal, they say that he 
has ceased to exist altogether, and has changed 
his state and lives under a new name. These 
memorial cabinets are found in all the houses of 
the upper classes. 

The pictures that we know of these little 
Japanese ladies are the most faithful reproductions. 
Wrapped tightly round in their kimonos, with 
the bunch of the obi formed by its folding over at 
the back, their figures take the graceful bend and 
curve we see pourtrayed. The loose flowing 
sleeves, and the soft folds around the neck, and 
open at the throat, are so pretty. Their under- 
clothing consists of several loose garments of 
crepe, which is the material exclusively used by the 
upper classes, and their hips are so tightly bound 
that no European woman could stand it. They 
treat their hips as we do our waists, their object 

To the Land of the Rising Sun. 


being to be perfectly straight. When this was 
explained to me, I understood how it was that an 
extra breadth is put into the kimonos bought 
by Europeans. It is curious that, though the 
Japanese bathe so frequently, they are not par- 
ticular as to changing their underclothing. The 
women wear white stockings with a pocket 
for the great toe, and " getas " formed of a sole 
of wood, perched on two high clogs of the 
same, and kept on by a leash. Thus, when 
they enter a house, they leave their clogs at the 
door, and go about on the spotless matting in 
their stockings. As they sit and eat off the floors, 
they cannot allow the dirt of outside boots to be 
brought in, and all Japanese houses are scrupu- 
lously clean. 

The kimonos of ladies are made in delicate 
quiet- toned stuffs of pale grey or fawn colour ; but 
simple as some of them appear, the stuffs of which 
they are made are so costly that, even unem- 
broidered, they will cost as much as 300 dollars. 
And then their obis, those broad sashes of the 
richest brocades and satins — on them they lavish 
all their pride and money, and they often descend 
as heirlooms in a family. The dressing of their 
hair is one long-continued source of admiration ; 
it is such black glossy hair, and the coils are so 
immaculately smooth. There are but two styles 
of headdress for the whole country — one for the 

K 2 

I. '52 

Newfoundland io Cochin China, 

married ladies, and one for the single ; and so you 
can always distinguish their state in life at a 
glance. The married women have it dressed in a 
single extended roll, with inlaid combs and coral- 
headed pins placed round ; whilst the unmarried 
ladies wear their hair divided by a silk or gauze 
ribbon into two flat coils placed on either side of 
the head, and have still more decoration in the 
way of glass bead pins. And as to the little girls, 
they are the counterpart of their mothers, and from 
the earliest ages wear theirs in a similar manner. 
It used to be the custom for married women to 
have their teeth blackened, to prevent their receiving 
admiration from men other than their husbands ; 
but this is dying out, and you now only see old 
married women in country districts following this 
obsolete fashion. No Japanese woman ever walks. 
She shuffles, she scuffles, she tippets along, 
balancing on her high-heeled getas ; but step 
out the necessary stride for a walk, no, they cannot 
do that, for their kimonos are so narrow that they 
cannot move otherwise than with their knees 
knocking together. They are not pretty, these 
meek, gentle-looking, brown-skinned creatures, 
yet their sweet deprecating manners are very 
attractive. They are excellent mothers ; more 
excellent wives, in their complete subjection and 
utter want of initiative. The sum total of their 
education is implicit reverence and obedience, first 

To the Land of the Rising Sun. 

to parents, subsequently to husbands ; and at the 
Peeress' school at Tokio, we are told that they 
are so afraid that the modern education given 
there to the daughters of the nobles will militate 
against this ideal, that particular lectures are given 
on the subject. 

The men, so long as they wear the native dress, 
are dark, pleasant-looking little men ; but when 
you see them, as you frequently do now, with a 
kimono surmounted by a brown or black pot-hat, 
a solar topee, or even a tweed stalking-cap, 
they are positively evil and unpleasant to look 

Viscount Okabc, so long Minister in London, 
took us for a drive in the afternoon, and then we 
had time, before a pleasant dinner with Mr. and 
Mrs. Fraser at the British Legation, to go to the 

The corridor is covered with piles of sandles and 
umbrella.s, whilst from the adjoining kitchens come 
savoury and nauseous smells. The floor of the 
Theatre slopes upwards from the stage, and is 
divided into square compartments, neatly matted, 
and intended for family boxes. The galleries are 
divided in the same way. And here groups of ladies 
and gentlemen arc encamped for the whole day, 
for a Japanese theatre begins at 9 a.m. and lasts 
for ten hours ; nor is this all, for the same piece 
may be continued from day to day, and last for 

1 34 Neivjoiiudland to Cochin China. 

SIX weeks. It is now five in the afternoon, and 
yet the audience maintain a deep interest and 
breathless gaze on the stage. 

This is the outh'ne of the story. The lank, 
die-away lady we see trailing across the stage has 
retired to a wood, with a rill of crystal water, to 
live in a temple, there, to mourn the death of her 
father in a war. The young man who was (un- 
known to her) his murderer, passes casually along 
and she falls in love with him. This love-making, 
in the drawling nasal accents, and its tediously 
slow movements, is most unreal, and as they drink 
the loving cup of sake together, the father's dis- 
approving spirit, in a rushing flame of fire, blazes 
up from the temple. Darkness drowns the 
applause, and warriors rush on the scene and 
begin to fight the maiden, who mesmerizes them, 
until one by one they fall at her feet. 

The orchestra is represented by five musicians, 
perched up on a rock. I may say at once that, 
artistic as is the nature of the Japanese, their 
idea of music is absolutely «//. It consists of 
a series of grunts and groans, or of nasal notes 
in a bass key, or of falsetto in a high one. 

Bat the interest lies to us in the audience, who, 
in the interval of twenty minutes, eat their evenirg 
meal. Some have brought their food with them, 
and nearly all their own china teapots, for a con- 
stant supply of tea. Others buy theirs, and are 

To the Laud of I he Ai'siu^ Sun. 135 

provided with a succession of little wooden bowls 
piled on each other, and for which they have to 
pay the usual theatre price of ten cents, or double 
the ordinary one. In each box there is a hibachi, 
or china bowl full of hot ashes, where they light 
their pipes, for men and women are continually 
smoking, and their pipes have the smallest bowl, 
the size of a thimble — two whiffs and it is empty 
aji^ain ; but it is sufficient for their modest wants. 

September 26th. — I am writing in the most 
delightful real Japanese house, far away in the 
midst of these beautiful mountains of Nikko. 

The thin wooden frame of the house is covered 
with luminous parchment paper, and these are 
the walls that divide us from the outside world. 
They are not permanent ones, for they slide back 
one behind the other, a succession of paper screens, 
until the house is open to the street and there is 
only the shell of a habitation left in the roof, and 
one paper wall behind. The second-floor storey 
(if there is one) is marked by a long balcony 
running completely round, and here in cupboards 
fit cit^'^ 'M^ are kept the wooden shutters that 
sh ooves and close in the balconies, in 

u. mt X night, and give to all the houses the 
(lull .ippearance of a blank wooden wall at sun- 
(iov n. Inside, the roof and floors are of white 
wood, and the la r is covered with spotless 
matting ; but I glad to say that there are 


6 Neiofotmdland to Cochin China. 

European concessions here, in the shape of a 
table, chair, and washstand and bed, on which is 
laid a clean starched kimono to go to the bath in. 
In a Japanese house we should find no furniture 
at all. Their rooms are absolutely bare ; they 
eat, sit and sleep on the floor, and from out of a 
cupboard in a recess will come the "futons," or 
thick wadded quilts, and the square piece of wood 
with a hollow for the neck, where a soft wad of 
paper is inserted, and which is used for a pillow 
by the ladies to save their elaborate headdress 
from getting deranged. As they cannot dress 
their hair themselves, it is only done occa- 
sionally, and must thus be considered even when 

The construction of these houses is so delight- 
fully simple, for, excepting the polished ladder 
which leiids upstairs, there is no plan of the rooms. 
They are made larger or smaller, more or less, 
according to the want of the hour, by means of 
those successions of sliding screens, and a little 
pushing and sliding will make the large room you 
are using, into five or six smaller ones in a second. 
These tea-houses are charming in their compact 
simplicity, their faultless cleanliness, and particular 

It was at four o'clock this afternoon that vvc 
arrived at Nikko, and drove from the station 
through the end of the great cryptomeria avenue, 

To the Land of I he Rising Snu. i^j 

past the village, until the jinrikisha was suddenly 
shot round a corner, down a narrow passage, and 
stopped at the courtyard step of the Suzuki Hotel. 
Here quite a little crowd of bowing attendants 
received us with many deep salaams, and sucking- 
in of breath ; one relieved me of an umbrella, 
another of a cloak, and another of a book, and 
went before us, encouraging us with graceful ges- 
ticulations and faces wreathed in smiles to enter 
the house, impressing us in an indescribably 
charming manner that we were showing them 
but too much honour in doing so. Of course we 
drank tea — it is the first ceremony on entering any 
Japanese house ; and then came the second one — 
the solemn ceremony of the bath. 

Bathing is the passion and pastime of the 
Japanese, and they bathe as often as two or three 
times a day. In all towns there are public baths, 
where, in the evening, the population meet to 
gossip and take a bath for the modest price of two 
cents. Not long ago men and women in a state 
of nature bathed together, but Government has 
forbidden this now. However, we visited one 
where a wall separated the bath, but still left the 
entrance to both open to the public view. In 
villages there will be a tub or barrel cutsidc every 
door, and one evening we saw a man preparing 
his bath, with a fire kindling under the zinc bottom 
of his tub. They take their baths as hot as no"'' 

138 Neivfoundland to Cochin China. 

Fahrenheit, and for some unexplained reason 
foreigners find that cold or lukewarm baths are 
unsuited to the climate, and adopt the native 
temperature. The rule at hotels is that the 
first arrival is entitled to the first use of the bath. 

To take up the thread of the story, we left Tokio 
at eleven this morning, the Foreign Office sending 
a carriage to take us to Ueno station. 

Through groves of cryptomeria, maple, fir, 
willow, wild cherry and Spanish chestnuts we 
travel. Past great clumps of bamboo, which to 
see only is to be able to picture the mighty 
growth of their graceful, feathery foliage ; by 
picturesque villages, with their angular brown 
thatched roofs crowding low down over their 
mud- wattled walls, nestling amongst ban yon groves 
interspersed with persimmon trees, bare of leaves 
but laden with bunches of golden fruit. Then we 
emerge on to the open country, where the cultiva- 
tion is so exquisitely neat that it resembles a succes- 
sion of kitchen gardens. There are no hedges, 
and no grass, but the whole land is taken up by 
small patches of onions, turnips, maize, millet, 
sweet potatoes, and the broad caladium-like leaf of 
another species of potatoes, whose English equiva- 
lent to the Japanese name I failed to discover. 
These alternate with rice fields, where the bright 
yellow tells of the ripening and bursting of the grain. 
The soil is rich and Hack, and labour is done by 







if of 





To the Land of the Rising Sun. 139 

hand-spade, but the absence of pasture strikes us. 
However, there are few cows or oxen, and no 
sheep, numberless experiments failing to rear them ; 
and the ponies live on chopped straw, beans and 
the refuse of grain. 

An hour before reaching Nikko we pass into the 
mountains. It is such a picturesque, well-wooded 
range, this Nikko chain of mountains, and they all 
bear that peculiar Japanese characteristic of rising 
straight out of the plain, ending with sharp three- 
sided cones, and like all else in this country, 
though lofty, they are on a small scale, toy moun- 
tains that seem to fit in with the miniature 

We had time after our arrival at Nikko, and 
before dusk, to pass through the village, across 
the wonderful red lacquer bridge, and follow- 
ing a grass path to come to a Waterfall. On 
the rock opposite is inscribed the word Ham- 
nion, and the legend goes, that as no one could, 
as we see, possibly cross the fall to write it, an 
artist threw his pen at the rock and it inscribed 
this Sanskrit word. And now in the growing twi- 
light we pass along under the shadow of a row of 
mutilated grey idols, each squatted on his pedestal 
with crossed hands, looking over the stream. I 
counted 120 figures, but no two people have ever 
been known to make the same number. At the 
head of this solemn avenue of gods there is a 


140 Neivfotmdland to Cochin China. 

larger one facing the others. They are supposed 
to be the Judges before whom the spirits of the 
departed pass, and are judged whether they shall 
go to heaven or hell ; and hence they are covered 
with many paper labels, the prayers of relatives for 
the deceased, that grace may be granted them by 
the gods. It is a solemn tribunal, with its presiding 
judge, and each face is different in expression, and 
yet they are such mobile, expressionless faces, as 
if to represent a dispassionate and unbiassed 

After dinner we adjourned into an empty room, 
when a man appeared with a card, and before we 
could look round the whole room was full of 
merchants producing out of their cotton bundles, 
beautiful carved ivories, bronzes, silver, china, lac- 
quer, and furs, for Nikko produces excellent ones. 
They are so persuasive, and ingratiate their wares 
all round into your hands, that it is with difficulty 
we escape ; and making our airy chambers a little 
less so by having the shutters run out of their 
cupboard, we are soothed to sltep by the wailing 
sounds of the samisen, that comes from the 
brightly-lighted little tea-house on the opposite 

It is amusing the next morning to dress with the 
wall of the room thrown back, and to hear the con- 
stant shuffle of sandals, or the clatter of the clogs 
as these little men and women in their flapping 

To the Land of the Risino^ Sun. 141 

draperies cross the yard ; and this courtyard is so 
characteristic. It is but a few square feet in 
dimensions, yet there is a dragon -shaped fir-tree 
in the centre, whose outstretched arms are sup- 
ported by bamboo poles, which form a little 
arbour with a seat in it ; then there is a stone 
lantern and a bronze stork, a lamp-post and a 
wandering paved pathway, that gives a great idea 
of distance. 

We go directly after breakfast to the Temples to 
see the tombs of the Shoguns. They are three 
hundred years old, and as beautiful as carving, 
colour and design can make them. We ascend up 
a winding flight of stone steps through the gloom 
of a magnificent avenue of cryptomerias. They 
are tremendously tall, impressive trees, with 
their moss-grown trunks and stems, and these 
steps wind through their midst, a fit leading up to 
the great mausoleums. Passing the courts of a 
monastery, we are first shown a Buddhist temple 
where, hidden behind the silk-bound bamboo 
blinds, there are three colossal gold Buddhas seated 
cross-legged on lotus leaves. In the mysterious 
gloom, they look solemnly and indifferently into 
space. On the platform by this temple there is 
suspended a big bronze bell, which is sounded by 
a pole propelled against the side. As we stand 
there it gives forth its sonorous musical toll, and at 
every hour of the day its sweet and solemn note 

142 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

echoes over the valley. Then, seated in a semi- 
circle, the priests of Buddha bej^in to chant the 
morning orisons, droninj^ in a nasal tone, and with 
the accompanying tom-tom of a drum. We leave 
them to pass on to the tomb of the great warrior 
Shogun, Ycyasu. 

The wide road, bordered by those walls of mor- 
tarless blocks of stone, leads up to the flight 
of steps and an elaborate Sammon or gateway, 
the entrance to the first temple. There are a 
number of wooden tablets outside, on which arc 
inscribed the names of the subscribers to the 
fabric of the temple. The inner court is full of 
interest, for you must imagine that all the build- 
ings it contains are covered with decorations and 
paintings. One of the storehouses where pictures, 
furniture, and other articles belonging to Yeyasu 
are kept has carvings in relief of elephants, in 
which the joints of the hind legs are turned in the 
wrong direction. There is the tree which the 
Shogun carried about in his palanquin with him 
when it was still small enough to travel in a flower- 
pot, and the stable for the sacred white pony, kept 
for the use of the god ; over which is a very clever 
group of three monkeys, representing the three 
countries of India, China, and Japan. One monkey 
shows he is blind by covering his eyes with his 
hand, another deaf by stopping his ears, and a third 
dumb by closing his mouth. The one signifies 



P.-i.^e 14. 


















off c 


a din 




full I 



scree I 


or pec 

To the Land of the Rising Sun, 143 

that you must see no evil ; the other that you must 
hear no evil ; the last that you must speak no evil. 

The water cistern, hung round as is usual in 
these temples with coloured rags, is formed of a 
single block of granite, so evenly cut that the 
water flowing over it is a glassy, imperceptible 
surface. Next to it is a library, where through the 
grating we see a revolving book-case made of 
lacquer with gilt columns, containing a complete 
collection of the Buddhist scriptures. 

And now we come to the exquisitely beautiful 
gate of the Yomeimon, with its graceful arabesques 
founded upon the peony pattern, its niches and 
columns, its golden clawed dragons and groups of 
Chinese sages, which leads into the inner court of 
the temple. Surrounded by open trellis-work 
screens, we pass up several flights of steps, and take 
off our boots by the huge bronze money-box 
waiting for offerings. The interior is filled with 
a dim light, but you are in the midst of a place so 
rich in subdued soft colour, so embroidered in 
elaborate designs and harmonizing tones, that it is 
some minutes before you can at all appreciate the 
full beauty. The ceiling is formed of squares 
divided by ribs of black lacquer and enamelled in 
peacock blue and green ; there are gilt carved 
screens, where perch birds of paradise, doves, 
parrots, ducks, peacocks ; others where the asarum 
or peony, the royal flower, the lily, and the lotus, are 

144 Ncwfoitndland to CocJiiu C/iiim, 

carved in high relief. And the ante-chambers on 
cither side arc equally perfect; in one there is a 
carved and [)ainted ceiling with an aw^cX surrounded 
by a chrysanthemum, and some boldly executed 
eagles ; in another, pictures of unicorns on a gold 
ground, and some pha^nixes. 

Mausoleum of Yeyasu. 

In an adjoining temple a woman in scarlet and 
white draperies performed a sacred dance. It is 
a slow and graceful movement ; the bells in her 
hand keep rhythmical time, while she amuses and 
charms away the evil spirit from the dead Shogun. 
We have now a long pilgrimage to perform, up to 

To the Land of the Risiiiir. Siiii. 145 

llic platform on high, where rests the body of 
Ycyasu. The ancient stone stairs, the balustrade 
and columns, arc clothed in the most vivid green 
moss, whilst the cryptomerias form a dark archway 
above. There is complete silence around. The 
place is damp and deserted. We might, from 
their moss-grown appearance, be the first to tread 
these steps for a thousand years, and slowly 
mounting them, we feel we are breaking the spell 
that has hung over them, as we find ourselves on 
the stone terrace at the top. Here there is a 
praying temple, and we rass round to the tomb at 
the back. It is a simple bronze urn, shaped 
like a small pagoda, with a stone table in front, on 
which is placed a bronze stork with a candle in its 
mouth, an incense burner, and a vase of artificial 
lotus flowers. Such is the end of all greatness. 

Returning home, we took jinrikishas for the 
mountain expedition to Lake Chfizenji. For some 
miles we travel by the side of the river's bed and 
between the mountains, meeting many pack-ponies 
laden with merchandise, shod like the men with 
straw sandals. It looks rainy, and the men have 
donned their waterproof coats, and these consist of 
a straw mantle formed like a thatch ; when you 
sec a fisherman standing in the water with his legs 
immersed, and only this thatch above, it produces 
the most comical effect of a floating haystack. As 
we begin climbing the mountain road, we see 



1 46 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

many strange and beautiful new shrubs, flowers, 
and trailing creepers growing amongst the rocks. 
Soon a tea-house comes in sight, with the front 
entirely open, and pretty sliding screens of blue 
paper. Cushions are placed on the floor and tea 
brought by a welcome-smiling damsel. It is pale, 
straw-coloured tea made from the young undricd 
shoot of the tea-plant, and it is not allowed to 
infuse, but is poured straight into the tiny handle- 
less cups, with two or three leaves at the bottom, 
and served on a lacquer tray with pink and white 
sweetmeats. But how artistic is the design on the 
common bronze kettle hanging over the open fire 
in the centre of the room, and kept always boiling 
for tea to be quickly made ; how delicate the pale 
blue colour of the thin eggshell cups, with the 
spray of cherry blossom. It is one of the many 
charms of Japan, that art is brought irto use in all 
the appurtenances of daily life. 

The ascent to Chuzenji, right into the heart of 
the mountains, is perfectly lovely. I have never 
seen grander or more charming scenery. When we 
rest for a minute at one of the many tea-houses, 
there is such a splendid view of two cascades 
flowing down a rocky precipice. It is the meeting- 
place of several valleys, and the joining of several 
mountain spurs, and there is an open park-like 
space, which looks so green and smiling amid these 
rugged fastnesses. There is a movement in those 

To the Land of the Rising Sun. 147 

bushes in the valley ! It is a troop of monkeys 
jumping from branch to branch ; for Japan is a 
strange mixture of tropical and hardy growths. 
You find the flowers and plants of north latitudes 
growing beside the palms and fruits of the tropics. 
The ascent becomes more and more trying, though 
this good, new road was hurried over, to be finished 
for the visit of the Czarewitch last year, which 
•over took place, owing to his attempted assassina- 
tion by a fanatic near Kyoto. 

Clouds came down as we reached the pretty fall 
at the summit, so we only heard its roar, dulled 
by the thick mist ; but they cleared away again, as 
we came to the shores of the lake, 4375 feet above 
the sea. The deserted houses in the village are 
used by the pilgrims who come here in August. 
VVc rested on the balcony of a tea-house over- 
hanging the lake, and then the desct-iit was accom- 
plished in one unbroken run, one coolie acting as a 
drag behind, whilst the other in the shafts steadied 
the jinrikisha round the sharp curves. 

September 2Zth. — We spent a long morning 
amongst the Tombs again, and we shall carry away 
with us such a vision of picturesquely pointed 
black roofs, outlined in gold and red, and graceful 
bamboo groves, of moss-grown flights of steps under 
the shadow of stately avenues of cryptomerias, of 
ancient stone walls with a vista leading to massive 
torii. We shall dream of the many solcm! 

L 2 


148 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 

of stone lanterns, of gateways bright with rainbow 
hues and guarded by dragon monsters, of the 
bronze urns hidden away up on those quiet nooks 
in the mountains, and above all of the enchanted 
atmosphere, the deep stillness, the solemn peace 
that rests over these shrines of the dead. 

We waited on the steps of the temple to hear 
the big bronze bell slowly send out its voice once 
more at midday across the valley, and then came 

On our return journey to Tokio in the afternoon 
we took jinrikishas to Imaicho, the station beyond 
Nikko, so as to drive five miles through the magni- 
ficent cryptomcria grove that runs parallel with 
the railway. The avenue extends for fifty miles, 
and was used by the envoy of the Mikado when 
he sent to offer presents at the tomb of Yeyasu. 
These cryptomcrias are grand trees, with their 
stately trunks shooting up in regular lines, whilst 
their long branches only grow from their summits, 
and intertwining make a dim twilight below. 

On arriving at Tokio, we had a drive through 
the fairyland of its glimmering streets. 



We were up early to get a glimpse of the Mikado 
as he passes to open some new barracks. His 
route is lined with policemen, pigmy but efficient 
guardians of the peace, with their white duck uni- 
forms and large swords. The morning mists are 
floating off the grey green moats, as we pass into 
quite a new quarter of Tokio, where the noblemen 
have their palaces, amid gardens green with willows 
and acacias. We drive past the red brick build- 
ings of the Peeress' School, the New Police Build- 
ings, and the Dowager Empress' Palace, guarded 
by sentries, until we come out on the exercising 
ground before the barracks. 

Scattered about, this plain arc companies of 
infantry and cavalry, mounted on small black 
ponies, whilst a band is being marched inside the 
barrack square, where are anxic js-looking groups 
of officers in gala dress, ablaze with decorations 
of the Order of the Chrysanthemum and Rising 
Sun, awaiting their sovereign's arrival. It is an 

150 Neivfo7indland to Cochin China. 

m : ''1 

apathetic crowd, which shows no excitement as 
the advance guard with an outrider in green and 
gold livery appears, quickly followed by two 
closed barouches, the first of which is surrounded 
by a company of Lancers with flying pennons. 
We just catch a passing glimpse of a dark man 
with a beard, rather stout, and looking more than 
his age of forty. The band plays the National 
Anthem and the gates close on the procession. 

And this is the 121st Sovereign of Japan, the 
first commencing his reign in 660 B.C., as the 
preamble to the Constitution runs : " Having by 
virtue of the glories of our ancestor ascended 
the throne of a lineal succession unbroken for 
ages eternal." In connection with the ancestor- 
worship, which is the only form of worship per- 
formed hy the upper classes, the Emperor's oath 
on his accession is interesting. " We, the successor 
to the prosperous throne of our Predecessors, do 
humbly solemnly swear to the Imperial 
I'ounder of our House, and to our other Imperial 
Ancestors, that in pursuance of a great policy, 
co-extensive with the Heaven and with the Earth, 
we shall maintain, and secure from decline, the 
ancient form of government. 

" That we have been so fortunate in our reign 
in keeping with the tendency of the times as to 
accomplish this work, we >ve to the glorious 
spirits of the Imperial Founder of our House and 

Neiv Nippon. 


our other Imperial Founders. We now reverently 
make prayer to them and to our Illustrious 
Father and implore help of their sacred spirits, 
and make to them solemn oath, never at this 
time, nor in the future, to fail to be an example 
to our subjects in the observance of the Law." 

At eleven o'clock, Mr. Nagasaki, Master of the 
Ceremonies in the Imperial Household, calls for 
us in a royal carriage to show us the country 
Palace of Sheba, whose gardens lie by the sea- 
shore. Side by side in the grounds, which are 
approached by a very unpretentious drive and 
entrance, stand the European Palace, furnished, 
and the Japanese one of paper screens and matting 
covered floor, though we are shown here into a 
carpeted room, with heliotrope satin covered chairs 
and sofa. It is the custom now in Japanese houses 
of the upper ten, to have one European furnished 
room, which is only used for the reception of 
foreigners. As we take tea out of the little egg- 
shell cups, we do not think the garden looks large, 
but by the time we have followed the blue uni- 
formed janitor, with the eternal chrysanthemum on 
his cap, in his up and down wanderings, we feel 
as if we had walked miles. 

The Japanese ideal of landscape gardening is 
to have a different view from every point, and 
to this end they make a miniature park. These 
knolls, mounted by wooden steps on one side 

152 Ncivfoiindland to Cochin China, 

and descended on the other, represent hills ; 
the pond crossed by a stone brid^^e made out 
of two stones, is a lake ; the island in its 
midst is formed of a rock and one tree ; the 
timber is represented by some dwarfed and dis- 
torted fir trees, for the smaller and more spreading-, 
the more valuable they become. The Japanese 
take great pains with these deformed trees, pruning 
them back, and picking out the fir needles one 
by one. They give large sums of money for an 
old tree, and we were shown a tiny fir in a pot 
over eighty years old. And yet these Japanese 
gardens, twisted and deformed as they are, with 
no open green lawns or bright flower-beds, arc 
very quaint and attractive in their own way. 
Then we drove on to the Euryo-kvvan, another 
Imperial Palace, where the Emperor and Empress 
hold their anr il cherry blossom party in April, 
and when the arched avenue we are standing 
under, is a ma^s of pink and white bloom. The 
chrysanthemum garden party at the Palace is in 
November, and very beautiful, from all acc(nints 
it must be, the plants trained into every shape 
and device, of ships, pagodas, and umbrellas. 

Mr. Nagasaki told us a great deal of the bitter- 
ness of the struggle of old Japan against the 
sudden inroad of European custom, a strugL^lc 
that is apparent everywhere, but more especially 
in the capital at Tokio, The next generation 











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will be altogether European. The Court is 
modelled on the etiquette of our Ijifjlish Court, 
and the ICtnperor has the same court officials as 
the Queen, whilst the Empress holds Drawin^', 
Rooms, and has her ladies in waiting, everyone 
wearing European and low evening dresses. 
We found that all gentlemen wear European 
clothes, whilst their wives yet cling to the far 
more comfortable and graceful kimono. English 
is taught in all the upper-clas.. schools, and 
spoken very generally in shops, where the names 
are also written up in English, though there are 
only 3000 Europeans altogether resident in Japan. 
The Mikado has a son of twelve, and two little 
girls, and the former is soon to have an English 

We drove to Ueno Park, to a luncheon given 
in our honour by the Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
Viscount Enomotto. This restaurant is the 
" Berkeley " of Tokio, and it was a most elabor- 
ate repast, though we could have wished that it 
had been in a Japanese house. However, Vis- 
count Enomotto, Viscount Okabe, Mr. Nagasaki, 
and M. Haryashi Tadasu, had brought their wives. 
Viscountess Okabe being a charming bride who 
spoke English. These ladies wore kimonos in 
pale blue, fawn and grey, and their costly em- 
broidered obis were clasped round with a single 
jewel. They had diamond rings and brooches, 

154 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 

and their glossy hair arranged in wonderfully 
glossy coques with tortoiseshell combs ; and 
such sweet gracious ladies as they were, shyly 
putting out their hands, and bowing so low and 
gracefully, and speaking in such soft, caressing 
tones. Even here, though, European influences 
were at work, for I saw a pair of high-heeled French 
shoes, and even a pair of carpet slippers peeping 
out from under the kimonos. 

The room had such beautiful vases of flowers, 
arranged as only Japanese can, not put together, 
but as if growing in natural sprays. After much 
drinking of healths and ceremonious compliments, 
we adjourned to the neighbouring Technical 
School of Art, where we saw specimens of lacquer 
work, and some of the thirty-five processes through 
which it passes before completion. The natural 
taste for art in the nation comes out in the work 
of these iqo students, who pay ten yen a year for 
their instruction, for their wood carvings and draw- 
ings from life are of extraordinary excellence, and 
executed too with the roughest tools. 

The same evening we visited the Maple Leaf 
Club, to see a performance of " geisha " or dancing 

This fashionable club was founded by the Nobles, 
for the preservation of Japanese customs, and as a 
protest against the general use of European ones. 
Thirty dancing girls are maintained, educated and 

Nc7v Nippon, 


kept in strict discipline from the age of fourteen, in 
the premises of the club. Wc are ushered throu^tjh 
numerous dimly-lighted corridors, on our stock- 
\r\^cd feet, into a large matted room, bare of furni- 
ture, where we squat on cushions on the floor. A 
Japanese dinner is served, course after course being 
brought in lacquer bowls. A row of maidens, with 
their almond eyes dancing with laughter, squat 
before us and smile gleefully as we vainly struggle 
with our chop-sticks, and try with frantic efforts 
to swallow the recherche dinner, for as Murray 
truly says : " Europeans cannot eat Japanese 
food," And this was the menu. Sweet cakes of 
rice and sugar, served on plates with the mono- 
gram of a maple leaf; soup, a brown jiquid with 
floating lumps of fish ; an omelette (of ancient 
eggs) with fish sauce ; a hot trout with upturned 
tail, with grated cheese coloured pink, a stewed 
fig, and a finger-like radish that tasted like ginger ; 
more fish with a nasty sauce and stewed seaweed. 
As will be seen, fish formed a large item of the 
dinner, for the Japanese eat all that comes out of 
the sea. Sakd is served from the long-necked blue 
and white bottles into tiny cups. Despair was 
gaining upon us at the ceaseless arrival of more 
lacquer bowls, when the work of the evening com- 

Three demure damsels, in quiet kimonos, with 
their samisens or guitars, enter, and begin to play 




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156 Newfoundland to Cochin Cliina. 

and sing. From behind a screen, their faces hidden 
by their fans, steal in three geishas, dressed in the 
loveHest grey and pink kimonos, embroidered vvitli 
the crimson leaf of the maple. Slowly they girate, 
their clinging garments trailing around their 
turned-in toes. Deliberate and graceful are their 
slow motions, and the three figures act as one piece, 
and not only do their arms move in unison, but 
their faces do so too, and they elevate the eyebrows 
and close the eyes with the rise and fall of the 
body. In pretty imagery they tell the pathetic 
little story of the maple leaf: its birth and 
growth, its mature glory, and its death, the dance 
ending by the fans being thrown upon the floor, 
even as it falls to the ground and dies. A second 
periormance is a clever mimicry, by the aid of 
masks, of an old man, his wife and daughter ; and 
the last dance, with the floating gauze streamers 
that wave rhythmically with the music, is most 
elegant. These geishas are the favourite 
form of amusement, and in all villages you pass 
houses with mysterious gratings, enclosing a 
floor, where nightly the gentle wail of the samiscn 
is heard and the graceful performance of the 
geishas is seen. 

October 1st. — We have had a terrible experience 
of a typhoon. It began with a thunder-storm 
last night, accompanied by violent showers of 
tropical rain, the drops being as large as small 

Ncii) Nippon. 


marbles, whilst the thunder claps crackled and 
boomed overhead, and the dazzling lightning 
was blinding. The air was full of electricity, 
and a feeling of restless foreboding took pos- 
session of all. This morning the air was 
so damp and close that you felt scarcely able to 
breathe. Violent gusts of wind, increasing in suc- 
cession, alternate with strange pauses of breathless 
stillness. There is no twitter of bird or hum of 
beautiful dragon fly, for they are forewarned by 
these signals of danger, and have crept into safety. 
The force of the wind increases, and it is blowing 
a hurricane, as in our ignorance of these dreadful 
phenomena of typhoons (a word formed from the 
Japanese meaning '^ great wind,") we leave the 
Imperial Hotel at Tokio, on our return journey to 
Yokohama, just as it reaches its height. 

Trying to walk to the station, I was blown away 
at the first corner, and then two men with a 
jinrikisha began a hand-to-hand struggle with the 
wind, making scarcely any progress, and across the 
open spaces being literally blown backwards, and 
only able to steady the jinrikisha from going bodily 
over. How we reached the Shimbashi station I 
never understood, but I know that we arrived 
breathless, blinded, and soaked through with the 
rain, with dishevelled hair and battered hats, 
thankful only for the shelter of the station ; and 
just as we seated ourselves in the carriage, a lady 

158 Neiofonndland to CocJiin China. 

! ' 

i »• 

was brought in very much bruised and hurt by the 
overturning of her jinrikisha, which had been blown 
away over an embankment into the canal. You 
may read descriptions of typhoons, but until you 
have seen one, I defy anyone to have the smallest 
idea of its awful power. 

The fury of the wind was terrible. The train 
stood quite still at times, unable to steam, however 
slowly, against the wind, whilst the carriages 
trembled and rocked on the narrow gauge with 
every blast of wind, and we thought more than 
once that it must be blown over. The sea was 
carried in long spindrifts or lashed into brown 
whirlpools ; an awfully angry sea, boiling and 
hungry, lashing up in mist and spray against the 
breakwater we were on. And here are several 
heartrending sights, for one sampan has been 
washed up and completely broken on the break- 
water, whilst others arc being wrecked against its 
sides, and we can see the horror-stricken faces of 
the men clinging in agony to it ; whilst other 
sampans are fast drifting on to it, and we watch 
with awful fear their frantic efforts to save them- 
selves. Houses are unroofed or blown down, trees 
bent double or uprooted as we look, hedges col- 
lapse, crops are laid low, and we in this little 
carriage are out in its midst, with nothing to break 
the full fury of the elements. But even as we 
begin to wonder what to do on our arrival at 

Neio Nippon. 


Yokohama, we sec that the crisis is past and the 
gale subsiding. At Yokohama the streets are 
strewn with the debris of the typhoon, and all vessels 
in the harbour still have their steam up, should 
their anchors drasf. In two hours the most extra- 

A Typhoon. 

ordinary change had taken place. The waters of 
the harbour had become blue, and tranquilly lapped 
the shore, the sun shone out, the wind died to a 
breeze. It was a perfect summer's afternoon. 
The wind when we left Tokio was blowing at 76*8 

i6o NcwfotLudland to Cochin China. 

miles an hour ; four hours afterwards it had fallen 
to 40, and soon after died away. 

We spend a happy afternoon in the curio shops, 
at Messrs. Kiihn and Messrs. Welsh, whom we 
consider have the best things, and then visit, with 
Mr. Hall, a nursery garden on the Bluff, for we 
think of having one of those prim little Japanese 
gardens at home. 

The next morning we leave Yokohama, and 
make an expedition to Kamakuraj a pretty seaside 
village, to see the great Diabutsu. The approach 
to the Buddha is through a gateway which bears 
the following beautiful inscription, — 

Kotoku Monastery : " Stranger, whosoever 
thou art, and whatsoever be thy creed, when thou 
enterest this sanctuary, remember thou treadest 
upon ground hallowed by the worship of ages. 

" This is the Temple of Buddha, and the gate of 
the Eternal, and should therefore be entered with 
reverence.-^ By order of the Prior." 

And with this grand exhortation *n our ears we 
pass into the quiet garden, with its avenue of 
cherry and plum trees, lying under the hills in the 
sunshine, a perfect stillness all around, and where 
we see the half-opened eyes of the colossal BudJha 
bent forward, as if in passive contemplation of this 
quiet scene. There under the stars, amid storm 
and wind, mist or tropical sun, he has sat for ages, 
apathetic, but not unconscious. The hands lie on 

Neiv Nippon. 


his crossed knees, the thumbs meeting at the 
finger-tips, and forming two complete circles. 

The Diabutsu is cast in bronze. Time and 
weather, the stress of the elements, have mellowed 
the bronze to the most beautiful grey blue, streaked 
with pale green. To appreciate his solemn 
grandeur, you must visit him again and again, and 
each time he is more impressive than the last. It 
is quite impossible to grasp the colossal propor- 
tions, but these are the exact measurements: — 
Height, 49ft. 7in., length of face, 8ft. sin., width 
from ear to ear, 17ft. gin. The round boss on the 
forehead, which appears like a tiny white spot, is 
really ift. 3in. The length of eye and the elevated 
eyebrows about 4ft., of the lobe-distended ears 6ft. 
6in., and of the nose, with its wide-opened nostrils, 
3ft. 9in. The eyes are of pure gold, and the boss 
is of silver weighing 30lbs. Inside, in the hollow 
of the image, there is a shrine, and from the gloom 
of the neck of the Diabutsu stands out in relief a 
small golden image. The chanting of the priest 
below, whose rhythmic tones ascend muffled to us 
inside the image, mingling with the incense of the 
burning joss sticks, impresses us with a religious 
melancholy, when we reflect on the ideal religion 
set before them by this great teacher, and the utter 
indifference, even to outward forms of worship, 
manifested by this people. 

The Diabutsu " gives such an impression of 


1 62 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

i ' 


1, ■ 








majesty, so truly symbolizes the central idea o*" 
Buddhism — the intellectual calm which comes 
of perfected knowledge, and the subjugation of 
all passion." 

Then we took jinrikishas to drive to the pretty 
little Island of Enoshima — a wooded hill rising 
out of the ocean and connected with the mainland 
by a spit of sand. The road winds amongst the 
sand dunes, along the beach of the seashore, where 
the great waves of the Pacific, still agitated by 
yesterday's typhoon, are dashing on to the sands. 
Lovely pale green and cerulean tints streak the 
sea, whilst naked brown figures plunge and dive 
under the surf, bringing in great bunches of brown 
sea-weed, which they cast in shining heaps on the 
sand. We pass by a fishing village, strewn with 
nets hung up to dry, and large bamboo crails for 
catching the fish, which we see laid out to cure in 
the sun. They are bringing in the harvest too, and 
women, scantily clothed, and naked children, whose 
fat brown bodies look so sleek and comfortable, are 
busy seated on the ground threshing out the 
grain, either by pounding it with a wooden mallet, 
or with a rough bamboo flail. The dull thud of 
these primitive threshing machines is in all the 
air, and the ground outside each hut is spread 
with mats, on which piles of the clean yellow 
grain are placed to dry. 

Charming Enoshima is in sight ; its green 

L 0' 

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Neiv Nippon. 


woods, with the temple roofs peeping out, standing 
far out in the ocean, its coral reefs washed by the 
ocean spray. An island for legend and romance, 
tit home for an idyll of medieval ages. 

VVc go across the sands amid piles of sea- 
•wecd, picking up lovely trophies of the deep in 
mother-of-pearl and pink shells, until we reach 
the black wooden torii at the base of the island. 
What a picturesque entry into the island it is, for 
\vc walk through the quaintest and narrowest 
village street, where the upper stories of the houses 
nearly meet, and where below, there is that strange 
medley of the every-day life of a people carried on 
in full view of the public eye. Up we climb, pass 
the shops full of shells, corals and marine curiosities, 
until we reach many winding flights of rnossy steps. 
\Vc make a veritable pilgrimage up these, until we 
emerge on to the platform of one of the many tea- 
houses. There is a glorious view over the sea at 
our feet, divided by its causeway of golden sands, 
overthis side of the Isle of Nippon with its ranges 
of purple mountains, jagged-edged, that run in 
slanting directions across the island. A walk 
round Enoshima gives a succession of equally 
pretty views, but we cannot get into the cave on 
the further side because the bridge was blown 
down by yesterday's furious gale. Returning to 
Kamakura, we had tiffin at the Sanatorium on 
the sea-shoie, amongst the pines, paid a last 

M 2 

164 Ncivfoitndlaud to Cochin Cliiua. 

lingering visit to the Diabutsu, and took the train 
to Kozu. 

There was a tiresome wait at a junction for 
the up-train, for as yet the railways in Japan have 
but a single line, so that it was getting dusk as 
we got into the tramway at Kozu. For ten miles- 
we ran along a country road and through long 
straggling villages, whose lights shine out into 
the darkness, or show us picturesque interiors. 
Past Odawara, celebrated for the manufacture of a 
wondrous medicine, supposed to be a remedy for all 
the ills flesh is heir too ; under the ruined walls of 
the Castle, scene of many bloody conflicts, until 
we reach Yumoto. It is now quite dark and 
raining heavily. We take jinrikishas, with three 
coolies to each one, to push us up the steep moun- 
tain road to Miyanoshita. We present a pic- 
turesque sight, akin to weirdness, as the trans- 
parent lights of the coolies wave in the darkness, 
and six willing men push and pant, shout and 
encourage one another^ up the steep windings of 
the mountain paths. Against the twilight of the 
starry sky, I can just trace the outline of the moun- 
tains we are winding round about and amongst, 
and hear the frequent roar of falling cataracts some- 
times far below, and at others dashing spray across 
the road. We feel we miss much by the darkness. 

After what seems a weary while, we at last reach 
theFugiya Hotel, the prettiest of wooden structures, 

Ncii) Nippon. 


with a succession of outside glazed verandahs, and 
the brilh'ant illumination of its electric lij^hts go 
forth to greet us in the darkness, as tired, cold, 
hungry and wet, our panting coolies land us at 
the steps. As a smart London coachman whips 
up his horses, and draws up with a dash, so do 
these coolies, regardless of even such a severe pull 
as this, come up to their destination with a brisk 

Miyanoshita is a fascinating place. 

We awoke this morning to find ourselves in the 
mountains, to look down over the heavy thatched 
houses of the village, and the road so far, and yet 
immediately below us, where some young mothers 
with their babies on their backs are waddling 
along. What a quaint little place it is, perched 
up in the middle of ranges of mountains, with 
their green slopes as a never-changing back- 
c^round, a village scooped out of their sides. The 
shops are full of the wood inlaid like mosaic, and 
carved as only can a naturally gifted Japanese, 
into every kind of article, from a napkin-ring to 
an elaborate escritoire. 

Any number of mountain climbs, more or less 
difficult (so suited to all) can be made f>'om 
Miyanoshita. W^e have just returned from a 
lovely expedition to Lake Hakone and the hot 
district of Ojigoku. Leaving the hotel at midday 
in bamboo chairs attached to poles and each 



1 66 Newfotmdland to Cochin China, 

carried by four coolios, we ascend the mountains. 
The motion is smooth and easy, as they all keep 
step together, to a melodious chorus of grunts, the 
front coolies answering the hind ones. 

These grass mountains that we are in the midst 
of, are so beautiful. They have scarcely any trees, 
but their gradual slopes are covered with the pale, 
sickly green of rush or bamboo grass, that imparts 
to them a peculiarly pleasing, even effect. Fre- 
quently there is a column of smoke curling up 
their sides, from some hot spring, for all this 
district is intensely volcanic, and at the village of 
Ashinoyu, where we rest and give tea to the men, 
there are numerous hot springs and baths. It is 
a desolate place, and is made more so by the 
clouds coming down and completely damping us 
and the view. It is rather dreary jogging along 
with these human ponies in a dense mist, out of 
which loom palely the foremost bearers, when, as 
suddenly as we came into it, the fog lifted, leaving 
us the most beautiful cloud effects of white filmy 
vapours, trailing low down on the mountain side, 
with a patch of blue sky just beginning to show, 
and the sun shining up there behind those opaque 
masses of cloud and mist, making them appear so 
fleecy and transparent. It is now a love))' 
summer's afternoon above and around us, and 
immediately afterwards we have below, an en- 
chanting view of Hakone and its deep blue lake, 

New Nippon, 


so deep that, though it has been fathomed for five 
milei, the bottom has yet to bo found. We sec 
the green wooded peninsula, jutting so boldly out 
into the lake, that from this distance we think it is 
an island, and on this ideal spot, hidden far away 
from the burdensome etiquette of public life, the 
Mikado is building himself a palace, that is 
approached by the be-utiful cryptomeria avenue, 
that also leads to Hakone. Whilst we are waiting 
at the village below for our chairs and coolies to 
be shipped on a boat, we " kodak " a charming 
group of Japanese children ; one of our coolies 
actively assisted in arranging them, and I noticed 
took good care to include himself in the picture, 
for this useful and companionable little instrument 
has become familiar even to the Japanese, and 
later on the men were so pleased when we did a 
group of them in the prow of the boat, smoking 
and eating their rice out of bamboo baskets, with 
a division for a bonue boucJie of some morsels 
of fish. These coolies are delightfully merry 
fellows, always willing, always cheerful, whether 
tired or hungry, never shirking work, and ready to 
help each other, laughing and feeing the fun of 
any little passing incident. Most of them speak 
a few words of English, the object of every coolie 
in Japan being to learn it, as they earn so much 
more money from foreigners. You constantly find, 
that whilst waiting, they study a blue Japanese- 

: i 

1 68 New found land to Cochin China. 

English phrase book, exceptionally badly com- 

We are rowing three miles across the lake in a 
sampan, with an upturned prow, propelled by 
some oarsmen, and which much resembles a 
picture of an old Roman galley. Their wooden 
oars, a long blade tied to a piece of wood, are 
fixed to the gunwale, in rowlocks formed of a pin 
of wood, and on this they roll over and back each 
time, a clumsy but effectual movement. The 
surrounding view is wondrously beautiful. The 
green pointed mountains with their sharp edges 
coming down directly into the lake on one side ; 
the other covered with shrubs and some over- 
hanging trees, under whose sweeping arms we 
glide to the landing stage, in the lights and shadows 
of a still glorious afternoon. It sounds but a tame 
description, and yet in reality it is sublime, and, 
for some reason hard to discover, it is absolutely 
different, and because of that much more charm- 
ing than any other lake L have ever seen. 

We begin a long ascent, with a continued view, 
looking backward, where translucent clouds float 
down the mountain sides, which are mirrored 
faithfully in the green waters, and as we plunge 
into a dense wood of bamboos, we take our last 
farewell look back at Lake Hakone. It is a 
stony and steep path, cut in zig-zags through the 
thick undergrowth where there is no room for the 

Nciv Nippon. 


long poles of the chair to turn, so we have to walk. 
Suddenly we come aross a little square village, 
built round a wooden bath house, where the whole 
population of invalids are bathing together in the 
warm mineral spring. 

As we ascend, the scene grows wilder. Vegeta- 
tion decreases, and masses of barren rock appear. 
The earth is warm and steaming, nor must you 
leave the path, as these treacherous brown curling 
scales of earth are only a crumbling upper crust, 
over the furnace below, and lives have more than 
once been lost here. The air reeks of sulphurous 
fumes, a strong overpowering stench. And this 
curious volcanic scene continues, until we reach 
the abomination of desolation. Here, standing 
above, we look far away down into a vast 
cauldron of steam, that rises up and envelops us 
in suffocating fumes of sulphur, so strong that, 
wheezing and coughing, we have to turn back- 
wards to get fresh breath, so dense that we can 
only dimly sec the great masses of rock around 
us. More often they are not rocks, but clumps of 
crumbling lava, loosely welded together in 
fantastic shapes, and that take the most v/ondcr- 
fully bright colours from the surrounditig mineral 
substances, of orange, carmine, blue, madder and 
brown. In one place there is a little stream, in 
which the sulphur deposit is so thick that there is 
a rich coating round of green, bright as malachite. 

170 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

The boiling water of many streams swells the 
vapour that rises from this fitly-named Ojigoku, or 
Big Hell. 

We scramble and grope our way down, ever 
deeper into this apparently bottomless pit, into 
this boiling smoking abyss, where the evil-smelling 
fumes wrap us round so effectually that we can 
scarcely trace our path, and choking and blinded, 
we wonder vaguely, if we shall ever emerge into 
light and air once more. But after wc have made 
a long and devious descent, we branch off to the 
left, and when we feel ourselves in comparative 
safety, and in a clearer atmosphere, we turn round 
to look back to see the wreathing masses of smoke 
that eternally ascend from this hell. And there, 
behind this blank desolation, rises at the head of 
the valley the graceful acute peak of Kammuriga- 
take, with the dense green forests covering it from 
top to bottom, formed by a thick undergrowth of 
small box and andromeda japonica. It reminds 
us of the hot springs of New Zealand, of those 
beautiful pinV white terraces, which, alas ! are 

no more, where mingling as here with volcanic 
rocks and steam, there is the additional charm of 
a luxuriar t wealth of semi-tropical vegetation. 

We have a very long descent to make, over the 
roughest path of loose rock and stones, and across 
several streams, where the obliging coolie makes a 
bridge of his back, and when we have nearly 

New Nippon. 


reached the bottom and made the circuit of the 
valley on the path cut out midway on the moun- 
tain side, we pass round into another valley with 
wide amphitheatre of mountains. It is through 
tiie midst of these, at the end of a long vista 
formed by their green slopes, that we see the 
smooth waters of the Pacific, spread out like a 
looking-glass in the closing afternoon light, and 
beautiful as had been the views and scenery all 
day, I think this glimpse of sea and mountains 
exceeded all. A long winding descent to Miyano- 
shita in the dusk, which we reach just as they were 
sending out two messengers with lanterns, to light 
us home. 

Friday, October ird. — We went up Sengcuyama, 
the wooded hill, 1000 feet above, and at the back 
of the hotel, carried in a kagos or Chinese chair, a 
most luxurious way of ascending a mountain. It 
was a glorious morning, with not a cloud in the 
sky ; one of those days when you feel that every- 
thing is beautiful, and the views of the mountains 
at every zig-zag changing and appearing more 
and more splendid, as at each turn we rise more 
on a level with them. And then those beautiful 
thickets of bamboos, the trees of delicately-pointed 
maple leaves, the laurels and evergreens, the 
azaleas and hibiscus, the creepers and tendrils, the 
great clumps of red spiky wild lotus, of purple 
everlastings, of blue lupus, and yellow snapdragon 


172 Neivfoitndland to Cochin China. 

all growing in wild confusion, fresh with the 
morning's dew. 

There is a little tea-house hung with flags on 
the platform at the top^ and such a view over 
Odiwara Bay, and of the panorama of mountains 
with their smooth, pale-green slopes, and there, 
between those two peaks, in the gap, we ought to 
get a view of Fujiyama, only, as she so often does, 
she is hiding herself to-day behind the clouds. 
No sooner do we reach the bottom than we have 
to leave Miyanoshita for Yumoto, with a parting 
pang of regret that our stay is so short. The 
Fujiya Hotel, though kept by a Japanese, is most 
comfortable, with excellent mineral baths, which 
never seem so pleasant as after a long day's 
excursion, nor must I forget to mention the little 
Japanese waiting damsels, who giggle and waddle 
about in their tightly-drawn kimonos, struggling 
with the details of the French menu. 

We speed quickly down the magnificent moun- 
tain road, which we came up before in the dark. 
It is cut out from the cliff, and has those glorious 
views, growing grander as we descend into the 
valley of the mountain, views that make Miyano- 
shita the most charming of mountain resorts. 
Even when we get into the tramway at Yumoto, 
and travel along the plain, there is such a pretty 
picture of the sea-shore, where the sea looks as 
green as a lagoon at Venice. We pass again 

New Nippon. 


through the long-continued street of villages, 
where the high thatched roofs are crowned at the 
top with a cage of poles, on which tufts of 
grass are growing, and through the blinds of 
bamboo canes catch glimpses of the washing, the 
eating, the hairdressing, and the cooking, the 
every-day busy life of the little people inside. We 
take the train from Kozu to Nagoya. 

A most lovely journey it is, for the line runs 
through and crosses a pass in the midst of the 
mountains, which look radiantly beautiful with 
their immense variety of foliage — dark evergreens, 
mingling with the yellower autumn tints. They 
arc always the same, these mountains in Japan ; 
conical in shape, with sharp-edged shoulders 
perfectly formed in miniature, rising very straight 
up from the level. There are numberless water- 
falls, foaming torrents gushing down where the 
valley parts a little. At Gotemba we have two 
engines to the train, one behind to push, the other 
in front to pull, for the pass here rises to 1 500 feet. 
Then we come out into an open valley where there 
are thousands of little yellow paddy fields^ with 
many bamboo groves, whose light-green feathery 
fingers wave above heavier groups of dead-green 
cryptomerias ; where the villages, with their heavy 
black roofs, nestle under the mountains, and tea- 
houses with their flag poles are perched on many 
a little eminence, and endless black torii lead to 


1 74 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 

J- ■ i 


the temples, surrounded by groves of trees. I 
had often heard of the exquisite scenery of Japan, 
but this comes up to, and exceeds all expecta- 

We journey on. Suddenly in the sky we see 
suspended a great purple cone. The base is cut 
off by a sky of clouds. It is the beautiful summit 
of Fugiyama. 

Fugi dominates the island, and you have so 
many views of it from every side, that it seemed 
to me that we were constantly spending our time 
in looking for the cone amongst the clouds. It is 
very rare to have a perfectly unclouded view of 
the mountain, but this we now nearly succeeded 
in doing. Perhaps it is because it is so often 
veiled in clouds that the Japanese have surrounded 
it with such a sacred mystery. It seems such a 
familiar friend now, this cone of Fuji, for we 
have seen it depicted upon numberless scrolls 
and screens, on tea services and china plaques, 
on cloisonne and lacquer, since we came to 

This view of Fuji is superb. The mountains 
break away and leave a vast plain, out of which 
it sweeps up solitary, colossal. The crater at 
the top looks like the jagged edges of a tooth, 
down which streams of lava have streaked their 
course. And as we follow the sweeping lines of 
the great pyramid up 13,000 feet of height, the 

Nez^' Nippon. 


clouds that lay half-way down, roll away. Only a 
few fleecy ones float ethereally along the summit, 
whilst the Sacred Mountain, deep purple pink, 
stands revealed in all the glory of a sunset evening, 
against a pale primrose sky, deepening into lilac 
overhead. Then we realize whence the Japanese 
acquire their idea of colour. Their artists are only 
reproducing the realities of nature as constantly 
present to them in the half tones of their island 
sky and sea, and it is from such sunsets as these 
that they faithfully copy the translucent shades of 
rose-pink, grey-blue, lilac and apple-green, that 
form the background of those beautiful cloisonne 
plaques and china vases. The halo of romance 
woven around this poetical mountain, the object 
of reverence to thousands of pilgrims, who pain- 
fully climb up the nine stages to enter the crater 
at the top, is increased by this view of it, which 
will, to me, at any moment recall the lovely 
splendour of Fuji. 

The plain is formed of the rich alluvial deposits 
of lava from the many eruptions of Fuji, and is a 
splendid agricultural district, where that neat 
"carpet" cultivation is seen to perfection, and 
where the harvest is now in full swing. Columns 
of smoke, rising from the surrounding mountain 
sides, show this district is volcanic, and shocks of 
earthquake are frequent all over Japan, but par- 
ticularly at Yokohama. 


176 Newfoimdland to Cochin China. 

Soon the railway runs along the sea-shore, 
where there is just room for it between the pebbly 
beach and the deeply wooded mount-iins — a pretty 
bit of travelling. We look across the pale green 
bay to the little range of lilac hills opposite, and 
listen to the idle lapping of the waves, and see the 
sampans putting out to sea for the night's fishing, 
as darkness, the quickly falling dusk of a tropical 
climate, closes over all. 

I must say that travelling in Japan presents an 
uncomfortable feature in being obliged to carry 
your provisions with you, as only Japanese eatables 
can be obtained at the stations. Fortunately the 
distances are not great, but when it happens, as on 
this occasion, that two parties, one of Germans, 
besides ourselves, all dined out of paper parcels, 
the car presents a very unpleasant appearance. 

We reached Nagoya at midnight. Two jinriki- 
shas bore us swiftly through the deserted streets, 
all dull and dark, because the paper lanterns of 
the passers-by are gone home, and there is no 
attempt at street-lighting. We are sent flying 
round a dark corner to be deposited before a 
barred and shuttered door. There is a great noise 
within, much whispering and unbolting of doors, 
rather a mysterious arrival, and then a stream of 
light pours forth, and shows the usual crowd of 
little bowing men and women, who escort us in a 
body up the polished stair to our rooms a la 

New Nippon. 


]aponaise, where we sleep with the light shining 
through the paper walls. 

We are awakened the next morning by the shuffle 
of Stockinged feet over the polished boards, and 
one of the waddling little waiting-maids, with the 
most brilliant pink and white cheeks, flicking the 
dust away with a wisp of papers tied on to a stick, 
two of the same escorting C. to the bath, a 
wooden tub of boiling water placed on an earthern 

There is a delightful outlook from the glazed 
screens, a European concession, which probably 
will be general a few years hence, showing how 
easily the Japanese assimilate all foreign improve- 
ments, over the dark crinkled roofs across the wall 
of the street, into a seed merchant's opposite, 
where golden bunches of persimmons mingle with 
the sample baskets of grain. A dozen pairs of in- 
quisitive eyes from the open balcony opposite, watch 
me brush my hair. Then we breakfast in a room, 
or rather, I should say, in five rooms, for the 
sliding screens are all thrown back, and, free and 
open as a summer-house, there are vistas of rooms 
on either side ; and these screens are decorated with 
such artistic designs, a spray of bamboo with a 
red-legged stork ; a branch of crimson maple 
with hanging tendrils, or a purple iris and some 
water-rushes. There is a bronze vase, too, filled 
with fresh wild flowers on the table. Then come 


1 78 Ncwfonudlaiid to Cochin China. 

II « 

the curio vendors, and, spreading their handker- 
chiefs on the floor, produce their treasures one by 

Nagf/a is celebrated for its magnificent feudal 
Castle. A police emissary, with silver-mounted 
jinrikisiias, comes to conduct us over it, and it is 
as well, as there appears to be much red tape 
formality in admission to these royal domains. 

Across the courtyard — a typical one, where the 
three yards to the gate is made by the winding' 
paving-stones to appear quite a long distance, we 
sally forth into those kaleidoscopic streets, towards 
the great white donjon-kecp, with its golden 
dolphins dominating the town. 

The Castle has three moats ; the outer one, with 
its green slopes and single row of fir trees, is given 
up to barracks and parade grounds, for there are 
upwards of 3000 troops at Nagoya, and being a 
holiday, the streets are full of their white uniforms 
and yellow-banded caps. The white walls of the 
Castle are raised from the moat on parapets formed 
of gigantic stones, and roofed with crenellated 
bronze tiles, whilst at the corners rise pagoda- 
shaped towers. These walls are the mosL wonderful 
part of the Castle, for many of the stones are six 
and nine feet long, and proportionately broad, and 
can be traced out, as lengthways, slantways, across, 
they are piled up on a broad base, shelving back- 
wards, without cement or earth, supported by their 


New Nippon. 


own weight. On many of the largest corner-stones 
arc engraved marks and designs, to show that 
they were the contribution of the Daimyos, for 
tlic Castle was erected in i6lo, by twenty barons, 
to serve as a residence for Yeyasu's son. Crossing 
tiic moat, which is dry, and used for tame deer, 
over a drawbridge, we enter the court)ard 
through a massive gateway. 

The decorations inside the palace are exquisite, 
though the rooms are bare and uncared-for, and 
many of the paintings are defaced. In the first 
chamber, the fusumas, or sliding screens, are of 
dull gold, and painted on them arc the most life- 
like lions, panthers, and leopards, the spots of the 
latter being specially well delineated ; with glaring 
eyes, fierce whiskers, and lashing tails, they crouch 
in life-like attitudes, ready to spring; or in another 
group are mothers with their young ones gambol- 
liny- around them. In another screen the bamboo 
trees have the joints of their stems faithful to life, 
and an adjoining one has a straggling fir-tree, 
just like one of those on the moat wall outside, 
with a blinking owl perched on the topmost 
branch. There are others with weeping willows, 
and red-leaved maples, and pink-and-white lotus ; 
one in particular we noticed that had painted on it 
a tiger-lily, with yellow spots, a crimson peony, a 
blue convolvulus, and a white daisy, forming a 
peculiarly beautiful panel. Next to this is a spray, 

N 2 

i8o NeivfoHudland to Cochin China. 

II • 

a mass of snow-white plum blossom, against a dull 
gold ground. 

Nor are the animals less faithfully depicted, for 
there are pheasants with eyes on their tails, 
v/ild ducks flying across a pale-blue ground, with 
their flapping, outstretched wings, and webbed 
feet ; a stork with red legs on which the sinuous 
rings are so life-like. In one room, which was 
especially reserved for the use of the Shogun wnen 
he came to visit his kinsman, the decorations are 
especially gorgeous, and here there are ideal 
Chinese scenes, which exactly resemble the 
familiar willow-pattern plate. There is the five- 
storied pagoda, the willow trees, and the high 
curve of the bamboo bridge. The roofs of these 
rooms are of black lacquer, inlaid with gold, 
whilst the windows are made of that p^eometri- 
cally carved lattice work, covered with opaque 

But perhaps the most beautiful thing of all is 
the open wood carving on the ramma, or venti- 
lating screens, between the rooms, for here, that 
great Japanese artist, Hidara Jingoro, has carved 
the most exquisitely faithful representations of 
a white crane, a tortoise, a hen with her little 
ones, parrots, and birds of paradise. There is one 
that excites everybody's admiration. It is a 
cock perched on a drum, its beak wide open in the 
act of crowing, so natural, that you expect to hear 

Neiv Nippon. 


the " Cock-a-doodle-doo." The red, erect coxcomb, 
and the brown and blue iridescence of the tail 
are lifelike. And when we look round on this 
mass of gorgeous paintings and carvings, we 
marvel that their resplendent colours are un- 
dimmed by the lapse of three hundred years, 
that some are as bright to-day, as when they were 
executed three decades ago. 

We ascend the great, gloomy, five-storied Keep, 
which is built up inside on massive beams of wood, 
whole tree trunks being used as supports. From 
the gallery at the top we have a charming view of 
the brown roofs of Nagoya, lying around the castle, 
of the military prison below, where the prisoners 
are exercising in the yard, of the heavy square roof 
of the temple rising up majestically above the 
squat houses — of the wide-reaching plain, and 
the circling mountains. The precious golden 
dolphins, covered over with wire netting, are above 
us, glittering resplendent in the sun. They 
measure eight feet in height, and are valued at 
i8o,oco dols. One of them was sent to the 
Vienna Exhibition of 1873, and great was the 
despair of the citizens when, on its return voyage, 
it was wrecked in the Messageries steamer, the 
iV//. However, it was recovered from the deep, 
with great difficulty, and proudly restored to its 
original position. 

Then wc went for a drive, and I am not sure 

1 82 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

that the great centre street of Nagoya was not the 
most fascinating and absorbing one that we saw in 
Japan, and the whole town was charming in its 
bright cleanliness and bustling streets. 

It is with a peculiar feeling of sadness that I 
write this description of Nagoya and recall its 
pleasant reminiscence, because the terrible news 
has just reached us in far oft" China, that an earth- 
quake has destroyed this thriving town. It makes 
one's heart ache with pity to think of those smil- 
ing streets, that happy swarm of industrious 
people suddenly left homeless, the survivors sur- 
rounded by their dead or dying relatives, whilst 
the muffled booming, the precursor of the earth- 
quake shocks, tell them that they might be the 
next victims. 

In this dreadful earthquake 8000 people were 
killed, 10,000 injured, and 100,000 houses destroyed. 
Nagoya experienced 6600 earth-spasms, or an 
average of thirty shocks an hour. Fortunately 
the ancient castle — monument of an extinct 
dynasty — is unharmed, saved by its massive walls, 
and the decreasing size of its pagoda storeys. 

We left the hotel amid many "Sayonaras" 
(farewells), reached the station by the drooping 
avenue of willows, and, with five hours in the train, 
arrived at Kioto, and settled ourselves into its 
excellent new Hotel, with palatially proportioned 



Kioto is the western metropolis of Japan, and was 
the only capital from 793 until twenty years a^^o, 
when the present Mikado re-established his supre- 
macy over the Shoguns, and selected Tokio as 
the metropolis of the Empire. 

We began the next day by doing our duty by 
the sights of Kioto, and commenced with lUi^ 
Majesty's palace, of Gosho, for which a special per- 
mission had been sent us. This is now the third 
Imperial palace that we have visited. I think we 
were foolish to come, because by this time we 
might have known that there is really nothing 
worthy of interest to see. 

The palace is enclosed by high walls and covers 
an area of twenty-six acres. At the gate of" the 
August Kitchen/' we went through an elaborate 
ceremony of inscribing our names in the lacquer 
and gold tasselled visiting book of the Mikado, 
whilst two exceedingly unkempt officials, in 
rusty black kimonos, superintended our move- 
ments. Of course this palace, like the others, 


?■■,>": \: 

184 Newfotmdland to Cochin China. 

is bare of furniture, carpets or hangings. The 
fusumas, or screens are decorated with splashes 
of blue paint and green mountains, or with funny 
little pictures of Japanese life, drawn with a total 
neglect of perspective. A lot of old women in 
wicker hats were raking, with bamboo claws, His 
Imperial Majesty's courtyards. The garden is 
scarcely so good as the one at the Hotel, with its 
pond on which floated an unpainted wooden 
gondola. The whole produces an impression of 

We pass first into the Seiryoden, or " Pure and 
Cool Hall," where the square of cement in the 
corner was every morning strewn with earth, 
so that the Mikado could worship his ancestors 
on the earth without leaving the palace. Then 
into the Audience hall, in the centre of which is 
the Imperial throne, hung with white silken 
curtains and a pattern meant to represent the bark 
of a pine tree. The stools on either side of the 
throne were for the Imperial insignia, the sword 
and the jewel. On the eighteen steps stood the 
eighteen grades into which the Mikado's officials 
were divided. Then we see the Imperial study, 
where His Majesty's tutors delivered lectures. 
The suite of rooms called the "August Three 
Rooms," where No performances, a kind of lyric 
drama, were performed, and lastly a suite of eleven 
rooms, where the Mikados, when Kioto was the 

The Western Capital and Inland Sea. 185 

capital, lived and died. We see the Imperial 
sitting-room with the bed-room behind, completely 
surrounded by other apartments, so that no one 
should approach His Majesty without the know- 
ledge of his attendants. This sounds perhaps 
interesting enough, and having read Murray\s 
elaborate description we were eager to see Gosho, 
but the reality is a succession of ordinary Japanese 
rooms, dark and bare, without the redeeming 
feature of well painted fusumas. 

The obnoxious janitors, notwithstanding our 
credentials, obstinately refused to show us the only 
thing of interest, namely the present Imperial 
living rooms, on the plea that they are being now 
prepared for the reception of the Heir Apparent 
who arrives in a few days, and we sec bales of 
furniture covered with green and blue cloths, bear- 
ing the royal insignia of the chrysanthemum, being 
dragged across the inner courts. 

The Nijo Palace is surrounded by a moat and 
pagoda-guarded wall of Cyclopean masonry. It is 
undergoing repair, and we can therefore only see 
the handsome outer gateway formed of lacquer 
and beaten gold, and the beautifully worked gilt 
fastenings to the gates, but inside the descriptions 
read like a dream of beauty, which we should be 
most anxious to see, were it not for the experience 
ue have just gone through at the other palace of 


1 86 Newfotmdland to Cochin China. 


Kioto has its Diabutsu, its big bronze bell, its 
pagodas, palaces, gardens and monasteries, but 
above all it has its temples — temples large and 
small, decorated and plain, dull and uninteresting. 
You might easily spend a week at Kioto seeing 
nothing save these, but of temples I confess we 
are by this time thoroughly sick and tired. The 
sight of a torii makes us turn wearily away, and 
from a sammon (or gateway) we hastily flee. 
Everyone who visits Japan ends by experiencing 
this satiety of temples, a feeling induced by their 
monotonous identity and entire want of originality. 
Still we feel that we must visit some of the sights, 
so somewhat half-heartedly we go forth towards 
the Show Temple of Nishi Hongwanji, the head- 
quarters of the western branch of the Hongwanji 
Buddhist sect, a dark massive structure. In the 
courtyard is the large tree which, " by discharg- 
ing showers of water," protects the temple from fire 
in the vicinity. We wander through the state 
rooms, the minor shrines, and the big temple ; 
and in truth the decorations are marvellously 
beautiful, but I will not weary you with the detailed 
descriptions of lacquer-ribbed ceilings, golden 
pillars, of kakemonos (hanging scrolls) over 200 
years old, of cornices wrought in coloured ara- 
besques, and shrines painted and carved in floral 
designs. Again there are those most exquisitely 
painted scenes on the sliding screens, of peacocks 

The Western Capital and Inland Sea, 187 

and peahens seated on a peach tree with white 
blossoms ; of wild geese on a dead-gold ground, of 
scroll patterns carved in the design of the peony 
or chrysanthemum leaf and flower, nor of the angels 
in full relief that gaze down upon us from the ceil- 
ing. But I must make especial mention of the 
gilt trellised folding-doors, opening back to disclose 
a wintry scene of life-sized bamboo and plum trees, 
and of pine with dark-spreading branches covered 
with snow. 

We wander through the peaceful stillness of 
the monastery garden, where the jostle and noise 
of the thick crowding streets around comes over 
the wall in a dull hum, ieed the gold fishes in a 
pond from the cool cloister, and climb up to a little 
tower — or pavilion of the flying clouds — where, 
on kneeling on the ground, we can trace a few 
pencil lines on a gold ground, supposed to be the 
work of the great artist, Kana Molonobii. 

Then, passing the Hijashi Hongwangi, which, 
when finished, will be the largest Buddhist temple 
of Japan, we go on through a narrow street, under 
an archway, and pass into an enclosure, where 
booths of gay trifles line the road running to the 
Sanjusangendo, or the temple of 33,333 images 
of Kwannon, the Goddess of Mercy, where a 
thousand gilt images of five feet rise in tiers above 
each other, the number being completed by the 
smaller effigies engraved on the face and hands of 

1 88 Neivfotindland to Cochin China. 


the larger ones. Near by the great Buddha, twin 
to the Kamakura one, is dwarfed into a building 
where his head touches the ceiling, and you can 
only gaze up from underneath at his colossal 
sleepy features. To the right, hung under a 
belfry, is one of the two largest bronze bells in the 
Island, and immediately under it is a little open 
temple, where five Buddhist priests, squatted in a 
semicircle, monotone the evensong. We return 
home with that comfortable feeling that comes of 
duty performed, and proceed to enjoy ourselves by 
a drive in the dusk through the fairy lighted streets. 
Kioto is a fascinating place, but, as I have said, 
it is not the sights that make it so. The attraction 
partly lies, as it always does in Japan, in those 
wonderful little brown streets, with their wide 
eaved and diminutive two-storied dolls* houses, 
hung with original sign posts of fans, monster 
paper lanterns and gay flags, that stand out in 
sharp relief down a long vista, from the purple 
mountains. Kioto is on the plain surrounded by 
a circle of mountains, and at the end of all the 
streets, face which way you will, there is always 
this effective background to the toy town. If 
you mount a little way up them, you can look 
back and have a panoramic view over thousands 
of brown-roofed huts, presenting a perfectly level 
surface, except when a temple roof, square and 
dark, overshadows the others. 

The Western Capital and Inland Sea. 189 

Wc had thought Tokio the most fascinating 
imaginable place, but, except for its grass-grown 
moats, reflecting waters, and cawing rooks, Kioto 
is even more enticing. The streets are narrower 

My carriage at Kioto. 

and more untouched by that dreaded European 
taint, showing itself at Tokio in small drapers' 
shops, and cheap lamp and umbrella stores. Life 
is more primitive, the people are more unsophis- 
ticated, as we know by the little crowd, polite and 

*- '^- 

1 90 Ncwfo7indiand to Cochin China. 

interested, that attends us in our shoppings, and that 
makes the dusk in the shops darker, by the black- 
ness of their gathering round. The gay china 
shops, the chemists, blacksmiths, booksellers, the 
fish and fruit stores cease not to interest us ; the 
walking picture, coming to meet us of a Japanese 
lady with shapely, tightly-girt figure, with the baby 
on her inclined back, sheltered under a paper 
umbrella, charms us as much as ever. The wee 
children in their blue and whitr: kimonos or 
wadded jackets, their heads shaved, with a bald 
circle on the crown, just like the Japanese doll 
of a toy shop ; the little ten-year-old nurses 
with their brown babies asleep, and heads 
waddling from side to side as they shuffle along ; 
the ladies, in handsome dress, taking an afternoon 
airing with their husbands in a double jinrikisha ; 
the sellers crying their goods and attracting 
attention by the help of a bell, gong, drum, or 
whistle : all these things, though we seem to have 
been in their midst for so long, almost at times to 
have lived all our lives with them, are a never- 
ending source of interest. But a new charm has 
been added to these, one that exceeds them all, 
one that is all-absorbing. We throw temples, 
palaces, gardens, sightseeing to the winds, and 
resolve to devote the few remaining hours of our 
stay in Japan, to shopping and the curio shops. 
We drive through many winding streets and 

TJie Western Capital and Inland Sea. 1 9 1 

draw up in one not different to the others, and, 
lifting up the black draperies, enter. There may, 
j)crhaps, be a few bronze or lacquer articles spread 
about, but nothing to indicate the priceless art- 
treasures that we are presently going to see. With 
hands on knees, sliding down with bows of 
reverence, and the gasping produced by sucking 
in of breath between the teeth, stands the pro- 
prietor, surrounded by a background of assistants. 
With deferential encouragement he leads you to 
the backmost recesses of the shop, through wind- 
in^j passages, across paved squares, until you come 
to the prettiest little picture of a garden made out 
of a courtyard of a few square feet, and here in 
rooms opening out of this, surrounded by fire- 
proof godowns, far away from the eyes of an in- 
quisitive crowd of passers-by, he shows forth his 
precious treasures. This courtyard is so artfully 
arranged as to deserve description. There will be, 
perhaps, a clump of bamboos in one corner, a stone 
lantern on one side, a piece of water with gold fish 
in it in the centre, and an azalea on bamboo 
supports trained round it ; a bronze urn with 
drinking water and a wooden scoop by it, and a 
green metal stork. First of all tea is brought, and 
the smoking boxes, which contain the hot ashes 
in a bronze or china urn, and the bamboo trough 
for the used ashes ; then the real work com- 
mences. An art museum, the labour of hundreds 




192 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

of years ago, when a man devoted hfs lifetime to 
the production of one or two works of art, arc laid 
on the matting before you. 

From behind cabinets, from underneath tables, 
boxes are silently produced, and from out of folds 
of soft crepe or flannel, and many paper wrappers 
come lovely objects, lovingly, caressingly fingered 
and stroked by their owner. There are vases of 
rock crystal, jade, plaques, and trays of the most 
exquisite cloisonne, when a mai,mifying glass is 
gently pushed into your hands that you may 
enter into the minutest details of the minute work. 
Bronzes, and satsuma china, inro or lacquer 
medicine boxes, with their succession of trays for 
powders, and those lovely Netsuke or carved ivories 
where each wrinkle and hair, each line and feature 
are so faithfully graven in the quaint heads and 
groups. The prices asked are fabulous, but I 
often scarcely thought that the dealer wanted to 
part with his curios, he seemed so proudly fond of 

I confess that our taste inclined often to the 
baser kind of shops, where the goods were of 
doubtful origin, but Japan has, in the last few 
years, been so overrun with curio buyers and 
Americans, that the few really antique things left 
are scarce, and hard to find. The Japanese, like 
the Chinese, always reserve their best things to 
the last, and then somewhat reluctantly produce 

The Western Capitixl and Inland Sea, 19 

them. We haunted the old shops where great 
golden Buddhas sat enthroned amidst a most 
miscellaneous collection — men in armour, memo- 
rial cabinets, huge bronze vases, inlaid swords 
with quaint tsuba, or sword guards, mingling 
with lovely china vases, which, if modern, are 
nevertheless a joy for ever to possess — to 
feast your eyes on their delicate shiny surfaces 
of ruby sang-de-luvuf^ imperial yellow, lilac, blue, 
apple-green, or rose pink, strewn with a spray 
of snowy blossom or a spiky shaft of bamboo, 
where little birds fly across the pale sea of colour, 
or solemn storks perch beside some waving reeds. 

Again and again we are made to wonder how 
these small shops, so meagre and unpretentious 
outside, find the capital and become possessed of 
such wondrous treasures. Hours you can spend 
there, and hours they will be pleased to show you 
these, for in Japan no one is ever in a hurry. Life 
is very leisurely. 

The " curio fever " is upon us. To anyone who 
has visited Japan the description of a Canadian 
authoress is but " too intensely true." 

"You don't 'shop 'in this country. Shopping 
implies premeditation, and premeditation is in vain 
in Japan. If you know what you want, your know- 
ledge is set aside in a moment, in the twinkling of 
an eye, and your purchases gratify anticipations 
that you never had, to be paradoxical. And you 


1 94 Nciufounciland to Cochin China. 


never fully know the joy of buying until you buy 
in Japan. Life condenses itself into one long 
desire, keener and more intense than any want you 
ever had before — the desire of paying and possess- 
ing. The loftiest aims are swallowed up in this ; 
the sternest scientist, or political economist, or 
social theorist that was ever set ashore at Yoko- 
hama straightway loses life's chief end among the 
curios, and it is at least six weeks before he finds 
it again. And as to the ordinary individual, with- 
out the guidance of superior aims, time is no more 
for him, nor things temporal ; he is lost in contem- 
plation of the ancient and the beautiful in the art 
of Nippon, and though he sell his boots and pawn 
his grandfather's watch, he will carry it off with him 
to the extent of his uttermost farthing. . . ." 

And so we felt. 

But of course it is the crepe and silk shops that 
woman-like fascinate me most. Those lovely, 
soft, crisp, textiles, in rose-pink, coral, lilac, blue, 
and silver-grey, in sea-green, mignonette, and 
chrysanthemum-yellow, shades that you can find 
in no other country, because the secret of these 
heavenly dyes is known only to the Japanese. Oh ! 
they are things to make your coveteousness strong, 
your heart ache, unless your purse is full and deep. 
Then there are the common washing crepes, with 
their graceful running designs so artistically 
disposed, their harmony of colouring, and of which 

The Western Capital and Inland Sea. 195 

I order kimonos for dressing-gowns for all the 
children of the family. There is a lovely crepe 
with rainbow stripes, not as you who have seen 
the brilliant orange-green and purple rays of the 
original would imagine, for it is a white filmy tex- 
ture, with only a suspicion of pale melting zephyr 
stripes, slanting across it. 

Then there arc the silks and crepes embroidered 
with blood-red autumn sprays, with butterflies, 
pink dolphins and sea-shells, or panels of satin of 
such exquisite workmanship, with ever recurring 
views of Fugi, and hanging kakemonos and 
screens and coverlets, all so beautiful, and of such 
faithful artistic merit. We are shown specimens 
of a newly-revived industry, handed down from 
ancient dyers, where pictures rich and soft are 
raised in velvet, against a pale silk or satin ground. 
By an ingenious process of wires, running parallel 
with the hard thread of the woof, bearing the out- 
line of the picture in velvet, which are, after the 
dyeing and steaming cut out, these quaint pictures, 
which at first you think painted, are produced. 
Everything you see in Japan is art. It is brought 
into the manufacture of the commonest things of 
daily life, and seen to perfection in these cut vel- 
vets and rich embroideries. It is in the air they 
breathe. For even as we pass out from this rich 
inner sanctum, into the open street shop, where 
the crowd of customers, each seated on cushions on 

O 2 

196 Neiofonndland to Cochin China. 

the counter step, with a salesman squatted before 
him, swiftly running the counters of his abaca up 
and down, multiplying and dividing like light- 
ning by this ingenious n'-^'^hine, we see piles of 
coloured goods, of quite c :non quality only one 
degree less delightful in colour and design, than 
those we have chosen from. I must not forget to 
mention in our shoppings the photographs, which 
are extraordinarily good and very cheap. It might 
also be of use to someone to know that we found at 
Kioto, Daimaruicha and Co., and Takashimaya 
Ilda and Co., the best shops for crepes, silk, 
embroideries, and kimonos, made to order, and 
Nishimura for the cut velvets, these shops having 
but one price, and with the goods marked in plain 

We get up early the next morning, for now that 
we are so soon leaving Japan, we feel that every 
hour is wasted that we are not out and about, 
drinking in last scenes from these bewitching 
streets. We direct our jinrikishas into a distant 
quarter of far-reaching Kioto, into the meanest 
and dirtiest of streets, where most of the shops are 
full of old iron, and hung round with second-hand 
goods like a pawnbroker's, but where wc are told 
that the real old-fashioned curio-shops, not got up 
collections of curio for the circumnavigator, still 
exist. I must say that they seemed full of im- 
possible rubbish. 

The Western Capital and Inland Sea. 197 

In the afternoon, somewhat satiated with buying, 
we drove out to Shugaku — one of the Mikado's 
summer villas. It was an intensely hot afternoon, 
but the first disagreeably warm day that we have 
had, as our weather has been perfect, with no 
rain and sunny skies day after day. October 
and Novembe;- are always delicious months in 

The villa cons sted of an absolutely bare, un- 
decorated, matted, tea-house, of modest, you 
might in the case of this, its royal owner, say 
mean dimensions, but the garden is a gem. 
From it there is a near view of purple hills, all in 
little crinkled edges, running in lines one below the 
other, made nearer to us by the warm still atmo- 
sphere, whilst behind the garden rises a formal hill ; 
truly Japanese in its conical structure, covered with 
pine trees, whose pink and purple stems gleam out 
from the dark fir needles. There is the usual 
figurative mile upon mile of winding paths, the 
steep hills to descend and climb up by stone steps, 
the familiar bridges, one with pagoda-covered 
roof, and the other of bamboo and turfed, crossing 
the neatly devised harbours and bays of the arti- 
ficial lake, whose banks are covered with palms, 
but it is the hedges that are worth coming to see. 
They are of azalea and camellia, and honeysuckle, 
cut low, so that they spread out to an enormous 
thickness, to a breadth of twenty feet, and it is over 

198 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

■1 • 

these green open ramparts, that you look out on 
the lovely view. 

We refused in coming home, though we had time 
to spare, to visit any more temples, and we spent 
the last evening in going to a fair, given in honour 
of the God of Water. As at Tokio, where we saw 
a similar festival for the God of Writing, it was held 
in a special quarter. The dark, narrow streets are 
outlined in coloured lamps, with arches, the light 
glowing through the paper, and the varieties of 
colour — red, green, blue, and pink, forming a soft 
and effective illumination, not surpassed by many 
more elaborate Jubilee ones. Many of the houses 
are decorated with wonderful marine representa- 
tions of blue waves, with fishes and dolphins, and 
fir trees placed at intervals, with more lanterns and 
red paper devices. The locality is en fete ^ and the 
entire population is thronging the streets, which we 
wander delightedly through. There are perform- 
ances of monkeys and dogs proceeding, and a 
crowd outside trying to look over the partitions ; 
geishas, with the accompanying twang of the 
Samisens, are going through their slow perform- 
ances behind the open bars. Children are flatten- 
ing their noses against the glass cases of the con- 
fectioners', with their sweetmeats and temptingly 
sugared cakes, or group round the vendors of paper 
toys stuck on pieces of wood, whilst the women 
gaze as longingly at the cheap combs, tawdry hair- 

The Western Capital and Inland Sea. 199 

pins, and gaudy flowers, laid out under the hawkers' 
glaring oil lamps. There are booths for the sale 
of cheap soap, cutlery, sandals, glass, jewellery, 
and candles. The tea-houses are doing an enor- 
mous trade, and the naturally contented people 
look supremely happy. 

We left Kioto to pay a flying visit to Osaka on 
our way to Kobe. Each town seems prettier than 
the last, and Osaka is no exception. Our chief 
object in going there was to visit the Arsenal, and 
according to the special instructions of the Minister 
of War, we were most courteously received by the 
chief, Colonel Ota, and given tea -^t his official 
residence before being conducted over the arsenal. 

We are much struck that instead of having 
to teach Japan, there is something that we can 
learn from her. Her civilization, coming, as it 
has, so late in the decade, breaking in suddenly 
upon centuries of dark ages, she has benefited by 
the experience of other nations, and constructed 
her civilization on the best sy.cems of other 
countries. Here in this arsenal we see the newest 
improvements of science in machines of every 
nation. Some are from England, some from 
Italy, France, or Germany. The Arsenal is in 
beautiful order and keeps employed a large 
number of workmen. They manufacture their 
own cannon, and we passed through the large 
workshops, the smelting furnaces, and saw mould- 

• j 

200 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

ings and castings, the making and filling of 
cartridges. The arsenal is inside the outer moat 
or glacis of the castle, and, with canals and rivers, 
has through water communication to the sea and 
to ;'. i'orts on the coast. 

It is this rapid civilization, of which the 
arsenal is only an example, that fills the traveller 
with admiration. Japan was only opened to 
foieij^nc?^ in 1868, and with the fall of the last 
Shogim .1.1 the beginning of the present Mikado's 
reign Europrn; customs rapidly spread. Some 
say that j , p?r<, ;; -y. crone too fcist, and has absorbed 
and not digested suliiiJently the forms of civilized 
life. The Japanese went to Prussia for a constitu- 
tion, and call their Parliament the Diet ; to 
t^ngland for their railway system, which was built, 
organized, and worked at first by English en- 
gineers and firemen. They went to France and 
Germany for an army organization, borrowing 
their blue and scarlet infantry uniforms with 
white leggings from the French, and their artillery 
uniform of blue and yellow from Germany. To 
France again for their culinary art ; for which these 
Japanese have a latent talent, making excellent 
cooks. To England again for her model of Court 
etiquette and nobles' titles, and then again to 
Germany for medicine. The great reaction that 
followed naturally in the course of this rapid 
innovation is not yet dead. The struggle is still 

The Western Capital and Inland Sea. 201 

going on, as one can easily see, but a few years 
hence the revolution will be complete, and Japan 
will cease to be so intensely fascinating to 
foreigners. It presents, perhaps, the most wonder- 
ful page in the history of the world : this deposi- 
tion of the Shogun, the reinstatement of the old 
dynasty, a great revolution in a remarkable in- 
telligent country, perfectly bloodless, of short 
duration, and changing the whole face and destinies 
of the land. 

But these Japanese civilize so fast, that now 
there is scarcely a European employed in their 
State departments. They are very proud of this, 
and gradually European agents for their steam- 
ships, companies, the managers of banks and 
commercial houses are being dismissed, or super- 
seded by Japanese, who take the management 
into their own hands. 

But to return to Osaka. If the castle at 
Nagoya is so well worth seeing, this one of Osaka 
is equally so, for it is the exact counterpart of the 
other, only minus the keep and the dolphins. 
There are the same outer and inner moats, the 
same white plaster walls edged with crenellated 
bronze tiles, resting on stone walls, guarded at the 
four corners with those square towers, loopholed 
in several storeys ; but I think that the perfectly 
gigantic stones of the walls are even more colossal 
than at Nagoya, for there are several opposite the 

202 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

II ' • 

li » 

entrance by the gateway and the guard-room, that 
measure at least twelve feet square. It will always 
remain one of the wonders of Japan, how these 
stones, with the primitive appliances of the earlier 
Shoguns, were ever placed in position. The open 
square of the inner moat is now a garden, and the 
palace has been used to accommodate the General 
and his staff. It is worth climbing up to the top of 
the walls for the splendid view over the plain, always 
bordered by those chains of mountains, that run as 
a prickly backbone from north to south of Japan. 

Osaka is a charming town. It is called the 
Venice of Japan, and with its flowing rivers and 
canals intersecting the streets, its high, arched 
bridges thrown across on a single sweep, its grassy 
banks and avenues of weeping willows, it is fitly 
likened to that Queen City of the sea. The 
houses are built on piles projecting over the water, 
and narrow passages in between, lead down to the 
stone steps, where there are multitudes of boats. 

To stand on one of the bridges and watch the 
ceaseless ebb and flow of the changing stream of 
life, is a dream of delight, only to be compared to 
standing on the Bridge of Galata at Constan- 
tinople. Blue-coated coolies, with their bare brown 
legs, roped to heavy carts, with their encouraging 
grunts ; itinerant sellers slung with bamboo trays 
of vegetables ; jinrikishas by the hundred, pedes- 
trians jostled from side to side, closed sedan chairs, 

The Western Cafiifal a7id Inland Sea. 20 

from behind the curtains of which peer out priests, 
whose way is cleared by runninjj attendants, for it 
is a day of ceremony, with much coming and 
going from the temples — all this kaleidoscopic 
stream, accompanied by the warning cries, and the 
dull thud of the echoing wood pavement, is what 
we see. And then look up and down the river, 
with a vista of bridges, and see the irregular mass 
of brown houses, winding round the bend of the 
stream, with poles on the roof, hung with waving 
blue cottons, placed there to dry, and the over- 
hanging balconies, from which men are fishing. 
And then the scenes of river life — the brown shiny 
figures bathing and plunging in a cool bath, the 
hundreds of sampans moored by the banks, where 
reside a large aquatic population, and the high- 
peaked prows of others, which, propelled along by 
six oarsmen, again remind one of the gondolas of 
Venice. There are other sampans, which, with 
one square brown sail set, come skimming down 
the canals before the afternoon breeze. Yes, 
Osaka is a charming place, and these river scenes 
passed in crossing the bridges, add to the never- 
ending joys of the dark, narrow streets, compressed 
on to the restricted peninsulas of land. 

Having done our duty by the arsenal, and to 
our good conptituents at Sheffield, we sit out and 
have tea on the balcony of the hotel, and then go 
for a prowl in the dusk round the streets. 

204 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

Then succeeded one of those lovely evenings. 
I shall never forget those sunsets and twih'ght 
evenings, with their pale, washed skies, that we 
had in Japan. They only last for a short half 
hour, but they are entrancing. If you watch care- 
fully, you may see the shadows lengthening, but 
after the brightest and hottest afternoon, suddenly 
the colour of the sun seems to go out of every- 
thing, and in its place steal up soft shadows, the 
vista of streets grow dim, and darkness falls into 
the little open shop fronts, whilst the sky is 
suffused with the palest wash of lilac or saffron. 
The jinrikisha bulbous lights come out, one by 
one, like glowworms, and the single lamp lights a 
dark interior. And then as we pass across some 
street, which lies to the west, we see a blaze 
of orange, lying low on the horizon, where the sun 
has just dipped. It becomes cold and chilly for 
an hour, and then begin the fairy scenes of night, 
in a Japanese town. 

It is an hour in the train from Osaka to Kobe, 
where we arrived at eight o'clock. 

Kobe is a pretty seaport, girt round, close 
at hand, by great mountains, up into which 
the streets run. It is too cosmopolitan and 
European to be very interesting. But from the 
handsome Oriental houses, with their pale buff 
and grey tints, the deep balconies with green 
blinds of the foreign consulates on the Bund— 

The Western Capital and Inland Sea. 205 

from the curio shops, Europeanizcd like Yoko- 
hama, you can pass into the quaintest and 
brightest native bazaar, where from feeling your- 
self in Europe (especially if you are staying at the 
French Oriental Hotel), you can suddenly plunge 
back again into native Japan. We find the 
steamer of the Nippon Company in quarantine, 
by reason of a cholera death on board and coming 
from Shanghai, an infected port ; so we have to 
wait for two days. 

On one afternoon we went up to the waterfall 
in one of the green mountains, crowned with 
straggling pine trees, to see sunset over the har- 
bour. After having hovered round and inspected 
half the gold Buddhas for sale in Japan, now that 
we have reached the last place of departure, we have 
at length bought one. Of course, directly we had 
done so, we immediately saw a much better one in 
an adjacent shop. J cannot help feeling that it is 
a matter for thankfulness that we arc leaving this 
seductive country, not ruined, it is true, but greatly 
impoverished ! 

I was glad that to the end the enchantment 
continued, and we shall carry away the memory of 
that last evening in Japan on board the Japanese 
Mail Company's steamer, the Saikio Maru. This 
line is excellent and the ships the perfection of 
VVc saw the sunset from the deck, behind the 

l! > 

206 Nciv/oundland to Cochin China, 

peaked mountains of Kobe, with their drat^on- 
armed fir trees outlined atop, and against the 
hundred masts of a fleet of sampans, the pale 
grey-green sky so deliciously soft and milky. 
There was a little white Japanese man-of-war 
mysteriously covered over, and ships of all nations 
coming from all parts of the world, in port ; and 
from over the dark waters of the harbour, comes 
the low crooning chant from the sampans, towing 
in a huge junk. 

As the darkness gathered the lights from Kobe, 
came out against the sable background of lofty 
mountains clustering thickly along the Bund, and 
reflecting shining dots in the water, whilst arcs of 
light march up the ascending roads. Black mon- 
sters, marked by red and green eyes, are darting 
about the harbour, whilst puffing steam launches, 
black lighters,and oar-propelled sampans are dimly 
seen. Over this bewitching scene rises a crescent 
moon, with a trailing path of silver on the waters, 
and in our last view of Japan, as is only right, 
there are the jinrikisha lights on shore, drawn by 
their patient human horses, their soft quivering 
lights running swiftly, hither and thither, up and 

We have been for the last twenty hours on the 
Inland Sea of Japan. I have spent the whole day 
on the bridge or in the bows of the Saikio Mam, 
and the sea in its incomparable beauty surpasses 

The Western Capital and Inland Sea, 207 

all ideas formed by written pictures. It is a suc- 
cession of the most perfect inland lakes, varying in 
breadth from forty miles to a few yards, and with 
mountains rising around the shores. These moun- 
tains have a peculiar look that I have seen nowhere 
else so marked. They have great zig-zags of sands 
running up and down their sides, indicated by a 
sparse vegetation. It gives to them a mottled and 
zebra appearance, and this feature is common to 
them all. Many of their castle-like crags are 
fringed with fir trees, whilst often their sides are 
deeply terraced to the water's edge, and {' anted 
with paddy and sweet potatoes. Little brown 
thatched villages, with their big ru )rs crowding 
down over the mud walls, lie hidden ud the many 
inlets and winding channels, or nestle on the beach 
of the seashore. 

Time and again wc look back on the undulating 
track of our course, and cannot see the winding 
entrance now shut out by islands. We look 
forward ; there is a rounded shore. It is a perfect 
lake. Just as we enter the narrowest and therefore 
most beautiful passage, the Captain points out a 
barren cone, well ensconced behind several main- 
lands of islands. Not so very long hence we 
shall be passing underneath, but on the other side 
of that mountainous peak, and so it goes on, one 
intricate strait succeeding another. 

The Inland Sea is a long procession of islands. 

2o8 Neivfonndland to Cochin China. 

The Japanese reckon several thousands, but it 
would be an impossible task to count them, as one 
by one they unfold themselves to us, as we steam 
among their fantastic shapes. For there are islands 
of every imaginable form and size, square and round 
with sugar-loaf cones, or extinguisher tops with 
castellated summits, or small and four-sided like a 
floating haystack. Some are so large that they are 
like the mainland, and others mere thimble points. 
Here, there are three tiny islands formed of three 
little rocks, with a tuft of palms, and joined by a 
spit of sand ; there, a barren heap of sand with a 
solitary fir tree on the top ; or, again, it is a moun- 
tain island with deep evergreens. 

Hundreds of junks come sailing by, with the 
pleasant swish of the water against their keels, 
whilst even here they have screens of paper, cover- 
ing the wooden trellises of their sides. They are 
a perpetual delight, these curious whimsically- 
fashioned vessels, with their ancient prows standint^ 
high out of the water, recalling as they do the 
old prints of the fleet of the Spanish Armada, of 
which they are exact reproductions. Their one 
square sail is attached to a single mast, and pulls 
up and down like a curtain on running strings, and 
the black patch sewn on it denotes the owner's 

What makes the Inland Sea so beautiful ? The 
Japanese themselves have no name for it, nor have 

The Western Capital and Inland Sea. 2oy 

their poets ever sung its praises. I suppose we 
must say it is the innumerable islands, though 
many of these are the reverse of beautiful in them- 
selves. Or is it the great ocean steamer threading 
so swiftly the successive intricate windings and 
snake -like passages } No. I think it is perhaps 
the ceaseless variety. Every minute the scene 
changes ; it is never the same for more than a few 
seconds, and is often so beautiful that you want to 
look on both sides at once. Certainly in the 
course of our many wanderings, we have never been 
more pleased than with this Inland Sea. All the 
morning the sky was overcast, and a purple haze 
rested lightly on the mountains, and the sea was 
pale green. But in the afternoon, just as we 
reached the most charming part by the northern 
course, the sun broke through, and we had the 
long afternoon shadows, with softened sunlight, on 
this scene of rare beauty. 

We have had, too, a wonderful conjunction of 
pleasures in a superb sunrise, and a more exquisite 
sunset in one day. Thi'=' morning at Kobe I saw 
sunrise. At six o'clock the sky was heralded with 
crimson glory. To-night the sun, as it always docs 
in these Eastern latitudes, sinks suddenly — a golden 
ball into an orange bed. It is going, going slowly, 
until gone behind that purple range, and just as 
it is dying the symmetry of the orb is cut into 
and spoilt by a jutting rock on the mountains. 


. 4 

2 10 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

Then, whilst darkness falls over the land, the 
golden bed begins to glow and palpitate with 
colour, and spreads and spreads, until the exquisite 
pink, and lilac and green, melt into the cobalt 
vault above. The sea is extended in a tremulous 
sheet of dazzling gold, and the black prows and 
the figures on the junks are cut in Vandyck relief 
out of this gilded background. The silver moon 
rises over a lighthouse on the other side of the 
ship. Soon little mackerel clouds separate them- 
selveSj and float over the sky, and as we watch 
a ruddy glow succeeds, growing blood-red, and 
bathing sky and sea in a crimson flood, which dies, 
oh ! so lingeringly and wistfully into purple dark- 

Nor is this all, for by-and-by, as we are looking 
over the bulwarks, perhaps still a little awe-bound 
by this superb display of nature, a great, green, 
electric wave rises up from the dark sea, thrown 
aside by the ships' bows, and breaks away in 
gleaming particles. It is the brilliant phosphores- 
cence of the spawn of the sardine, which in daytime 
is spread out like red dust upon the waves. Some- 
times it is so bright that the whole sea is alight, 
and in passing a channel ships have to stop, being 
unable to see the coast. 

At two o'clock in the morning we stop to coal 
at Shimonoseki, in the straits between the main 
island of Nippon and that of Kyushu. A party 

The Western Capital and Inland Sea. 2 1 1 

of geishas, or dancing girls, come on board and 
go over the ship, and I get up in time to see a row 
of little policemen with their coloured lanterns 
going down the gangway. 

The next day, at midday, we again come into 
an even more beautiful inland channel. Islands 
of emerald green are seen across a white-flecked 
sapphire ocean on a glorious day — a line of 
wliite creamy foam denting the black rock-bound 
coast, above which rise volcanic strata of grey 
and black cliff of the most wonderful formations, 
deformed and twisted into spinular columns and 
basaltic contortions, and the unwieldy mass of the 
busje ship is made to double round sharp angles, 
and avoid the conical islands sticking so irritat- 
ingiy out in the mid-ocean passage. In one place 
there is a lighthouse towering on a rock so 
rugged and steep, that no path can be cut in 
the cliffs, and we see the derrick and the basket 
which are used for letting people up and down, 
from the boats to the platform of the phare. 

We are pointed out the place, where, in this 
far-distant island of Japan, Fran9ois de Xavier, 
in 1549, first landed to try and Christianize the 
natives. We are in an inner channel. Far, far 
away, beyond two grey islands on the sky line, 
lies Corea. Whichever way we look there is a 
dotted circuit of islands, always of those whimsi- 
cal shapes. Occasionally, miles ahead, one little 

» » 

2 1 2 Neivfotindland to Cochin China, 

island will stand all solitary amid the ocean, or 
in another you can see the half that has fallen 
away, leaving a clear cut scar, an abrupt termina- 
tion to the island. But the most curious of all 
is an enormous bell-shaped rock, standing erect 
in the ocean with a perfect arch through it. 

Captain Connor, the best and most genJal of 
commanders, puts the ship about that we may 
" kodak " it, and by degrees the slit of light opens 
out into a perfect archway. 

Over the archipelago of islands, under a green 
mountain, lies Nagasaki, and we find an entrance— 
a blind and mysterious one — into its harbour. 

The harbour of Nagasaki is very beautiful. It 
is "long and narrow, winding in among the 
mountains like a Scotch firth." Every separate 
mountain is terraced in green circles down to the 
water's edge, and in each little conical hill the 
circles get narrower at the top. In some, there are 
wooded knolls crowned by a chapel, with winding 
stone steps, that lead up from the black torii on 
the banks, where prayers are offered for sailors 
and the safe return of the fishing junks. Wc 
pass at the entrance the round island of Pappen- 
burg, where we can still see the flight of steps, 
down which the Christians were thrown into the 
sea 300 years ago. We get safely past the 
quarantine station, pitying a British ship lying 
bound, with the yellow flag hoisted on her mast. 

The Western Capital and Inland Sea, 2 1 

There are red lights, in the shape of a cross, 
strung from the masts of a sunken vessel across 
our passage, for last week the captain of this 400- 
ton brig took out the ballast, and a few hours 
afterwards she suddenly heeled over and sank, 
drowning the captain's wife, who was in the cabin, 
and the first officer. 

As we breast this landed-locked harbour, under 
the opal hues of a delicate sunset, we give to it 
the palm (always excepting Sydney) over all 
other harbours. At the head of the bay we see 
the town and the handsome houses of the con- 
sulates on the Bund, and above that again many 
more pleasantly situated houses, equally handsome 
and belonging to missionaries. 

I do not wish to make any observations on the 
missionary question, which, without special know- 
ledge, it would be wrong to speak of, but I must 
say that we have never heard any resident of any 
foreign country speak a single word in favour of 
the missionaries. On the contrary, we are struck 
how they generally condemn them, I hope un- 
justly, as mischievous, idle, and luxurious. 

As we come to our buoy opposite the town, 
thousands of lights, running out' in zig-zag lines 
into the harbour, seem to come out with one 
accord, creeping in scattered dots of fire up the 
mountain sides, and there with these myriads of 
twinkling lights, winking and blinking at us like 


214 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

a thousand eyes, and with the dull splash of oars 
in the water, we get such unrestful sleep as is 
possible on a ship in port. Now we can well 
imagine the scene described thus : — 

"Every year, from the 13th to the isth of 
August, the whole population of Nagasaki cele- 
brate the Bon Matsuri, or the Feast of the Dead. 
The first night all the tombs of those who died in 
the past year are illuminated with bright-coloured 
paper lanterns. On the second and third nights 
all the graves without exception are so illuminated, 
and the families of Nagasaki instal themselves in 
the cemeteries, where they give themselves up, in 
honour of their ancestors, to plentiful libations. 
The bursts of uproarious gaiety resound from 
terrace to terrace, and rockets fired at intervals 
seem to blend with the giddy human noises the 
echoes of the celestial vault. The European 
residents repair to the ships in the bay to see 
from the distance the fairy spectacle of the hills, 
all resplendent with rose-coloured lights. 

" But on the third night, suddenly, at about 
two o'clock in the morning, long processions of 
bright lanterns are seen to descend from the 
heights, and group themselves on the .shore of 
the bay, while the mountains gradually return to 
obscurity and silence. It is fated that the dead 
embark and disappear before twilight. The 
living have plaited them thousands of little ships 


The Westcni Capital and Inland Sea. 215 

of straw, each provisioned with some fruit and 
a few pieces of money. The frail embarkations 
are charged with all the coloured lanterns which 
were used for the illumination of the cemeteries ; 
the small sails of matting are spread to the wind, 
and the morning breeze scatters them round the 
bay, where they are not long in taking fire. It 
is thus that the entire flotilla is consumed, trac- 
ing in all directions large trails of fire. The 
dead depart rapidly. Soon the last ship has 
foundered, the last light is extinguished,and the last 
soul has taken its departure again from this earth." 

The next morning we were ashore before 
breakfast to see the fish market, for Nagasaki is 
one of the largest fishing ports in the world, and 
it has been proved that there are 600 specimens 
of fish brought into this market, by a gentleman 
who has drawn them and written a book on the 

Nagasaki has several canals, and is a quaint little 
town developed from a fishing village, but with 
nothing of much interest in it. We spend the day 
as usual in the shops, plunging with a desperation 
born of the feeling that it is really our last chance 
of buying in Japan ; wc are in an agony of fear up 
to the last minute lest our purchases should not 
arrive before the steamer sails at 4 o'clock. 

And it is in the dull light of a clouded afternoon 
that we glide out of the beautiful harbour of 

2i6 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

Nagasaki, and in a few hours even the coast hne 
is lost to us, and fair Nippon, the Land of the 
Rising Sun (such an appropriate name for the swiftly 
progressing Island Empire) is a remembrance of 
the past. Bright memories will linger with us in 
a medley dream, of rosy sunsets, of clear skies in 
those marvellous pale washes, of gaudy temples 
with their moss-grown steps, hallowed by the 
solemn hush around, mingling with the pictures 
of those queer, dark little shops, of tiny gardens 
comprised in tiny courtyards, of gentle little men 
and women in flapping cotton garments, of golden 
lacquer, red and black, of gorgeous kakemonos, 
bronzes, cloisonne, of delicately tinted textures, and 
above all of solemn gilt Buddhas, seated on lotus- 
leaved pedestals, and gleaming at us from out 
dark corners. 

We pass out into the grey space of the Yellow 



The turbid orange-coloured waters of the great 
Yangtze are around us — "the river of the golden 
sands," far too poetical a name for the muddy 
waters, that with a strong current swish and eddy 
against the ship's side. 

The spirit of travel that rises strong within you 
as you approach the landing to a new country, is 
discouraged by that thin line of flat, ugly land, 
which is all we see on that dull October morning, 
through a mist of rain, of the coast of China. 

The Yellow Land ! Rightly named, indeed. 
The sea is yellow, the rivers are yellow, the land 
is yellow, the people, too, are yellow — and the 
Dragon Flag is yellow. Yellow, too, might China 
be with gold if only her rulers, the mandarins, 
would let her people give scope to their abilities, 
develop the rich resources of an as yet barely 
touched country, and strike ahead among the 
nations of the world. 

We had anchored at the Saddles, some little 

i ■<i 

21 8 Neivfoiindland to Cochin China. 

Islands with a fancied resemblance to that equine 
article, and then moved up with the tide, opposite 
to the fleet of sampan masts at Woosung ; but 
still the water on the bar is too low, and they 
whistle for a steam tug to take us off the Saikio 
Maru, and up fifteen miles of the deadly uninter- 
esting reaches of theWung-Poo — the last tributary 
of the Yangtze — to Shanghai. 

What a mighty river this Yangtze is. The name 
signifies the Child of the Ocean, and the Chinese 
have various others for it, such as " The Father of 
Rivers," " The Girdle of China." " It is the richest 
river in the world — richest in navigable waters, 
in mighty cities, in industrious human beings, in 
affluent tributaries, in wide margins of cultivated 
lands of inexhaustible fertility. This vast expanse 
of turpid fresh water is saturated with the loam of 
fields 1500 miles away." The Yangtze rises in 
Central Asia, and drains an area of 600,000 square 
miles of Midland China. 

We pass hundreds of junks, the quaintest ships 
afloat in the world, with their sides decorated with 
brilliant blue and red frescoes, and sails of bamboo 
matting ; the all-seeing black and white eye is in 
the bow of the boat, for no Chinese junk would 
sail without this occult protection. 

Lost to us arc the beauties of the palm and 
flower-covered Bund, the pride of Shanghai (on 
this first occasion), for we land in a drenching rain, 

The Yclloio Land, 


and seek shelter in a dirty jinrikisha lined with 
green and red oilskin, and drawn by a feeble 
coolie — and this began the first of our disadvan- 
tageous comparisons between China and Japan. 
By all means let everyone visit China first, with 
its dirty mud villages, devoid ever of picturesque- 
ness, its swarming, grasping, sullen people, and 
leave Japan — dear, clean, little Japan, with its 
picturesque streets, and charming, willing little 
fairies to the last. From that moment of landing 
I took a repugnance to China, and the more I saw 
of it the more the dislike grew. 

An hour after reaching Shanghai, we were told 
of a steamer leaving for Tientsin immediately — a 
cargo boat, it was true, but the captain was willing 
to take us. The last bale of goods was being 
lowered into the hold, the Blue Peter flying at her 
masthead ; a hasty decision being necessary without 
more reflection, and, being most anxious to push on 
to Peking, we embarked on board. 

The Clnng Ping is a Chinese collier of 500 tons, 
trading between the coast ports, and with a single 
cabin for a chance passenger. A glance was 
sufficient to show us the fate in store for us for 
the next few days, but it was then too late. As 
\vc scudded out into the Yellow Sea, in a storm 
of wind and rain we began to sufi'cr. The horrors 
of that long night are yet like a bad dream. We 
heard bell after bell strike, and thought that dawn 


2 20 Ncivfoundland to Cochin China. 

I 81 

li ^1 

would never break, for the Ching Ping rolled to 
desperation, shipping heavy seas, whilst the wind 
blew like a hurricane through the " alloway " under 
which was our cabin, blowing showers of spray in 
at the door, while on closing it we were suffocated. 
We were unable to move, for it was impossible to 
stand, and in total darkness, for the matches had 
early disappeared amid the chaos of articles on 
the floor, which we helplessly heard rolling about 
and bounding against the walls. Nor was this the 
worst ; for the rain and spray leaked through the 
woodwork of the cabin, and soon our berths and 
clothes were saturated, and deadly sick, with no 
dry place in which to place our heads, we lay 
drenched through the weary hours of that dread- 
ful night. 

It was a sorry sight, a scene of wreckage and 
despair, that good Captain Crowlie looked in upon 
the next morning, when we begged to be put 
ashore anywhere, at any cost, rather than spend 
such another night on board. He was so kind to 
us, taking us up and establishing us in his own 
cabin on the hurricane deck, where we passed th 
remainder of the voyage. 

For the past few days we had been crossiii^ the 
stormy Gulf of Pechelc, with the now grey, now 
purple, coast-line of the great province of Chihli to 
port. It is late on the fourth afternoon that we are 
on the bridge with the captain, all anxiety to know 

The Yellow Land. 


whether \vc shall cross the bar at the mouth of the 
Peiho to-night, for he fears that we are just two 
hours too late to catch the flood tide. 

The entrance to the Peiho is most extraor- 
dinary ; for there is no sign of land, no banks 
visible to indicate that it is a river, but only the 
bulbous buoy of the lighter opposite the bar, 
rising above the horizon, growing clearer every 
minute. It is determined to make a desperate 
effort, and everybody is on the alert ; officers at 
their various posts, the engineer putting on all 
steam, the steering-gear connected to the upper 
bridge, whilst the leadsman, a quaint Chinese figure 
perched out on an overhanging gangway, is set to 
work. At each call the water gets shallower, and 
decreases at every throw from fifteen feet to thir- 
teen feet down to nine, and then the flat bottom of 
the CJiing Ping ensconces itself comfortably on 
the bed of mud, and the fatal " Let go anchor " 
sounds from the bridge. We stay there for the 
night, a sudden silence falling on the ship in the 
ilver moonlight, save for the convulsive sobbing of 
the engines, giving forth their last oppression of 
>team. Alas ! we shall not sleep in Tientsin to- 

At 2 o'clock in the morning the commotion, 
as we f t under weigh, begins afresh, and no sleep 
is pos^ c after that, for there is the frantic whir- 
ring the steering-gear just outside the cabin. 

I'f '• . 

2 22 Neivfoimdland to Cochin China. 

as the sharp commands from the bridge, make the 
wheel race from port to starboard. We stop op- 
posite the Taku Custom House, and whistle ever 
louder and more angrily for the sleeping officer, 
who eventually comes reluctantly on board. And 
then in the moonlight we glide by the crumbling 
banks, past mud villages, silent as the grave, lying 
in deep shadows, until morning glimmers in the 
purple red of the sky, and we pay our morning 
orisons to the rising sun, in its glory, over the well- 
cultivated, intensely flat plains, and the cracked 
mud banks of the great Peiho. 

The navigation of this river is the most wonder- 
ful series of nautical evolutions. The steamers 
are especially built with flat bottoms for the 
service, and must not draw more than ten feet of 
water. It is without exception the most exas- 
perating bit of navigation, calling forth the anathe- 
mas alike of captain and passengers. There is 
first of all the bar, where at high water there is 
often only from ten to eleven feet. Here it is 
possible to wait for several days before there is 
enough water for a steamer to cross, and in most 
cases the cargo has to be taken out to lighten 
the ship on one side, and replaced on the other, or 
again sometimes it may be too rough for the 
lighters to come alongside. Then commence the 
windings, so sharp that steam is shut off, whilst the 
bows of the ship arc across the stream, and the 

The Ye II Olio Land. 


stern is all but on the bank, the dangers of going 
aground being considerably increased by the shal- 
lowness of the water. To give an idea of the ser- 
pentine course of the river — a steamer which we 
passed in a bend on the port side, two hundred 
yards further on will be to starboard. The effect 
produced by this is, that the large sails of the 
sampans are a succession of ships sailing inland, 
in contrary directions. 

We pass the mud forts of Taku, where the great 
battle of i860 took place, when the allied forces 
were on their march to Peking. The Chinese idea 
of fortifications, as a rule, consists largely of walls of 
mud with a hard battened surface, and these forts 
are intended for the protection of the Peiho, but 
really their best one rests in the bar at its mouth. 
There is the embankment yonder of China's only 
railway. It runs from Taku to Tientsin. Fancy 
acountry of four million square miles, with a popu- 
lation of as many millions as there are days in the 
year, with but one single railway of a {g."^ miles ! 
Yet such is the case ; China is still in the shadow 
of the dark ages. 

The morning mists gather into a thin vapour 
and roll upwards, showing miles of fields, cultivated 
like kitchen gardens, interspersed with mud villages, 
where the houses are made of wattles plastered 
over with the earth they stand on, with chimneys 
formed of a cone of mud, and paper windows. In 









224 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

wet weather and floods these houses often partially 
dissolve, or subside altogether. But then they are 
so easily rebuilt. Here the urchins come out and 
revel in the murky wash in our wake, whilst the 
sampan propellers push hurriedly off from the 
bank, lest we land them, as indeed we did one, 
high and dry after our swell had subsided. Hun- 
dreds of coolies are trudging along, with their 
bamboo poles slung across their shoulders, whilst 
others squatted on the ground occupied with that 
B.C., or ancient Eastern method of irrigation, the 
automatically worked water-wheel. 

We now have the disagreeable excitement of 
going aground, a gentle bump on a flat bank, 
where we stick fast, and recall all the stories 
which we have been hearing, of steamers staying 
aground for a week or ten days. Meanwhile the 
screw churns away at the liquid mud, and a crowd 
collects on the causeway above, and yet we remain 
fast. It is after half an hour's manceuvring that 
we get off and proceed through the few more peril- 
ous bends still left, with a few more hair-breadth 
escapes. We see the tall chimneys, covering 
a large area, of the Arsenal, and then the Pagoda, 
with its white umbrellas, overlooking the fort and 
military exercise ground for the troops, and then 
we are nearing Tientsin. It is pleasant in the 
first view of Tientsin to be greeted by a familiar 
remembrance of England, in the towers of a 

The Yellow Land. 


miniature Windsor Castle, the Victoria Hall of 
the English Settlement, that tower above the dust- 
coloured hovels. It is in strange contrast to the 
two cages on the banks, fixed on the top of tall 
bamboo poles, where are seen the heads of two 
criminals. Doubtless they were executed on the 
spot where the crime was committed, as is the 
Chinese custom. 

We anchor in the river, and amid a deafening 
roar, and the shoving, scraping and pushing of 
hundreds of filthy sampans, we land on the Bund 
of Tientsin, and are settling into the somewhat unin- 
viting quarters of the Astor House, when Mr. Byron 
Brennan, H. M.'s Consul, kindly sends for us, and 
in an hour we are installed in luxury, and have 
washed away the unpleasant reminiscences of our 
journey across the Yellow Sea in a collier. 

The English Consulate looks out over the 
Bund, but it is such a different Bund to the usual 
one of handsome houses and gardens touching 
the water's edge. This one is piled up with 
merchandise; great bales of goods, covered with 
matting, are stacked under the trees or strewn 
about the ground, and through the wide-opened 
windows come all day the shouts and cries of the 
strong-limbed coolies, as they lade and unlade the 
ships. A strange silence falls over the busy 
scene of the day, at night. But in another month 
or two the Bund will be a model of neatness, 


226 Newfo7indland to Cochin China. 

swept and clean, and all this bustling scene will 
be hushed under the spell of winter, for the Peiho 
freezes in the end of November or beginning of 
December. Merchants are now hurrying to send 
away the last of their merchandise, and residents 
are receiving their last supplies before the river is 
closed. During those winter months Tientsin is 
entirely cut off from the outer world, save for the 
mails which are brought overland. No one can 
enter or leave the town to go south, and business 
is at a standstill until spring breaks up the ice. 
This isolation comes suddenly, for we heard of a 
steamer that went aground below Tientsin, and in 
one night was frozen in by a coat of ice a foot thick. 
A British gunboat is anchored under the Consulate, 
sent up since the late riots at Wuhu, and it is a 
great comfort to the English residents to feel that 
she is to spend the winter here. 

We passed a quiet forenoon with a regular 
feast of the limes and of home news. Then 
in the evening Mrs. Brennan took me for a walk 
round the European Concession, down Consulate 
Road, where the consulates of the various nations 
are situated, to the Gordon Hall and Victoria 
Gardens. Five yeais ago this was a mud-dried 
waste — strange contrast to these pretty zoological 
gardens, with its tennis courts, and well laid out 
paths, and Chinese band playing. The Hall 
is the centre of social life, where dances and 

llie Yellow Land. 


public entertainments are held, and it has a 
capital Library and Reading-room. At the 
entrance are stands of guns, belonging to the 
Volunteer corps of foreign gentlemen, who are 
ready to come to arms should necessity arise. 

Like so many other places of this kind, Tientsin 
has but one drive out into the country, and along 
this we go up on to the city wall. We stand on 
the high elevation of the deeply arched bridge, 
and look out on the fiat swamps of mudland, on 
the surrounding marshy and unhealthy pools. It 
is mud in some shape or form whichever way you 
look, it is seen alike in houses, walls and roads, 
an.'' it is certainly very like what I pictured China 
from reading books of travel. 

The Europeans on their small spotty Chinese 
ponies, or driving in their cabriolet carriages, are 
returning from their evening exercise. Tientsin 
seems to be a pleasant place socially, particularly 
in the cold though bright winter, when business is 
slack on account of the frozen river, and the little 
community join together to amuse themselves 
with skating and sailing of ice-boats. And so 
soon as the first dust storm spoils the river ice, 
they enclose this pond we are passing, and make 
a covered skating rink. 

My husband has just returned from a visit to 
the great Viceroy, Li Hung Chang, who sent soon 
after our arrival to say that he would be glad to 

<) 2 

2 28 Newfouudland to Cochin China. 

see him. So at five o'clock he and Mr. Brennan 
started out in state-green palanquins, the official 
colour being green in distinction to the ordinary 
blue, with a numerous retinue and an outrider 
on a white horse to clear the way, and present the 
Chinese card, a single sheet of long pink paper. 
On arrival at the Viceregal Yamen, the exterior and 
surroundings of which were little in keeping with 
the high offices of state held by His Excellency, 
the chairs were carried into an inner courtyard, 
flanked by wooden shields, bearing all the titles of 
the Viceroy. The visitors were conducted to the 
small foreign reception rooms, where His Ex- 
cellency immediately joined them. 

Li Hung Chang is a tall handsome man of 
seventy, six feet four inches high, and was dressed 
in a grey plush robe. He is frequently styled the 
Bismarck of China, and is certainly the most 
prominent and influential statesman of this vast 
Chinese Empire. For many years Li, the 
Viceroy, has held his present post of Governor- 
General of the large Province of Chihli, and unites 
with it that of Grand Secretary, Guardian of the 
Heir Apparent, and what is most important of all 
to us, Commissioner for Trade, in which capacity 
all Foreign Affairs arc referred to him from Peking. 
In the conversation, His Excellency placed great 
stress upon his sincere desire to develop closer 
trade relations with England, and took great 

The Yelhnv La mi. 


interest in the details of the trade of tlic British 
Empire which C. gave him. The interview 
lasted about an hour, the Viceroy conducting his 
guests back to their chairs, and sending me his 

A Chinese Street. 

There are two ways (^f reaching Peking. You 
may ride or drive in those terrible country carts 
the eighty miles, staying one or two nights in an 
indescribably dirty Chinese inn, or go, as we 
(.Iccided, in a house boat, 120 miles up the Peiho. 

At two o'clock the next afternoon, we drove in 


230 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 

jinrikishas for an hour through the heart of the 
native quarter. This is my first view of a real 
Chinese city, and my early impressions are com- 
prised in the all-pervading, all-powerful, smother- 
ing filth and dirt, in the revolting smells and 
disgusting sights ; my next, in the jostling of crowds 
of coolies wheeling enormous iron-bound bales on 
wheelbarrows, of carts drawn by teams of mules, 
donkeys or oxen, of equestrians, pedestrians, 
jinrikishas, and sedan chairs, crowded into a six- 
foot wide street, curtained with bamboo mats 
above, producing a bewildering pandemonium. 
Passing the particularly squalid corner where is 
situated the Yamen, we see the twin towers of the 
Roman Catholic Cathedral. They stand there 
as a solemn reminder of the dangers which yet 
threaten the Settlement, and of the fanatical people 
they are surrounded by, for it was here in 1870 
that there was that awful massacre of Roman 
Catholic nuns, followed by the pillage of the 
Convent and Cathedral. 

On arrival at the bridge of boats, we find our 
house-boat, Chinese boy, provisions, luggage and 
crew of coolies safely on board, and after many 
objurations from the delayed passengers, a passage 
by the removal of one of the boats is made for us, 
and we begin our long journey up the Peiho. 

This house-boat is very comprehensive on a 
small scale, for we have a sitting-room and bed- 

The Yelloiv Land. 


room and kitchen. There is a tiny promenade 
deck in the bows, then down two steps and you 
are in a room with a bench, a table and two stools, 
the door being formed of movable planks of wood. 
Through an elegant arabesque of woodwork, 
screened with paper, we can see the raised floor on 
which are spread our mattresses with red quilts. 
Behind a similar screen is the kitchen, a few square 
inches,undertheshadow of the helm, where our clever 
" Boy," who is cook, valet and interpreter in one, 
turns out the most deliciously cooked and varied 
dishes, with a batterie de cuisiney consisting of a 
few tin saucepans and an iron brazier of charcoal. 
As for the crew, they sleep on deck anywhere, and 
keep their provisions in the hold. The flat- 
bottomed boat has an arched roof of matting laid 
on bamboo sticks. It is clean, for I only saw one 
black-beetle, but is only moderately air and water- 
tight. Our tiny domicile is dominated by an 
enormous sail which is hoisted up and down on 
running strings. We either tow or pole, or sail, 
according to the wind and stream. 

The vast and varied river life is before us. The 
bajiks for some miles above Tientsin are lined 
with these ugly sampans, their tattered sails hang- 
ing in ribbons, their decks strewn with debris 
where the naked children disport themselves, and 
the women steer at the helm ; for in these 
sampans generations are born, live, and die, and 


232 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 

they are coated too with the dirt of many 
decades. There are fishermen on the bank 
where, projecting out of the little hut which he in- 
habits^ is a net stretched wide on bamboo poles, 
baited with the white of egg spread on the meshes. 
He lowers it slowly up and down, and at each dip 
we see the little silver-scaled fish jumping about 
in the net. There are children dabbling in the 
mud, true mud-larks, and women washing their 
clothes. We espy a bridge over a tributary, with 
a single graceful arch, so curved as to be half an 
oval, and with some houses, a willow tree and 
pig-tailed Chinaman, calling to remembrance the 
willow-patterned plate of our childhood. VVc pass 
several covered Chinese gun-boats,— war-junks, — 
with their blue and white striped awnings, and a 
Maxim gun in the bows kept for the defence of the 
Peiho, ind the patrolling of the river. 

We get out into the country at length, between 
high mud banks, and by a continuous succession 
of villages, their brown dusty walls abutting on to 
the hard-trodden towing path, whilst around is 
that careful cultivation resembling a sucession of 
kitchen gardens, with its plots of lettuces of enor- 
mous size, of cabbages, turnips and onions ; and 
the vertical pole of the water tank is always amongst 
them. A place is hollowed out in the bank, where, 
from a cross plank, the bucket attached to the 
pole is pulled down to the water, v/hen the 

The y'cl/o'<x> Land. 

o -^ ■^ 


weighted end bears the bucket up and the water 
is emptied into the channels that surround each 
plot. Morning and evening you sec hundreds 
of these automatically-working figures, thus irri- 
gating their fields. The population appear ill- 
disposed towards foreigners, they collect in the 
villages and on the sampans and point and jeer at 
me, for the Chinese keep their women at home, and 
arc shocked at the way " Barbarians,'^ as they call 
us, travel with their wives. 

After punting for a little while, three of the 
coolies begin to tow, but it is tedious work, as#our 
line has constantly to be undone or passed round 
the masts of other sampans. Indeed, all the way 
there are processions of these vessels crawling 
up the river heavily laden with cargoes of rice, salt, 
camels' hair, sheep's wool, and vegetables, with 
their four or six towers, whose brown figures are 
bent double against the line, patiently staggering 
along for mile after mile against the current. 
Our coolies are very willing and cheerful, spring- 
ing ashore to begin that weary work of tacking 
against stream, and subsisting on scanty meals of 
rice, cabbage and maccaroni, which we watch them, 
at mid-day and sunset, tucking rapidly into their 
mouths with chop sticks. Sometimes they sing in 
chorus to encourage themselves, with a soft croon- 
ing chant. 

As evening approaches, columns of smoke rise 

234 Neiofouudland to Cochin China, 

from the stern of the sampans, showing the pre- 
paration of the evening meal, and the mists gather 
low over the villages. We sec the great high 
road to Peking, raised on a mud embankment, 
that now and again keeps company with the river ; 
it is bordered herewith an avenue of whisperin^^ 
willows, and against the orange sunset come such 
picturesque figures along it. Now a little lady, with 
her pantaloons reaching to her little feet, tippeting 
along as if she must fall at every step, a horseman 
on a shaggy white pony, running along without 
rising in the .saddle, a big man overshadowing a 
tiny donkey, a jinrikisha, a country cart with oxen, 
or one of those ancient wooden cabriolets, all out- 
lined in black relief against the yellow sky. 

We go to sleep with the sound of the water 
gently gurgling against the bottom of the boat, the 
croaking of the frogs on the banks, whilst our 
patient coolies plod automatically along. They 
anchor for a few hours in the middle of the night 
opposite a large village, whence the regular muffled 
tom-tom of the watchman, a deep and solemn tone, 
is wafted across to us. At three in the morning 
there is a rushing sound as of wind and water, and 
to our great joy we find that we arc sailing before 
a brisk wind. 

The scenery of the Peiho is repelling in its ugli- 
ness, and wearisome from its extreme monotony. 
The country is absolutely flat, and there is nothing. 

The i 'cllow Land, 


now that the harvest is carried in, but a parched 
saline plain, of mud and yellow j^rass, extending 
for hundreds of miles all around. 
The only hills are those of the graves— these 

11 1 


illl!!lilll!ll!llli!i; :iillliliiii.l 

...^......."■'■'••••'■•••'» .V; 

III - loiKM.;! <••>* 

Our Home on the Teiho. 

unwieldy mounds of battened earth, that stand in 
rows along the bank, or arc collected in a field — a 
family burial place, with mounds of varying sizes. 
The greater the man, the larger is the tumulus 
raised over him. Then there are other and more 
disagreeable ones, where the coffin has been tem- 


236 Ncii'foundland to Cochin China. 

porarily earthed above grountl, awaiting perhaps 
a favourable moment for burial, or sufficient funds 
to take the deceased back to the place of his birth ; 
for this is the dearly cherished hope of every China- 
man, and often, when old age approaches, he 
returns to his native place to be ready to die there. 
An even more objectionable custom I., that of 
putting coffins down in open fields, or ale /'g the 
roads. We saw one covered in red tandinc; 
like this, just outside a village, and you find them 
in the same way all over China. There is a su- 
perstition that it is lucky to bury within sight of 
water or in a place which commands a view, and 
that is why we see such rows of graves for miles 
and miles by the river bank. To tlie Chinese their 
burial is the most important thing of life. They 
prepare their coffins and keep them in their 
houses for years beforehand, though their unwieldy 
size and solidity take up much ill-spared space, 
and the object of every woman of the poorest 
class is to save enough for her grave-clothes. It 
has been truly said that the whole face of China 
is burrowed under by these graves. 

The turpid yellow waters of the Peiho swirl 
against our boat, particularly at the reaches, where 
the current is strongest. The harvest is over, the 
poppy fields are bare, and there are only a few 
tall straggly castor-oil plants along the banks. 
A few, very few coolies, in loose blue cotton gar- 

The Yellow Land. 

o -I »7 

mcnts, are at work, ploughing with ancient and 
rude ploughshares. The teams they use are 
delightfully mixed. You may often see an ox and 
horse, a donkey and a mule all pulling together. 
And the same useful mixture is seen in the carts 
that resemble old Roman chariots, crawling along 
the towing path, where a bull with a tandem 
donkey is a favourite team. These donkeys 
arc beautiful animals ; small, but with sleek grey, 
brown and black coats, with the well-marked 
neck rings, and line down the centre of the back. 
\Vc meet solitary pedestrians trudging along with 
their heads down against the wind, and we wonder 
whence they came and whither they are going, for 
wc are now only passing isolated villages at great 
distances. In some of the few we sail by, the mud 
walls surrounding the villages have a graceful open- 
work arabesque at the top, and in one, to the sound 
of much tom-tomming, a festival was progressing, 
at which all the inhabitants (as there were none to 
be seen) are evidently assisting. 

The windings described by the I'eiho are aggra- 
vating. The actual distance traversed, after a series 
of bends, being equal to about half a mile as the 
crow flics. Again and again we sec the extra- 
ordinary phenomenon of a row of sails walking 
inland ; and how picturesque these brown-patched 
sails look, as extended by the wind they glide in 
single file against] the sky line. The wind is a 

I ..-i 

238 Neivfoundland to Cocliin China. 

subject of great anxiety on the Peibo, because if it 
is ahead one the crew make fast to the bank at 
once, and await a favourable change; and even if it 
is, as to-day, behind us, the river winds so mucli 
that we box every point of the compass, and so it 
is not always to our advantage. We watch our 
progress with great interest ; and now we are scud- 
ding gaily before a lovely fresh breeze, with the 
pleasant sound of rushing water under the keel, 
whilst the big sail overhead balloons out and 
swells hopefully. To this succeeds a calm, when 
a little punting with the long poles is neces- 
sary, or a deep bend when the wind and stream 
arc ahead of us, and which means a painful slow 
bit of tacking, when the men strain the whole 
weight of their bodies against the tow line, to pro- 
gress at all. Again a pleasant rush;, the puff of 
wind catching our ponderous sail, and we scud 
merrily past the banks. And how our coolies enjoy 
this ; stretching themselves out, and, sunning on the 
deck, smoke their pipes. So it goes on all .ay. 

We passed several gaily-decorated junks belong- 
ing to a great mandarin with the peacock's feather 
over the door, generally accompanied by another 
with the household ; also the ex-French Charge 
d' Affaires, Monsieur Ristelhueber, and his family, 
returning to France from Peking,and with whom \vc 
afterwards had the pleasure of travelling home- 
wards for a month on the French mail. 

The Yellow Land. 


The approach to Peking, which signifies the 
" Gate of Heaven," is indeed synonymous with the 
biblical definition in one particular, for it is narrow. 
This morning the Peiho has dwindled into a ditch 
between extensive mud flats, and we are constantly 
aground, our five brown coolies struggling and 
sweating in the quagmire of soft mud under a 
broiling sun. It is weary, weary work this slow 
progress, and we chafe at all the delays of cross- 
ing the tow line from one bank to another, to 
avoid the now continuous succession of sampans, 
many of which are in worse condition than our- 
selves, for the men have to get out into the 
water to push the boat along ; for should we 
not arrive at Tungchau by noon, we must abandon 
all hope of reaching Peking to-night, as the gates 
close at sunset. There is a head wind, with a strong 
current racing down the narrow channel against 
us, and we sadly mark how crawling is our pro- 
gress by the landmarks on the bank. And so the 
long hours of morning pass, and, just as we are 
losing hope, we see the blue tower of the pagoda 
at Tungchau, rising up from the plain, and there are 
only seven miles more with an hour to do it in, and 
we shall be at our journey's end. We afterwards 
found that, favoured by the wind, \vc had made 
almost, if not quite, a record passage of forty-six 
hours, and that many boats take from four to five 
(lays in coming up from Tientsin. 

240 Newfoundland to Cochiu China. 

We find an anchorage at Tungchau among fleets 
of sampans, and in half an hour our boy has pro- 
cured three carts, packed in our luggage, and we 
are ready to begin the fifteen miles journey to 
Pekincf. Let me describe these carts. The body 
is formed of a few planks of wood, with a hood 
covered in blue or black stuff. The wheels arc of 
circular pieces of wood, they are guiltless of springs, 
and are drawn by mules. They resemble an old 
mediaeval chariot, and indeed they date from and arc 
exactly the same as were in use in the tenth cen- 
tury. There is no seat inside, and instead of sitting 
on the ^oor, it is easiest to ride on the shaft, with 
your legs hanging over ; but I did not know this in 
time. Before you have been half an hour in this 
vehicle you cry out for mercy — for an instant's ces- 
sation of this agonizing mode of progression, from 
the unbearable bumping and concussion. And 
when at length you become numbed by the pain 
and discomfort, the intense weariness that succeeds, 
makes you sure that another jolt will be unbear- 
able, until at last you close your eyes, feclinc^ 
that nothing but the end of the journey is of the 
remotest consequence. The roads are somewhat 
softened by the loc^e dust. Still, when you tumble 
into a ditch on one side, with a jar that is felt 
to your most internal depths, and are then run up 
on to a bank jn the other, you can have some idea 
of what we suffered during that journey from 

The YcUoi^' Land. 


Tungchau to Peking. What must have been the 
a^cjonies endured by Sir Harry Parkes, and our old 
friend Sir Henry Loch, as they journeyed in these 
same springless carts to Peking, but with their 

How I went to I'ekiivj, 

hands bound behind them and over tlic stone road 
tliat takes a more circuitous route ! 

We passed through the outskirts of Tungchau, 
through some blind lanes of mud walls, with doors 
in thcni leading to the courts, round which the 




242 Neivfoundland to Cochin China. 

houses arc built. Soon we are out on the road — 
no, it is not a road, but a rough track with several 
trails, and made of millions of tons of dust, 4hat 
rise in impenetrable clouds by the passing of a 
single donkey — dust that smells and tastes of the 
garbage of China proper, that envelops everytl ing 
in a white mist, that, easily raised, subsides as 
lingeringly. The embankments are crumbling 
into dust, as are the numerous walls of these 
hideous earth villages which line the road, and are 
perched on the top of them. The whole face of 
the land is parched and burnt. The willows 
are streamers of dust, and the other trees are 
coated grey with the same. And the road : it is a 
succession of deep gutters, of holes, of upheavals of 
sandbanks, running in the middle or across the 
oad, scarcely defined from the surrounding fields — 
jind this is the great highway to the Great City of 
the unknown Emoeror. 

We pass cavalcades of carts, and the gaudily- 
dressed and painted Chinese women inside peer out 
curiously at us ; bullock carts laden with merchan- 
dise, parties of horsemen, a caravan of camels, and 
endless strings of donkeys, bearing away the last 
of the students from the late annual examinations 
at the capital. Many of these wear goggle spec- 
tacles, the glasses of which are at least four inches in 
diameter, and enclosed in broad tortoise-shell rims. 
With their loose coats they tower over and bulge 

The Yclloiv Land. 


out above their tiny quadrupeds, but these sleek, 
good-lookinij little donkeys go cheerfully jig- 
jogging along, with their blue-coated owners urging 
them from behind. In the oasis of a few trees, 
the mules are occasionally watered from the tuL.: 
that stand ready filled, for the traffic along this 
highway is ceaseless. 

The sun, as it got lower, scorched mercilessly 
into the hood, and the dust in its parching 
aridity became still more trying. The mule began 
to tire, and the driver cruelly flogged it, while the 
monotonous waste seems endless. 

Absolute indifference, with a deadly weariness, 
had long since taken possession of me. The 
clammy chill of sunset was of no consequence, 
though I tried to huddle something round me. I 
was only roused by the sight, over some tree tops, 
of a little bit of black crenellated wall. The 
approach to Peking is thus an absolute disappoint- 
ment, for, instead of seeing the grand walls from 
afar standing up out of the yellow plain, here wc 
were creeping round a corner to them. In a few 
minutes we were under the gloom and darkness of 
this vast mass of stones, piled up on high centuries 
ago. But, alas ! that at such a moment imagination 
and sentiment, increased by the difficulties and 
tediousness of the journey, should succumb before 
an increased ordeal of pain, as we now join the 
stone road, and jar over the great crevasses of the 

K 2 

'I il 

t '. 

244 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 


paved way. At last, turning the corner, we enter 
under the massive arch or gateway, deep with 
many feet of thickness, called by the poetical 
name of Hatamen, or the '* Gate of Sublime 
Learning." We are within the outer walls of The 
Forbidden City. 

Then we find ourselves in a sandy waste, 
bordered by the wall of the Tartar City on one 
side and the canal on the other. Little clouds of 
dust rising in the distance tell of some cart or 
donkey, and we ourselves continue enveloped in 
the same as we choose any track we please, for 
there is, of course, again no road for another weary 
mile or so. Some flag-poles in the distance bring 
a ray of comfort, for I shrewdly hope that they 
mean the quarter of the Legations. Nor is my 
hope ill-founded, for, passing through a dirty 
passage, we emerge into the moving streets and are 
soon in Legation Street, so called from the lion- 
guarded entrances of the various legations, for the 
French, the American, the German, and the 
Russian Envoys are grouped here. We find ac- 
commodation in one of the numerous courts of the 
French hotel in this aristocratic street. The sense 
of comfort of sitting still and not momentaril)- 
expecting a concussion is simply delicious. We 
are full of admiration for the physical bravery 
and endurance of the many travellers, who for two 
days or for eighty miles go in these carts from 

The Yellow Laud. 


Tinit^chan to I'ckiiii;, throui]fli such a proloni^cd 

The British Legation is over the bridge with an 
entrance off the Yu-ho canal. And here, the 
next morning, Sir John and Lady Walsham sent 
for us and received us most hospitably. 

This beautiful Legation was formerly a Palace 
belonging to a member of the Imperial Family, 
as is shown by ils green roof. The approach to 
the entrance is through an aisle and raised pave- 
ment, formed by two magnificent open gateways 
supported by pillars, and gorgeously decorated in 
gold, scarlet, green, and blue. The palace wanders 
round the spacious enclosure of a courtyard ; 
and the reception-rooms, with their lofty ceilings 
inlaid like a temple in green and gold squares, with 
their hanging screens of that beautiful Chinese 
black oak carving, are magnificent. The walls are 
of open work filled in with dull gold papers, and 
furnished, as these rooms are, with handsome 
brocades, soft carpets, and rich hangings, chosen 
to harmonize with the surroundings, the whole is 
truly regal. 

The compound is large, and contains the bun- 
cjalows and houses of the Legation Staff, and the 
separate apartments of the Student Interpreters, of 
whom there are six. And a very happy little 
community of twenty-two persons they appear to 
be, led by Lady Walsham, who is most hospit- 

1 ' 


246 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

ably inclined, and living their life within the four 
walls of the compound, which they rarely leave, 
except for social duties, to pass into the outside 
filth and dust. 

From the windows of our rooms, overshadowed 
by the deep eaves supported on enormous red 
wooden pillars, we look out on a succession of 
peaked roofs, inlaid with green tiles and blue 
decorations, with rows of pretty little green 
dragons perched on the ridges, whilst crescent- 
shaped ornaments depending from the roof, wave 
with each breath of wind. 



A CURIOUS difficulty arises in The Celestial City. 
It is that of locomotion. How arc we to get 
about with no carriages, and only those abominable 
agonizing carts to drive in } We end by taking 
refuge on the humble donkey, and every time we 
went out messengers had to be sent to the walls 
to charter the best attainable animals. 

Great mandarins and ministers-plenipotentiary 
go in chairs, but smaller fry are not allowed to use 
them, besides which they are prohibitorily expen- 
sive. Even the late Marquis Tseng, when he re- 
turned from his embassy to Europe, was at first 
denied the privilege of a chair, that he might 
understand that, although great in England, he 
was small in China. For the Secretaries, ponies 
are the chosen mode of locomotion by day, and 
fifty ponies stand in the Legation stables. At night 
all must walk, lantern in hand, or go in a cart. 
So it is with the ladies. Carriages are unknown 
and impossible, with the result that the majority 







1.25 1.4 


.4 6" — 














(716) 872-4503 


,% «j 


24c^ Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

make, as I have said, a sweet prison of the coni- 
poiind, and lawn tennis has votaries amonq;- .ill 

The sky is clear and blue, with a north wind 
bringin*^ a deliciously crisp feeling into the air, 
suitable to this October month. The climate of 
PekiniT offers a redeeminn^ feature to the Euro- 
peans who are isolated here. For the next six 
months this cloudless sky is uninterrupted. Rain 
is unknown for nine months together, from July to 
April, and the worst season is the rainy one of 
May and June, when the steamy heat is most 
trying. The winter is perfect — cold, but with warm 
sun in the middle of the day, and the snow that 
falls, but occasionally, is soon dispersed by the 

Moreover, Peking is fortunate in having a 
summer resort close at hand in the Western Hills, 
some fifteen miles distant. Here the Legation 
lives for the hot months, in a privately-rented 
group of Temples, The dust storms are the 
scourge of the town ; from the crumbling " loess " 
and alkaline nature of the soil, they sweep in 
blinding clouds over the plain, and are most 
irritating in their fortnightly recurrence. The air 
is so intensely bracing and dry, as to unpleasantly 
affect the skin. 

The first thing to do is to grasp the topography 
of the Celestial Metropolis, with its city within 

The Cc/cs/ia/ City 


city, and wall within wall. Wo return to the Gate 
of Sublime Learning,-, and ascend by it on to the 
great Tartar Wall. 

Pekinc^ is spread out at our feet. We can trace 
out the four Walls, each containing a separate 
town. The outer and lower ramparts surround 
the Chinese cit\'. The next exclude the abodes 
of the conquered from those of the Conqueror. 
Here upon the higher ground were assigned, two 
hundred and fifty years ago, spacious residences 
for the Tartar Bannermen. Within the Tartar 
town again, and surrounded by its defenders, is tlie 
Imperial city, and enclosed again, securely inside 
this, with further moats and guard-houses, is the 
Wall of the Forbidden City itself. 

These Walls are from fifty feet high, to forty and 
sixty feet wide. They are built on massive stone 
foundations, brt the walls themselves are of brick, 
filled in with mud. How have these common black 
bricks survived the crumbling of ages ? But, 
except where the base has been marauded for the 
sake of the yellow clay of the mortar, they are as 
solid as the day they were constructed. At 
intervals of three hundred yards there are massive 
flying buttresses, and a crenellated parapet crowns 
the summit. They are pierced with many gate- 
ways, for there are nine to the Tartar city, and 
eight for the Chinese. Each gate is surmounted 
by a square tower of many storeys, loopholed for 

250 Newfoundland to CocJiin China. 

archers and musketeers, and with quaint heavy 
black roofs, decorated often in gay colours. 

Poetical names mark these Gates, such as *' The 
Eastern Straight Gate," *' The Gate of Peace and 
Tranquillity," " Of Attained Victory," " The Gate 
of Just Law," " The Western and Eastern Gate of 
Expediency." These vast fortifications extend for 
twenty miles, and enclose an area of twenty-five 
square miles. They arc all that you see from 
whichever side you approach the cily, for they are 
loftier than the loftiest interior pagoda or tower. 
They are the most impressive and venerable 
sight, and alone would be worth coming to sec. 

We are walking on the top of this Wall of the 
Tartar city — over the ancient grass-grown pave- 
ment — commanding a splendid view of the 
Chinese capital, in the early morning light. The 
pale grey haze over the Western Mountains points 
the direction where lie the ruins of that beautiful 
Summer Palace, magnificent even in its decaying 
fragments, standing for ever as a reproach to the 
allies, but fit judgment on the barbarous cruelty 
of a civilized nation. From this bird's-eye view, 
Peking appears so buried in trees, that it is hard 
to believe that its teeming streets, with a popula- 
tion variously estimated at from 400,000 to 800,000, 
is immediately below. We are so far above it, 
that even the street cries and calls come up in a 
softened murmur. 


" The 
ce and 
e Gate 
jate of 
}nd for 
i from 
ley are 

I of the 
1 pave- 
f the 
to the 
e view, 
s hard 
ove it, 
in a 




The Celestial City, 


We can distinguish the black roofs of several 
temples,and the bright green-tiled ones that denote 
the abode of a Prince of the Blood, called the First 
or the Tenth Prince, in gradation of propinquity. 
Over there now the sun is shining and gleaming 
from the many yellow-tiled roofs of the Imperial 
palaces of that Forbidden City, where shrouded in 
mystery, unseen by his people, dwells the Emperor 
who holds sway over a fourth of the human race. 

For about two miles we walk upon the ramparts, 
which would make a splendid promenade, turning 
the corner of the square by the Eastern Straight 
Gate, which is beautiful with its pagoda newly- 
decorated for the recent passage of the Sovereign. 
The roof is formed of dark crenellated tiles, with 
deep outward curving lines, underneath which is 
a lovely inlaid mosaic in vivid blue and green tiles, 
whilst the green bronze dragons with twisted tails 
are perched in single file along the curving sweep. 
From point to point of the gracefully arched line, 
suspend crescent-shaped eyes, that tremble in 
the breeze. And each of the numerous gates have 
equally fine pagodas, so that in our wanderings we 
were always coming back to one of these familiar 

But a difficulty occurs. We wish to descend 
from the wall. There is a ramp ; but at the bottom 
a locked and spiked gate. We call for a ladder, 
without result. Pulled by the guide, pushed from 




252 Newfoundland to Cochin Cliiiia, 

below, \vc scramble up «ind over a nine-foot wall. 
It was not dignified, and the crowd was amused at 
our quandary. 

We are making our way towards the Tower 
which leans against the City Wall, belonging to 
the observatory. 

We pass into a shady courtyard to gaze upon 
the very instruments whereat Marco Polo 
wondered in his famous travels. There are two 
planispheres, an Astrolabe of great size, cast in 
bronze, and supported on twisted dragons of ex- 
quisite workmanship, and which are probably the 
best specimens of bronze work in Eastern Asia. 
Ascending up some damp stone steps, we find our- 
selves on the top of the Tower, and inside a finely 
wrought iron railing, where there is a gigantic Globe 
of the Heavens, with the planets yet marked in re- 
lief on the surface. Also a quadrant, sextant, 
and sundial ; while the large Azimuth instrument 
in the corner was a present to the Emperor 
Kanghai from Louis XIV. 

And these instruments are as perfect as they 
were when placed here 300 years ago. Indeed, 
some of these are still used by the Astronomical 
Board for their observations. It brings home to 
us the fact that we must never ignore for a 
moment, whilst living in China, that in the earliest 
centuries she was far ahead in civilization of any 
country in the world. But while the West has 

The Celestial Cily, 

1 - ■» 

gone rapidly onward, overtaking and outstripping 
the East, China, self-contained and shut off from 
contact with all other nations, has remained 
stationary, so that much we see around us dates 
from that era. The Chinese are under the im- 
pression that there is no nation equal to theirs. 
They suppose themselves the centre of civilization 
for the last 2000 years, and claim that China knew 
the art of printing, invented gunpowder, and was 
learned in astronomy, long before us. They con- 
sider that China is the middle of the Universe, as is 
shown by the name, which, in their language, 
signifies " The Middle Kingdom." They look 
upon themselves as superior to us, as we think 
ourselves to them, calling us Barbarians, and con- 
sidering all European nations as such. As a 
nation they never travel, and are down-trodden 
by the conservatism of the Mandarins, who, risen 
from the people, wish to retain their superiority by 
keeping the lower classes under. 

The real interest of Peking lies in its intense age. 
The city is 4000 years old. Conquered by the 
Mongols, or the *' Golden Horde," who, in their 
turn were overthrown by the Tartars, Peking of the 
present day is built, like Rome, upon the ruins of 
many cities. The description of the famous 
Venetian traveller is as true to-day as it was when 
written m the thirteenth century. It is in this 
wondrously preserved life of the middle ages that 

254 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 


the curiosity remains ; it is because we sec the 
streets under their primitive conditions of dirt, 
before ideas of sanitation were dreamt of, because 
we can look on the carts that were in use at a 
period corresponding with our conquest by the 
Norman — on the wheelbarrows with the single 
wheel, which creaks as loudly now as it did then, 
on the wells with their Eastern earthenware jars, 
and the water drawn as in the pictures of Isaac and 
Rebecca — on those great Walls, then necessary for 
protection from the wild hordes that scoured the 
plains, and where the gates are still closed, in ac- 
cordance with the ancient custom, at sundown. It 
is all the same. We might have fallen into a Rip 
Van Winkle sleep at Tientsin, and awoke in the 
streets of the Celestial Capital in the middle of the 
dark ages. 

There is one thing which impresses itself in- 
delibly on the mind, and is called to remembrance 
with the first mention of Peking. It is the dirt ! 
the dirt I the dirt! 

It is impossible to conceive of such awful filth, 
and, unless you have seen it, I defy anyone to have 
the faintest idea of the sights and smells of this city 
of the Flowery Land. The condition of the streets 
is the same as it was B.C. If they were described 
faithfully and in detail, common decencies, would 
be violated, even as they are but too openly. Let 

The Celestial City, 


it suflfice to say that they reek with refuse, garbage, 
and decaying matter of every description ; that 
the houses throw out into dry pits, dug anywhere 
in the road, their pig's wash and offal, and that tlie 
putrefaction and decay fills the air with noisome 
smells that overpower you at every turn. Filth and 
refuse you soon grow hardened to in Peking, but 
occasionally some particularly nauseous sight, such 
as a dead dog in a far advanced stage of decompo- 
sition, or a cat with the entrails protruding, un- 
nerves you again. 

Wherever there is water you may be sure that it 
is a stagnant pool of liquid filth, covered with green 
slime, and containing untold horrors if stirred up. 
Also, if you pass down even the comparatively 
clean Legation Street, in the wake of the watering- 
cart, the stench from the stirred-up dust is unbear- 
able. Men are seen going along with baskets on 
their backs, carefully collecting with a bamboo 
pronged fork every morsel of manure, for this is 
the only kind that the Chinese use, chemical 
fertilizers being unknown. Fortunately, too, there 
are hundreds of pariah dogs, many evil-looking 
beasts, who, with their sharp noses, are busy turn- 
ing over the most unsavoury heaps, or lie asleep 
gorged in the m'ddle of the narrow roads. Also 
the pigs, great coarse-haired masses of fat (the 
Chinese pig is a peculiarly revolting species) 








256 Neiofonndland lo Cochin China. 

wallowing in the foul slush. ICnough ! In every 
place and corner are revolting sights, unfit for a 
civilized community. 

Then there is the dust. It adds to the iin 
l)lcasantness of going about. Such dust as it is, 
all-pervading, all-pcnetrating, leaving a pungent 
smell in your clothes, so that I soon found out 
that it is necessary to keep a special costume to 
face it. Once outside the Compound, you find 
yourself in the jostle and crowd, the shouts and 
disorder of the streets, and as a curt or horseman 
passes, a cloud is raised that obscures everything 
for the moment ; and so it is that, for half the 
time you are out you see nothing for the dust, 
and for the other half only through a dim veil 
of the same. At sundown the state of affairs is 
made worse by the succession of mules, pur- 
posely loosened to roll over and over. 

Lastly there is the incredible state of the roads, 
with their deep holes in the very middle of the 
busiest thoroughfares, with huge stones lying 
across, or a steep embankment, round which you 
must diverge. There is this excuse, that the 
soil, owing to its light and porous nature, aided 
by the extreme dryness of many months of the 
year, easily shifts with the wind. If the dust is 
intolerable, what must it be in winter, when it 
is turned into a quagmire of black mud or 
sludge ? It is no uncommon thing for a mule to be 

The Celestial City. 


drowned in the streets. He falls into this soft 
morass and, unable to get a footing, perishes within 
sight of the bystanders. 

There is yet another and a more unpleasant 
dr.uvback to be met with, in going about the 
streets of Peking. The Chinese, but particularly 
the Tartar and Manchu part of the popula- 
tion, dislike Europeans, and openly insult 
us as we pass along, jeering and laughing in a 
most offensive manner, and obviously making the 
rudest observations. Even the little children 
come out and call us foul names, of which Bar- 
barian and Foreign or Red-Haired Devils are the 
mildest terms— language which they must have 
become familiar with by hearing it used by their 
parents. There are several places where Euro- 
peans are almost invariably stoned, and public 
feeling has been intensified by these late unfor- 
tunate riots on the Yangtze. 

In the afternoon we go into the Chinese town, 
passing through the great Chien-men or Front 
Gate. Inside this there is a large blank square, 
formed by the meeting walls of the Chinese and 
Tartar cities, which are pierced by four arch- 
ways. The centre entrance is only opened and 
used by the Emperor on the occasion of his 
yearly visit to the Temple of Heaven. But 
through the others that connect the towns, 
there is a constant moving, hurrying crush of 


258 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 



people, the two streams meeting and blockin 
the arch. 

We lift up and pass under some black draperies 
and find ourselves in the Chinese bazaar — in a 
passage one yard wide and completely covered in. 
The shops are a succession of rooms, raised on 
a step from the earth passage and all open in 
front, where you can buy fancy articles and arti- 
ficial flowers. There are the pretty jade pins, 
which form the centre for the shiny coil of hair 
worn by the Chinese women, long earrings and 
bracelets of the same, mandarin buttons in 
coloured stones, clocks, porcelain, shoes, and silk 
embroideries. It is the quaintest and prettiest of 
Eastern arcades, with the afternoon sun pene- 
trating the bamboo blinds in shafts of light, 
lighting the picturesque groups of buyers and 
sellers squatted on the floors. The three-foot 
passage is blocked by a curious crowd, assisting 
in our purchases. . 

We penetrate yet further into the Chinese 
city, across a stone bridge and through a dan- 
gerous open square — a meeting of ways — where 
cratos of merchandise, carts drawn by tandem 
bullocks and mules, palanquins, wheelbarrows 
with baskets of liquid manure running over, 
horses and donkeys, are all mingled together, 
going and coming in different directions. Yes ! 
Sir Edwin Arnold, you speak truly of 

The Celestial City, 


"The painted streets alive with hum of words, 
The traders cross-legged, mid their spice and grain, 
'ihe buyers with their money in the cloth. 
The war of words to cheapen this or that, 
The shout to clear the road, the huge stone wheels. 
The strong slow oxen and their rustling loads, 
The singing bearers with their palanquins. 
The broad-necked hamals sweating in the sun." 

Then we go up a narrow street, tortuous and 
dirty, to another bazaar where there are nothing 
but lantern, fan, and picture shops. 

Half an hour in these streets gives you more 
idea of Chinese life than all the books of travel 
you may read in a life-time. 

Peking beggars description, still let me try to 
give some idea of what we see. 

Here we are in a narrow lane. This is the 
aristocratic quarter where the mandarins and 
officials live. There are a succession of mud- 
plastered walls, roofed at the top and presenting 
an absolutely blind appearance to the road, which, 
when combined with the always dilapidated con- 
dition of the latter, gives the most deserted and 
squalid impression. Opposite the entrance are 
hung tablets, indicating the offices and titles of 
the householder. They are on a blank wall, for 
you must observe that the entrance into a Chinese 
house is never straight. It always winds, and this 
is supposed to be a defence against the incursion 
of evil spirits, for the latter can happily only go 
straight. For the same reason we see the little 

s 2 

26o Newfoundlarid to Cochin China. 

children wearing their pig-tails plaited at the side of 
the head, so that the evil spirit, not finding anything 
to grip at the back, is unable to catch hold of them. 
In the houses of poor people, who cannot afford 
such elaborate precautions, there is always a mud 
screen erected in front of the door. Let us go 
inside. We find ourselves in a succession of 
courts, surrounded by low buildings, where a 
family and its branches reside, to the number some- 
times of 200 persons. There are separate build- 
ings for the cooking, eating, sleeping, and living, 
but the family all live together. As our " boy " 
said, when we inquired about these houses, 
" Family man live there." Truly one, indeed. 
Yet there is something to be admired about this 
family life, this care of aged parents and luckless 

The streets with shops, present the most wonder- 
ful vista of untidy ends of tattered rags flying 
from poles, of dingy decorations of strips of paper 
or cloth hanging over the doorways. The houses 
have a mean appearance, being only of one story, 
and their walls, unless they are of mud, consist of 
carved wood openwork, covered in wi 'i tattered 
yellow paper. I think I may truly say that I never 
saw one, where the paper was not torn and dis- 
coloured. Occasionally you come upon a shop, 
bright with the names of the goods written in gold 
and scarlet or green. They were originally all 

The Celestial City 


like this, and this one is only recently finished, 
yet in a few months will become as dull and dirty 
as the rest. Everything is allowed to run to decay. 
The Chinese never seem to think it necessary to 

A street in Peking. 

repair or re-decorate, and the climate powerfully 
aids in this destruction. 

In many of the streets, the road is raised on an 
embankment of loose dust, and then bordered by 
an empty space, where the garbage of the dwelling- 


262 Newfoimdland to Cochin China. 

house is increased by the refuse from the various 
trades pursued in it, and which is thrown out in- 
discriminately to fester and decay in the hot sun, 
or it is occupied by cheap-jacks who lay their 
goods in the dust, hawking and crying their wares. 
Here are rows of lanterns with a primitive wooden 
receptacle for the lamp, filled in with opaque 
paper, and frequent watch-houses, whence the 
watchmen patrol the city at night with the muffled 
beat of a gong. 

The life in these streets, straggling, ill-compacted, 
and grimy as they are, is yet full of vivid interest. 
Not that these open shop fronts, or grimy pig-tailed 
men, can compare with the fascinating life of a 
dear little Japanese street. Here is a tea-house, 
with the distinguishing sign of ornamental green 
and gold wooden drums outside, and inside a 
crowd sitting cross-legged on benches, each with 
a bowl and chopsticks held within an inch of 
his nose, shovelling his food rapidly into his 
mouth. There a man with rows of little black 
b"" spread out before his shop ; he is a coal 
n.-.-nant, and these balls are made of clay mixed 
with coal dust — a most economical method of 
firing. That house in tl:e middle with glazed 
windows is a bank, and \\ henever we see a parti- 
cularly bright exterior, we may be sure that it 
belongs to a pawnbroker, for he does a large busi^ 
ness, the Chinese being ever ready to pawn their all 

The Celestial City, 


for a good gamble or perhaps a whiff of ppium, as 
some unfortunates at home will do for a last drink. 
I'here is a man squatted on the ground, shaking 
some sticks in a bamboo-holder. He is largely- 
patronized, men coming and going and choosing 
out a stick and putting it back with either a pleasing 
or dissatisfied look. He is a fortune-teller. Or 
there is a group intent on a game of hazard, when 
the stakes in question arc a few cash. Yes ! these 
Chinese are certainly inveterate gamblers, and 
would gamble their food, their clothing, anything 
away. Or it is a juggler with a simple apparatus 
giving a street performance, and many of our best 
trir' are, as we see, borrowed from the Chinese 
- ..juror. 

Then the coffin shops, piled high with those 
ponderous sarcophagi hewn out of a single tree- 
trunk, so thick, so substantial, warranted to last 
for generations, and there is no sending for one in 
a hurry, for generally the coffin has been waiting 
in the house for years for its occupant. The 
funeral furnishers also do a thriving business, for 
wc see many of them, hung inside with the green 
paraphernalia, the lanterns, carrying pagodas and 
poles that make up such an imposing procession. 
So do the wedding contractors, which we distinguish 
from the undertakers by their red decorations. 

Then there are the carpenters and ironmongers, 
the blacksmiths and the book-shops, the laundries 




264 Neivjomidland to Cochin China. 

and the barbers, and those of other trades, all of 
which are easily distinguished at a glance, in 
the open shops, where the work is carried on 
within view of the world, adding tenfold to the 
interest of the streets. The travelling cobbler is 
frequently seated at the corner of a thoroughfare, 
repairing the soft felt soles of the Chinese shoes. 
The itinerant musician is seen under an awning 
with his book and drum, singing to an attentive 
audience seated round a table. In all these shops, 
there is a whirligig round which an incense-burning 
tube is smouldering, and which marks the flight of 
time. Watch this shopman give change. He 
produces often from up his sleeve, or from round 
his neck, heavy strings of copper " cash." Now as 
1200 of these go to make up a dollar, the counting 
of the change is a matter of patience. It is a 
cumbrous monetary system, but well in keeping 
with all that is Chinese. 

We are in the midst of a moving scene of life. 
Here the descendant of the Tartar soldiery carrying 
a cage of performing birds, or a stick with a 
chaffinch tied to it. It is the thing perhaps that 
he values most of all his possessions, and you will 
often see the Manchu kneeling on the grass, 
collecting grasshoppers on which to feed his 
favourite. Very cruel to them also they often are, 
sewing up their eyes so that they cannot see to 
escape. There is a soldier in uniform of bright 

The Celestial City. 


Imperial , yellow bordered with crimson, carrying 
an antique matchlock with long stock, and a flint 
in his belt. Soon after another passes on a pony 
with arquebus and arrows slung across his back, 
for all Chinese soldiers must, as in the days of 
Agincourt, be expert archers. 

Here is a caravan of camels bearing loads of tea 
(and connoisseurs always prefer that which has 
thus travelled overland, to the tea transported by 
sea), with their slow, stealthy, deliberate walk, 
and contemptuous turned-up noses, tied together 
by the rope passed through the ring in the nose, 
attached to the tail of the preceding one. The 
last of the string has a bell which keeps slow 
and solemn time with his dignified walk, and the 
driver does not trouble about the end of the file, 
unless the stopping of the bell tells him there is 
something amiss. A flock of sheep are being 
driven down that walled lane. They arc white 
with black spots, and have the great lumps of fat 
on their haunches peculiar to the breed of Eastern 
sheep. If we follow to where they are going, to 
the butcher's shop, we shall see the disgusting 
scene presented by a slaughter-house open to the 
street. The animals will be torn asunder, joint 
by joint, whilst still warm, with the blood stream- 
ing, and entrails laid bare. 

A blue palanquin, with many bearers, is being 
carried along. There is a great mandarin squatted 

266 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

inside on the floor, and we can just sec the hand- 
some magnate with his embroidered robes lined 
with sable, his turned-iip velvet hat with the pea- 
cock's feather stuck out straight behind, the red, 
blue, or white button on which indicates his rank. 
He wears the red, and is going to the Yamen or 
Ministry. He is preceded by a retinue of 
mounted servants, who summarily clear the way, 
with the whip if necessary, and their number 
announces to the world the rank and importance 
of their master. Now there gallop past us a 
party of wild-looking Tartars, veritable barbarians 
they look, with their yellow faces, short lank hair 
and fur caps. Comes along next, a wheelbarrow, 
with the excruciating squeak of the single front 
wheel, while the merchandise is neatly balanced 
in baskets on either side. It is a perpetual wonder 
how they maintain their equilibrium, especially 
when, as at Shanghai, they are used for passengers, 
and there is only one seated on the side. 

Now we must make way for this long cart, 
crowded with passengers, which corresponds to 
our ominibus ; also for that uncouth-looking 
waggon, with its piebald team of a single pony in 
the shafts, with a troika of two donkeys and a 
mule roped in front. Again and again these 
curiously mixed teams excite our mirth, the 
wheeler being often the smaller animal of the 
whole. Then there is the never-ceasing stream of 

The Celestial City. 


those blue and black covered carts, of which we 
retain such a lively horror since our journey from 
Tungchau, and out of many, jeer the Chinese ladies, 
looking with scorn at the " Barbarian's wife " 
riding a donkey, whilst they arc boxed up safely 
inside, with a curtain in front, and guarded by an 
armah (or maid) seated on the shafts. 

Add to all these sights, crowds of donkeys, 
small and wiry, with their padded saddles on a 
wooden frame, with a bulging Chinamin with 
swinging pigtail seated far back, and with his 
legs tucked up, trotting along — of horsemen on 
rough Tartar ponies, generally white in colour, and 
which run along at a great pace, so that there is 
no rising in the saddle, and lastly the mules, a 
beautiful breed, large and strong, with glossy 
coats, cruelly bitted, with a double bit and wire 
over the upper gums. 

We have grown so accustomed to John China- 
man, with his innocent yellow face, so smooth 
and hairless, — except when as a grandfather he 
wears a moustache, — his obliquely -slit eyes, and his 
flowing pigtail, v/ith plaited ends of cord and 
tassels, that we have ceased to observe him. We 
are now quite familiar with his baggy pantaloons, 
which sometimes he binds tightly to the ankle — 
with his turned-up hat with velvet brim, or eight- 
sided cap, always with coloured button atop — with 
his looso blue coat fastened by two buttons on one 

I ; 


. I 



268 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 

shoulder, with the sleeves hanging long over the 
hands, and that serve him as pockets. It is 
beginning to get cold, so that the wadded coats 
worn in winter are coming into general use. 
"Whilst there is a level monotony of colour in the 
lower classes, the upper have the most gorgeous 
brocaded coats of crimson, blue, and purple, with 
pantaloons of other colours, that combine in pleas- 
ing effect. Some of the men have the long claw 
nail, but only on the little finger, in token that 
they do no manual labour, and a disgusting sight 
it is to see this transparent substance of several 
inches in length, bending backwards and forwards, 
as they use their hands. 

The pigtail ! What is it for } What is its origin ? 
It is simple. The Tartars were few, the Chinese 
many. Let not the latter see this and be tempted 
to say : '* Arise, drive out the conqueror." Let 
them shave three-fourths of the head ; let the back 
hair grow long and braid it into a bridle as is the 
Tartar custom. The pigtail was intended as a 
mark of subjection to signify to the Chinese that, 
even as it resembled a horse's tail, so might they be 
driven like one, whilst the cuff of the official sleeve 
to this day is cut into the shape of a horseshoe. 

Such, says tradition, was the Manchu order, and 
off came at a stroke the heads of the disobedient. 
Two generations pass, and the Chinese love the 
pigtail, as they do to-day, and dread the agents of 

The Celestial City, 


the Secret Society snipping it here and there, as 
an insult to the Tartar. 

The Chinese ladies are plain. They wear their 
black hair plastered from a fiat parting on cither 
side of the face, and with bunches of artificial 
flowers and tinsel stuck in, behind the car, from 
which depend long green jade earrings. Others 
have their hair drawn up over a comb, to form a 
top knot, rising about four inches above the head. 
There is yet a still more curious fashion of dress- 
ing the hair into a plait wired, so as to stand out 
from the nape of the neck in a stiff curve, just like 
the tail of a cat. It has a most peculiar appear- 
ance. Has it ever struck you, when travelling, as 
it has me, how very nearly all the nations of the 
world have black hair, the English, Germans and 
Swedes being nearly the only exceptions > The 
Chinese women smear their faces with rouge, 
beginning by placing one brilliant vermilion spot 
under the lower lip. They wear the same dress 
as the men, loose trousers and coats, and their 
clothes are of the brightest colours — violent greens, 
blues and purples, richly embroidered in gold or 
silver tissue, and rainbow tints. They wear 
many bangles and rings of jade or crystal, and a 
silver circle round the neck. They too have the 
long nails, but on all their fingers. We bought 
some of the pretty silver claws of immense curving 
length, which they use as shields. 


270 Nc7vfoundland to Cochin China, 

Oh ! to see these poor women totter alon^, Just 
balancing, ready to fall at every step, with their 
poor little crippled feet. The weight of a fair- 
sized woman is supported on a pair of green or 

blue pointed boots, mea- 
suring not more than four 
inches in length. Ifwc 
could look inside, we 
should rind the toes laid 
flat under the sole of the 
foot, the great toe meet- 
ing the heel. From the 
moment the bandages 
are put on the children, 
which is at the age of 
three or four, they are 
never removed, however 
painful the swelling, but 
drawn tighter and tighter 
until the deformity is 
complete. In the upper 
classes many of the ladies 
have to be carried or 
supported on either side by an armah when 
they walk. And yet they arc so proud of their 
feet, they are such a marriageable commodity, 
for big feet are sufficient ground, even to-day, 
for a refusal to proceed with a contract of 
matrimony, that many are solely deterred from 

Her Ladyship's Foot. 

The Celestial City. 


adopting Christianity by the obligations, imposed 
by the missionaries, of ordinary feet. A Chinese 
mandarin who had studied " England : as she was, 
and as she is," said to a friend : " You English 
seem very fond of your Queen — but is it possible 
that you allow yourselves to be governed by a 
woman, however good, with big feet ? " 

It is a comfort here, to meet with the larger 
and handsomer Manchu women, who come from 
Manchuria in Northern China, and are not thus 
deformed. We always distinguish these latter by 
tlieir wonderful head-dress, which consists of a 
piece of jade, one foot long, and exactly resembling 
a paper cutter placed across the head to project 

from ear to ear, and 

round which the hair is 





Now for some of the sights of Peking. 

A long hour and a half s ride on donkeys from 
the British Legation, brings us to the vicinity of 
the great temple of Confucius. 

We find ourselves on a straight, dusty road, 
with a gateway at the end. It was through that 
gateway, and down this same road, that the British 
troops passed, when in i860 they marched into 

We are frequently seeing painted wooden arch- 
ways, called Peilaus. These memorial arches are 
found all over China. They are only erected by 
express permission of the Emperor, to good and 
public-spirited persons — to a great man who has 
given a large sum of money (often solely for this 
object), or to a widow who has been sufficiently 
virtuous to remain faithful to her husband's 
memory. Like everything else, they are generally 
crumbling or falling crooked. 

The approach to the Temple is through a road 

The Forbidden City, 


with a succession of blank walls, the temple itself 
being equally well surrounded. Here we see a 
man doing penance, shut up in a yellow box, and 
striking a bell with a wooden lever at intervals. 
His punishment will last a month, and if we could 
see inside, very likely the box is lined with spikes 
or nails, so arranf>"! that they prick the sinner if 
he changes his position. Sometimes it is a means 
resorted to to obtain money to build a temple. 
"Give, oh! give. 1000/. I must collect before I 
am released from this cell." 

Foreigners are often refused entrance to the 
Confucian Temple. We parley, too, through a 
crack in the door, and are told " No, big man is 
coming." But as usual, greed, in the shape of 
the golden key that accomplishes most things, 
conquers, and amid a rush of dirty on-lookers, 
who find entrance with us as the gate is opened, 
we pass inside the court of the temple of the 
Great Teacher. This court is solemn and silent, 
neglected and deserted, with its dusky groves of 
cryptomerias and cooing grey doves. The paved 
pathway leads up to some steps, that pass on 
either side of a raised stone slab, covered with 
ancient hieroglyphics, and embossed dragons with 
wonderfully twisted tails. In the inner court is 
the temple itself, with a roof of brilliant yellow 
tiles, and surrounded by pagodas and smaller 
halls similarly tiled. 



: " ». 


274 Newfoundland to Cochin Ckitia. 

We ascend to a marble terrace with balustrades. 
The door of the temple is thrown open, and forth 
rushes a smell of damp air, and as the gloom 
dissipates we cross some matting, raising clouds 
of dust. By degrees the lofty proportions of the 
massive hall, with its roof of blue and green, sup- 
ported on colossal teak pillars of wood, painted a 
dull red, begin to dawn upon us. We see in the 
centre the shrine to Confucius, a humble red 
wooden tablet, set on a table, bearing this inscrip- 
tion : " The Tablet of the Soul of the Most Holy 
Ancestral Teacher, Confucius." On either side 
are tablets to the four most distinguished sages, 
whilst the others, in a lower position, are for the 
next best celebrated men of the Confucianist 
school. And this is the Literary Temple in which 
the Example and Teacher of all Ages, and ten of 
his great disciples, worshipped. " All is simple, 
quiet, and cheerless, fit place for contemplation, 
and suitable for the Great Thought-giver." 

The Emperor comes here twice a year to wor- 
ship the venerated sage, and every sovereign, in 
token of veneration, presents a " Tablet of Praise." 
Each inscription is different, and presents some 
aspect of his influence ; he is called, " Of all men 
the Unrivalled," " Equal to Heaven and Earth," and 
" Example and Teacher of all /\ges." In another 
court are seen the celebrated stone drums. They 
are ten in number, of grey granite or stone, and 

The Forbidden City. 


are believed to date from the eighth century I5.C., 
or to be about 2700 years old. The writing on 
them is in the old Seal character, and consists of 
stanzas relating to King Siien's hunting expedi- 
tions. They are the oldest things in a country 
where everything is of such antiquity. 

On the opposite side of the court is the Hall of 
the Triennial Examinations for the highest Literary 
Degree, the Chinese Doctor of Literature. "In 
commemoration of each examination, a stone is 
erected with the names of all the doctors. The 
oldest are three of the Mongol dynasty, and the 
Peking University has therefore a complete list 
for 500 years of its graduates." 

Then we cross over to the Classic Hall, where 
the Emperor meets the literati and graduates to 
hear, and sometimes theoretically to pronounce a 
literary address. In the centre of the court there 
is a pagoda, crowned with a wonderful gold knob 
(like a mandarin's button at the top of his hat), 
and surrounded by an extremely gracefully- 
wrought marble trellis-work, enclosing a moat of 
sluggish green water. Opposite to it is a beautiful 
yellow porcelain arch, in three divisions, inter- 
woven with green tiles, forming a vivid contrast, 
yet blending into a harmonious whole. There 
are other pagodas, containing those curious 
memorials, of a pyramidal stone resting on the 
back of a tortoise. These are, of course, 

T 2 

\ i 

276 N ewfoundland to Cochin China. 

also to the memory of distinguished literati. 
Open sheds surround the court, and inside 
the black palings, are the benches where the 
students sit, when the Emperor comes to hear the 
address delivered, and behind, against the wall, 
the 300 precious tablets, on which are engraved 
the authorized texts of the classics, the oldest 
remains of ancient Chinese literature. Plenty of 
other temples for ordinary worshippers we see, 
and always know them by the two poles outside, 
with gold knobs on the top. 

We return to the city down a road which leads 
past the Drum and Bell towers, great pagoda- 
like structures, pierced by solid archways on each 
side, standing near together, both 100 feet high. 
The drum is sounded at every hour through the 
long night watches, and can be heard all over the 
city. A clepsdra is still kept to mark the time, a 
good instance of Chinese conservatism. Near 
here is the temple where Sir Harry Parkes and Sir 
Henry Loch were confined for the latter part of 
the time they were prisoners in Peking. Until 
recently their names could still be seen written on 
the wall, which, however, has lately been white- 
washed, perhaps purposely. Just before turning 
into the Meishan we catch a glimpse, in the far 
distance, of the beautiful Marble Bridge, spanning 
a lake filled with lotus. " Standing on this bridge, 
one overlooks a great part of the Imperial palace. 

The Forbidden City, 


The banks of the lake are studded with castles, 
temples, and gardens," but this, alas ! like so much 
else in Peking, is closed to foreigners. 

We now pass into the Imperial City, which is 
guarded within a wall seven miles in length, and 
go down a straight road raised in the centre, the 
sandy waste between it and the shops being in 
possession of cheap-Jacks and old-clothes' men. 
This road is in wonderful repair. The Emperor has 
recently passed over it, and the lanterns are freshly 
papered and water-butts are set ready at intervals. 
Thus the sovereign remains ignorant of the usual 
state of the roads, and knows nothing of the mis- 
application of public funds. The governor of the 
city or of the provinces is responsible for the con- 
dition of the roads, but were His Majesty to elect 
to make frequent journeys, the " squeezes " of the 
mandarins would be ruinous. 

The Chinese legal and moral code is of the 
highest — on paper — but in practice there is a 
system of " squeeze," which rules through the 
length and breadth of the land ; which pervades 
all business dealings, and every department of the 
government, undermining the integrity of the 
country. Everybody must have his " squeeze " 
out of every transaction. The Viceroy " squeezes "; 
the Governor "squeezes "; the judge, the taota'i, 
the smaller mandarins " squeeze " ; for so they 
live. The pay is little or nothing. The office is 

278 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 


valuable in proportion to its power to " squeeze' 
Our *' boy " squeezes us, and back again there is a 
" squeezissima " within the Roj'al City itself. 

And now we stand under the walls of the For- 
bidden City. They are covered with Imperial 
yellow tiles, a deep moat surrounds them, and 


All that is seen of the Forbidden City. 

they are guarded by bannermen. There are but 
two entrances. There, straight before us is the 
Coal Hill, surmounted by a pavilion, within which 
the last of the Ming dynasty terminated the 
life of himself and his Imperial house, when 
the victories of the Tartar invader, the capture of 
the capital, the submission of the provinces, were 
completed. It is an artificial mound, 150 feet 


I !• 

TAe Forbidden City. 


high, and as we proceed round the square of the 
walls, we see behind, amid the woods, the five 
summits, crowned with the five gleaming roofs of 
peacock blue, green and yellow of the pavilions 
and temples of the Prohibited City. Within its 
walls are a park and lake. 

Little else is to be seen beyond the upper walls 
and the yellow roofs of the palaces. There are 
many of them, none apparently of great size. 
But in the centre hall is seated Kw.ang-Su, " The 
Son of Heaven," " The Lord of ten thousand 
years." The youth of twenty-two, who in his 
sixth year, upon " His Majesty the Emperor 
Tung-che suddenly ascending upon the Dragon 
to be a guest on high,'* was called unexpectedly, 
like our own Queen Victoria, from his bed in a 
distant part of the city to be saluted, in default of 
a direct heir, as Emperor of China. Is he the 
happier ? The Imperial life must be dull and 
monotonous beyond bearing for one so young. 
In the Forbidden City his Majesty must find all 
his distractions. To go into the provinces would 
thrice beggar the exchequer. 

There is the Hall of Highest Peace, where his 
Majesty gave rare audience to the representa- 
tives of foreign powers. Once only ! and what 
negotiations it took to bring about ! At length, 
yes ! the Son of Heaven would let the envoys of 
the outer world look on him. But they must 



■-! if 

28o Nezvjoiindland to Cochin China. 

" kotow " thrice on their knees, touch the ground 
with their foreheads, and let the Chinese people 
take it as the bearinfj of tribute. No, the British 
Lion, and the eagles of Monarchs and Republics, 
cannot bend the knee. The point is carried at 
length. " But," says the Council of State, " it is 
only in that outer pavilion that our Lord Buddha 
will greet you." 

The trained consuls report that this again is a 
mark of contempt, and must not be allowed. A more 
fitting place is decided upon. Then shall the 
Prince Ching present the letters of credit of the 
foreign envoys on his knees ? No, that cannot be 
suffered either. Hand to hand must be the com- 
munication of monarch with monarch. 

At length all was arranged. Their Excellencies 
in stars and orders, repair to the palace with their 
staffs. A long wait, with sweetmeats served, and 
then the audience. 

The German minister, as the senior, reads a short 
address, and the envoys are named. Prince Ching 
takes their several letters of credit, and places them 
before the Son of Heaven. He kneels, and the 
Imperial youth speaks low a few words. 

The president of the Tsung Li Yamen goes to 
the ministers, and repeats them. The audience is 
over — the spell is broken. But even now our old 
friend the Austrian minister. Baron Biegeleben, is 
finding great difficulty in arranging for the fitting 




I the 














I I' 



^ * 



The Forbidden City, 


reception of his Imperial and Apostolic Majesty's 

It is time this nonsense ceased. If China is 
within the pale of nations, she must do as other 
nations do. If she is not within the roll of civilized 
States, she must be dealt with differently. Of two 
things, one ! 

Here is the Hall of Central Peace, where the 
Emperor examines and sanctions the prayers for 
state worship ; the Hall of Secure Peace, where the 
highest literary degrees are conferred ; and the 
palace of Heavenly Purity, where the Emperor in 
the still morning hour of three, transacts business 
with his ministers, and which no one enters or leaves 
without his express permission. 

Here at sunrise, the petitions from the six 
Boards controlling Imperial affairs are submitl -d 
to the Vermilion Pencil of the Throne ; the prayers 
also for present and posthumous honours. 

Beyond stands the palace of Earth's Repose, 
where " Heaven's Consort" rules over her minia- 
ture court. Adjoining this is a flower garden. 
Then the Hall of Intense Thought ; where sacri- 
fices are made to Confucius, the teacher and 
thinker. There arc other palaces and offices, 
amongst them a printing office, for the city is self- 
contained and need have no communication with 
the outer world. No one knows the population 
inside this Prohibited City, whether it is great or 


ims^'^ y •■• 

282 Newfoiindland to Cochin China, 

small. It is wrapped in mystery, and the imagi- 
nation is free to float round the holy of holies, this 
Unknown Capital of the Flowery Land. 

There are said to be beautiful gardens, with 
fountains and cascades. But what can make up 
for the want of variety? Occasionally " the Son 
of Heaven " goes forth to worship the ashes of his 
ancestors, or the earth and the moon, at this or that 

Then the way is cleared of all persons — and 
matting is put up on either side of the roadway to 
prevent the Celestial eyes falling on the people, or 
the people from seeing their sovereign. The 
foreign ministers are required to warn their 
nationals to keep away from the neighbourhood. 

Unfortunate Majesty ! How the young Empe- 
ror must yearn for some knowledge and experience 
of the outer world, something more than the views 
of the aged mandarins around him, to guide him 
in his decisions. Small wonder that he should 
reject the suggestion recently made of the censor 
(who is permitted even to rebuke the throne), 
that for some hours in each day he should, in 
addition, have the ancient classics read to him. 
They say that his youthful Majesty is not wanting 
in intelligence and ability, and it is even whispered 
that some of the rescripts of the Imperial Gazette 
of Peking issue from his own hand. Perhaps too 
he may look wistfully towards the mausolea being 


The Forbidden City, 


prepared for the Empresses-Dowager, and wonder 
if they will prove true to their names : " Happy 
Homes for a myriad years." 

We meet a wedding procession as we proceed ; 
indeed, we are constantly getting mixed up in 
these straggling processions, for both yesterday 
and to-day the horoscope has cast as lucky, and 
they have perhaps been long waited for. The one 
is the Fete of the God of Wealth and the Golden 
Dragon King ; the other of the God of Fire and 
the Inventor of Writing. Everything fs scarlet, 
r'irst come the bannermen, bearing aloft on 
poles red boards, on which arc inscribed the 
titles of the father of the bride. They are gene- 
rally a string of dirty men and boys, the scum of 
the city, dressed in scarlet, with black hats and 
feathers sticking up like a Red Indian. More men 
follow, carrying lanterns and draped pagodas, 
and a cage with white ducks, an emblem of 
conjugal fidelity. Next comes the band, with 
enormous drums, draped in red and yellow silk, 
and ludicrous gilt trombones, which the musician 
puffs valiantly into, only to produce a sound like 
the wheeze of a bagpipe. Lastly comes the closed 
palanquin, richly gilt and embroidered, followed 
by another containing the parents. It is the day 
of triumph for the almond-eyed one with the little 
feet, within the closely-curtained vermilion palan- 
quin. With blare of trumpets and songs of joy 

284 Nezvfoundland to Cochin China. 

I! I 

she is borne through the streets, securely locked, 
to the bridegroom's house, where the mother 
delivers her up with the key of the chair, to the 
husband, to whom in childhood's innocent hours 
she was affianced. 

All day we are passing houses, outside which 
are lanterns on red poles, arranged in a square, 
with archways and decorations, and waiting 
palanquins and carts, whilst the feast is pro- 
ceeding inside. In the afternoon we see several 
whence the guests are streaming away from the 
festivity, the ladies of small feet being carried 
by their attendants to their palanquins. It is 
the prerogative of every poor relation and con- 
nection to attend this feast, and often the parents 
can ill afford such an expense ; still, it must be 
done, or " face " will be lost. Like the " squeeze," 
this " face,'' or prestige, is another prominent 
feature of Chinese life. It is as pronounced as the 
caste difficulty in India, and pervades every detail 
of life. The most roundabout methods and trans- 
parent deceits are resorted to, to save a man's 
"face," viz. his credit, or renown. 

A funeral is an equally elaborate ceremony. 
We saw preparations for one in a village, coming 
up the Peiho. Outside the deceased's house were 
erected straw archways, whilst a catafalque of 
enormous dimensions was waiting at the door. 
As we watched, a life-sized wooden horse, with a 

The Forbidden City, 


sham rider, arrived, drawn on a board, to figure in 
the procession. The mourners will all wear white, 
and as many as sixty-four men will aid in carrying 
the coffin to its resting-place. Food and money will 
be offered to the evil spirits to propitiate them, and 
every care taken that the spirit of the deceased 
shall rest in peace. 

Then the tablet will be placed in the family 
memorial chamber, and sons and grandsons, and 
great granddaughters and their children, will come 
in the ages of the future, to tell the spirit of the 
departed, of the marriage, of the illness, of the 
promotion, or the fall of a descendant. It may be, 
too, that a future scion of the house may render 
service to the State — be made a Viceroy, a Presi- 
dent of a Board, a Member of the Grand Council, 
Will his Imperial Master reward him with title to 
descend in a few months to an unworthy son ? No, 
the peerage, the honour, will be posthumously 
rendered by decree of the emperor to the ancestor, 
be so notified in the Peking Gazette^ and, amid a 
gathering of all kindred, be heralded unto the great 
Unknown in the Memorial Hall. " Great is the son 
who brinfjeth his father honour." 

For this ancestor-worship seems to be the only 
religion which the people practise. Some are Con- 
fucians, some Buddhists, some Taoists, but they 
are held as only moral and perfunctory faiths, 
whereas this worship of the dead is very real to 

286 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

«■■ • 


them, and faithfully performed. They do right, 
because they fear to disturb the spirits of their 
forefathers, who will haunt their homes and cause 
evil to fall on the'** families, if they do wrong. 

We return ho by an even dirtier and more 
slovenly road, past the various Yamens of the 
Board of Works, the Board of War, and the Navy, 
and the Board of Punishments, which obtained 
such a bad notoriety for the cruelties perpetrated 
in i860. There is nothing, however, to see from 
outside, but an archway leading to several courts. 

We spent the afternoon in visiting the various 
Missionary Establishments of the different nation- 
alities, which have their headquarters at Peking. 
First to the spacious compound of the American 
Methodist Episcopal Church, where we saw the 
boys' and girls' school, the sleeping apartments 
and dining halls, for they feed and house, but do 
not clothe them. Their method is to admit the 
scholars and give them a Christian education, with 
good influences, without, however, obliging them 
to become Christians. But whether the writing; 
of essays in English, and the teaching of the 
piano to girls, is conducive to or comes under 
the head of missionary work, I am not competent 
to judge. I should think it better if the teachers 
were to learn Chinese, and teach the children in 
their own language, a knowledge of English not 
being essential to their becoming Christians. 


The Forbidden City, 


Next we visited a branch of the French Roman 
Catholic Mission, which, under the able leadership 
of Pere Favier, has done much good work. The 
school with its day scholar's enclosure, lies under 
the beautiful Roman Catholic Church, with its 
twin pinnacles and splendid interior, the altar 
being inlaid with cloisonne. The organ was 
bought with the proceeds of the sale of a valuable 
carpet that came into the hands of the Fathers. 
The cathedral and bishop are at Peitang on the 
other side of the city. Since the early days of the 
Jesuit Fathers, the Roman Catholics have always 
been active in China. They claim to have 700,000 
converts. Their success, in comparison with other 
sects, may perhaps be attributed to the fact, that 
their ritual and gaily decorated churches are more 
attractive, and in accordance with the Buddhist 
religion and temples ; but it must also be said, 
that the priests go amongst the people, adopt their 
life, and wear Chinese clothes, including the pig- 
tail. Aided by the nuns, they minister to the 
temporal wants of the population, as well as the 
spiritual. Also these priests, when they leave 
France, come out for life and receive only 100 
taels, or 20/. a year, whilst the American 
missionaries are reputed ro receive 100 taels a 
months and 200 taels a year for every child. 
Perhaps this may account for their numerous 
families. The S.P.G. Branch of mission work 

288 Neivfoufidland to Cochin China. 

under Bishop Scott boasts, alas ! few converts in 
their schools, but as they are thorough, and refuse 
to have any suspicion of '* rice Christians," as the 
doubtful converts are called, this can be accounted 
for. The London Mission does good work, but 
perhaps the most successful of all is the China 
Inland Mission, owing its existence to its north- 
country founder — Hudson Taylor — a man un- 
known to great fame, but who has done, and is doing 
a great work in this far-distant corner of the world. 

We expected to hear a great deal about these 
late riots at Wuhu, or Wusueh, when we came 
to Peking. We had read the alarming articles in 
the North China Daily Ncivs of the excited state 
of the country, the imminent dangers hanging 
over the European population at the Treaty Ports, 
and of the arming of the British Legation here. 
We arc almost disappointed to find a serene at- 
mosphere of safety. 

There are some who are found to attribute the 
pretext for the commencement of these riots to 
the Roman Catholic nuns, who by succouring 
the foundlings, especially the despised females, 
to educate in their convent schools, arouse 
the suspicion of kidnapping them for the pur- 
poses of witchcraft. The mortality being high, 
they are even accused of taking out the eyes of 
children to make an elixir of life, and of other 
atrocities. The same charge brought about th^ 

The Forbidden City. 


dreadful massacre of Tientsin in 1870. More 
probably, however, this is only an excuse for a 
rising, which is really fomented by one of those 
secret societies, like the Kalao Hui, which honey- 
comb China. 

Peking is celebrated for its furs, particularly for 
sables. London is the great market of the world, 
receiving the supplies of the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany and Canada, but whenever an emperor or 
prince or great noble in Russia requires a fur, it is 
to Peking that they send. The sables are won- 
derfully cheap, only costing from 6 to 8 dollars 
each, but, owing to a difference of treatment in 
smoking, they are not so dark as those we call 
Russian sables. They have also a good many 
white hairs. There are squirrel skins of soft, 
brown fur, thousands being sewn together to form 
a single coat. Then there are black and white 
astrakans, beaver, and otter, and that lovely, silky 
white fur, the wool of the Thibet sheep. We were 
offered a mandarin's sable robe, perhaps a booty 
from the looting of the Summer Palace, for 300 
dollars, and I think we shall always regret that 
we did not invest in it as an heirloom. 

We came out of the Legation Hall one morn- 
ing, to find a picturesque sight of curio dealers 
squatted beside their blue bundles, or spreading 
their bright-coloured embroideries, under the open 
pagoda porches of this princely palace. 


290 Neiufoundland to CocJiin China. 

Peking is known for the antiquity and splendour 
of its embroideries, — the best in China ; but I can- 
not fancy golden dragons on cerise satin grounds, 
or pink flowers on an ultramarine blue, nor yet all 
the flaming purples, crimsons and oranges (the 
Imperial yellow alone being beautiful), after the 
delicate half-tones, and pale tints of the Japanese 
embroideries. It is always the same in China. 
Everything is ugly, the colouring and designs 
hideous. They are grotesque and not quaint, 
gaudy and not brilliant. And we have visited 
r.ciny curio shops, only to leave them in despair. 
'\'.\\^ single beautiful things are the objets tie vertu in 
Jade diiu crystal, tiny cups and vases, snuff'bottles, 
carved images, all so delicately wrought, but 
charged for as if worth their weight in gold. 

Then tiflen with Sir Robert Hart, the chief of 
the Imperial Maritime Customs. He has been 
out here for 30 years, and knows as much as any 
man, probably a thousand-fold more, about China. 
His conversation was most interesting. His 
position is unique, for Sir Robert collects and has 
absolute control over all the levies on foreign 
goods ; and a large part of the finances of China 
pass through his hands. 

We proceed to see the Examination Hall of the 
second and third degrees, that for the first being 
held under the Emperor's eyes. 

This Examination is a remarkable feature in 

The Forbidden City. 


Chinese life. It is the ambition of every man, 
whatever his position or caHing, to become a 
student, for it is the avenue to all greatness, and 
the means whereby all posts of honour or emolu- 
ment are to be obtained. 

Strange it is that in this stronghold of con- 
servatism, there should he found such a radical 
feature, whereby the humblest-born may raise him- 
self by his own efforts to the rank of " big " man- 
darin. Very honourable it is, too, that the greatest 
attainment, the highest ambition and reward which 
the country offers, is the possession of this much 
coveted " First Degree." Year after year, the 
same men come up, and it must be a noble and 
touching sight, when, as is sometimes the case, an 
old man of ninety will offer himself. Though 
after a certain age, three trials entitle aged can- 
didates to a degree ho?ioris causa. These exa- 
minations are held in each province, and con- 
sist entirely in the writing of essays on classical 
subjects. The successful ones are afterwards 
published, and the victorious candidates accorded 
public and local honours. 

We pass through some empty courts, under 
several peilaus, erected in honour of great 
scholars, once gay with rainbow paint, but now, 
of course, dusty and decaying. We can go no 
further — for across the great doors is placed an 
official seal, consisting of two strips of red paper 

U 2 


292 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 

placed crossways. Wc presume that the exami- 
nation is still proceeding ; 10,400 students from this 
great province of Chihli having presented them- 
selves this year. The great expense, and the slow, 
tedious journey to Peking, docs not deter the 
aspirants. For fourteen days and nights they are 
shut up in separate cells, with desk, chair, paper, 
pen and ink, their provisions being handed to 
them through a trap door in the wall. Thankful 
they must be when the ordeal is over. 

We went on the last afternoon to see the 
Tsungli Yamen, or Foreign Office — the Board 
which alone has dealings with the representatives 
of foreign countries. We pity these in their 
frequent pilgrimages thither ; for to reach it we 
passed through a succession of the filthiest lanes, 
tortuous and narrow, bordered with stinking heaps 
of rubbish. In one of these was the green lion- 
guarded residence of the Emperor's cousin, Prince 
Tung, and all these fashionable dwelling-houses 
with their crumbling walls, from which the coat- 
ings of whitewash are peeling, are surrounded by 
these disgusting passages. Arrived at the Tsungli 
Yamen, I only see the outer gateways of green 
and gold, for of course its desecration by feminine 
feet is not to be thought of. 

Peking is for this reason a disappointment. 
There is so much to see, and yet so little that can 
be seen. Of recent years they have closed nearly 


The Forbidden City. 


everything to foreigners, and the bitter feeling 
against Europeans seems to be increasing. The 
Lama Temple you cannot visit on account of the 
hostile attitude of the people. Closed are all the 
Imperial buildings of the Prohibited City. The 
Marble Bridge, the Temple of Agriculture, where 
the emperor ploughs a furrow in springtime, but 
above all, invisible is the Temple of Heaven. 

This latter temple is the most interesting sight 
of the Chinese City. Its name properly speaking, 
means, "the Altar of Heaven," for the Emperor 
attends here to sacrifice twice a year. It is said 
that " The worship of the Heaven or Supreme 
Ruler is the most important of all the state 
observances in China, before the rationalism of the 
Confucianists and the polytheistic superstition of 
Buddhism predominated. There are no images of 
any kind in the temple, and the offering of whole 
burnt bullocks, strikingly reminds us of the ancient 
custom of western religions, as that of the Hebrews 
and Greeks. The ceremonies of the sacrifices are 
kept with the utmost severity, and are of a very 
complicated nature. 

The chief sacrifice is at the winter solstice. On 
the 20th day of December, the offerings and an 
elephant carriage are sent with great array to the 
temple, and on the 2ist the Emperor follows in a 
sedan chair, covered with yellow silk, and carried 
by thirty-two men ; he is preceded by a band of 


Irfl '■ , ■ 

f 1 ; 

j, . . H . 



L S 

294 Ncivfoundland to Cochin China. 

musicians, and followed by art immense retinue, 
including the princes, high officials, "big" and 
** little" mandarins, all on horseback. Having 
arrived at the temple, His Majesty offers incense 
to Heaven and to his ancestors, and inspects the 
offerings ; then he is conveyed en the elephant 
carriage to the Palace of Abstinence, where he is 
not allowed to take any animal food or wine, nor 
to sleep. Next morning, seven quarters before 
sunrise, he puts on his sacrificial robes and goes to 
the southern gate of the outer enclosure, dismounts 
from the carriage and walks to the great altar, 
where an Imperial yellow tent has been erected on 
the second terrace. At the moment he arrives at 
the spot where he kneels, the fire of the sacrifice 
is kindled and music is heard. The Emperor then 
proceeds to the upper terrace of the altar, kneels 
and burns incense before Heaven and also presents 
incense to his ancestors. Then he makes three 
genuflections, and one prostration, and offers 
bundles of silk, jade cups and other gifts, music 
being heard all the time. Afterwards he kneels 
at another point of the altar, where an officer 
reads a prayer aloud. At last he receives kneeling 
the " cup of happiness " and the '* flesh of happi- 
ness." With the first dawn the whole party return 
to the palace. Foreigners, who watched the party 
when passing the Ch'ien-men from the city wall, 
speak highly of the splendid appearance of the 


>ig" and 

5 incense 
)ects the 
:re he is 
i^ine, nor 
s before 
I goes to 
at altar, 
2cted on 
rrives at 
ror then 
', kneels 
es three 
1 ofifers 
s, music 
\ kneels 
1 officer 
f happi- 
ly' return 
le party 
ity wall, 
: of the 

The Forbidden City 


whole procession : hundreds of officials in brilliant 
robes of state and numberless followers on horse- 
back, among them a company of the Imperial Life 

A similar sacrifice takes place at the spring 
solstice, with the same ceremonies, at the northern 
altar, but the motive is the special prayer for a 
prosperous harvest, whilst the winter sacrifice is 
offered for a blessing upon the whole empire. 

We cannot see the ruins of the Summer Palace, 
the Yuan-ming-yuan, or Round and Splendid 
Garden, and which is distant about ten miles 
from Peking. " It is a delightful park with a rich 
variety of groves, temples, lakes, palaces and 
pavilions," and must from the photographs be 
very beautiful, li stands there for ever, as a 
memorial left to embitter the Chinese against us, 
yet who could say but that Lord Elgin, by destroy- 
ing the Palace of their thrice sacred monarch, 
brought home to them a fit and righl ^ous judg- 
ment ? 

But our greatest disappointment of all is that 
we must give up a five days' expedition to the 
Great Wall if we would take the French mail from 
Shanghai. '' Fancy going to Peking and not 
seeing tJie Wall ! " I can hear someone exclaim. 
Well, we shall not be all unique in this, for three- 
fourths of the hundred foreigners who live in 
Peking have never been, nor ever intend to go. 


296 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

An artificial interest, all out of proportion to the 
reality, is created by its great antiquity. Finished 
in 204 B.C. (for it took ten years in building) for 
1 500 miles this great wall, which was intended to 
keep out all the enemies of China, runs up and 
down the northern face of the country, in one 
place over a peak of 5225 feet high. It is con- 
structed of earth and stones. It has been truly 
said : " that looking over the surface of our globe, 
it is the only artificial structure that would arrest 
the gaze." 

The grapes are sour. For after all, the visitors 
who go do not see the real Great Wall, but only 
a spur of more modern date. Also the walls of 
Peking are considerably higher and more imposing. 

As is only fit and proper, for they are the most 
interesting feature of the cit}-, we make our fare- 
well to Peking from those grand Walls. 




We left Peking at dawn. Through the silent 
streets of the Tartar City we drove, passing for 
the last time through the Gate of Sublime Learn- 
ing on to the sandy waste outside, jolting along 
under the great Walls, with the sun rising to meet 

We are returning to Tungchau by the Canal, and 
so saving the penalties of the road and the dust, 
but owing to the numerous locks, we have to 
transship no less than five times from one boat to 
another. This water-way is in connection with the 
great Imperial canal, another, like the Great Wall, 
of those time-enduring monuments of the industry 
of a gr«.at people — and serves to transport the 
tribute of rice from the south to Peking. The 
locks are very picturesque, being built of yellow 
blocks of stone, over which the running water 
forms a waterfall overshadowed by trees. It is a 
quaint slow mode of travelling, gently rippling 
along over the mirror surface of the water, past 

1 r 

298 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

great rustling beds of pampas grass twelve feet 
high, opposite one of which some Chinese sports- 
men, with their matchlocks and lighted fuses, are 
crouched ready to fire at the wild ducks that 
abound in these watery marshes. Amongst the 
groves of trees, which look golden in their autumn 
foliage against a clear blue sky, we see many 
memorial peilaus, and those other monuments of 
stone pyramids springing from the back of a 
huge tortoise. The air is still and clear as early 
autumn, and the sounds from the mud villages 
we pass, are borne clearly to us. The walls of 
Peking, with their crenellated gateways, are just 
fading away into the blue haze. 

Five hours of tedious progress makes our eyes 
glad to see the beautiful carved bridge of Palikiao, 
where the combat in i860 took place, and the 
damage then done to the bridge has never been 
repaired. In a few minutes more the pagoda 
of Tungchau looms up, and the canal rapidly 

We reach Tungchau in a veritable dust-storm, 
that blows the loose sand by the banks into spiral 
columns and pillars, and embark once more on 
the house-boat. It seems quite like coming home. 
Then we begin the Peiho's weary succession of 
winding reaches, with the endless continuation of 
mud banks and yellow water. 

The prospect next morning was disheartening. 

Shanghai and I long- Kong. 299 

The wind was strong and dead ahead, and though 
our men had worked all night, certain landmarks 
told us that our progress was far from satisfactory. 
All through that long day we crawled along ; 
weary work it was for our poor tired crew. As 
bend after bend opened out before us and receded, 
each one so exactly like the other, we registered 
a hope that we might never more see the Peiho. 
Evening closed in, night succeeded, and we yet 
vainly looked for the lights of Tientsin. As so 
often happens after a long watching, we seemed to 
arrive suddenly. Our plank door was removed, 
and we found ourselves at Tientsin and the Bridge 
of Boats, and amid the grateful " kotows " of our 
men for a gratuity well earned by such patient 
toil, we sped in jinrikishas through the dimly- 
lighted city, where everyone carries his own 
swinging coloured lantern, to the Consulate once 

We found a China Merchant's steamer, the Shin 
Sheng^ leaving Tientsin the next morning, and 
embarked at once. Two unsuccessful attempts at 
turning the steamer opposite the wharf we made ; 
the third succeeded, but when she was broadside 
across the stream, stem and stern touched the 
banks. We passed safely through the perilous 
bends of the river, only grounding occasionally, 
but once the bows of the Sliin Sheng ran up on 
to the bank, and cut clean away quite ten feet of 


300 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 

it. A little mud-house stood on the angle, and the 
old village harpy to whom it belonged, came out 
and shook her fist at the captain on the bridge, 
showering imprecations on his head, and small 
wonder, for some time previously the bows of his 
ship had gone into her house and wrecked it ! 
We breathed more freely when the forts of Taku 
passed, the Bar, or " Heaven-sent Barrier," 
crossed, and the pilot left behind, we emerged 
without mishap into the Yellow Sea. 

We had a fearful tossing in the Gulf of Pechcli. 
At Chefoo we called for cargo. It is a pretty sea- 
side place, with a splendid beach and bathing sands, 
a boon to the residents of Shanghai, who either 
come here or go to Japan for the summer months. 
It was too rough for the lighters to come off, so 
we anchored for the night. The next morning 
a gale was blowing in the roadstead — the break- 
ing of the north-east monsoon — and we had to 
move round under the lea of the bluff. Our 
hearts sink within us, and we despair of catch- 
ing the French mail, which means waiting at 
Shanghai a week for the P. and O. Returning 
when the gale moderated, the agent sent off to 
say that we were to start at once and not wait for 
the cargo, so we have wasted eighteen hours 
rolling and knocking about for nothing. 

We had not gone more than two miles out, 
when the engineer sent to say that a valve was leak- 

Shaiigha i and Hong -Kong, 30 1 

ing ; this necessitated putting back again, and a 
further delay. At last we get really off. Cer- 
tainly we have endured much to see Peking. 
Two days afterwards we are in the mouth of the 
Yangtze, anxiously looking for the black funnels 
of the Messageries boat. We know she should have 
left at noon to-day, and it is just that hour. Yes, 
it is all right. She is still there, surrounded by 
lighters, and we steam close to find out that she 
sails in twenty hours. There has been a delay of 
one day, luckily for us. 

We proceed up the Woosung tributary of the 
Yangtze. It is a glorious morning. The junks, 
painted in gaudy colours, with the all-seeing, 
staring white and black eye, glide past us. The 
banks are lined with a fort, factories, dock and 
shipbuilding yard, a gay scene of thriving com- 
mercial activity. Before us now opens out the 
bright green lawn of the Bund, of Shanghai, with 
its blue-roofed pagoda for the band, backed by 
a row of handsome oriental-looking houses and 
"hongs," with green blinds and deep verandas. 
There is the buff and grey of the German consu- 
late, and the grey and red of the Japanese, whilst 
the French tricolour flies over, and indicates the 
French settlement, and in the far corner, to the 
right, is the British flag over our own consulate and 
garden. The numerous tributaries of the Yangtze 
are bridged over, and join the quay together. 






■■■ 1 




i .' 


■ i 







302 Neivfoundland to Cochin China* 

One of the prettiest sights in coming up to 
Shanghai, or " upper Sea," is to see the men-of- 
war and gunboats of all nations, lying side by side 
in the river before the Bund. There are English, 
American, French, German, Spanish, and Japanese 
men-of-war and a Chinese gunboat, each floating 
their star and stripes, tricolour. Union Jack, Black 
Eagle, red ball on a white ground (Japanese) and 
the Imperial Dragon. 

Shanghai is a gay, bright clean place, where up- 
wards of 4000 Europeans reside, the majority being 
British. These claim for it the title of the Paris of 
the East, and the shops and broad well-kept streets 
make it worthy of the name. You have, too, the 
picturesque element of Chinese life without the 
accompanying dirt and squalor, for the typical 
Chinese town with its filthy narrow streets is rele- 
gated to the back of the settlement. All life 
centres on the Bund, which we and everyone else 
are always passing up and down ; and here 
amongst the smart little broughams, that are like 
Indian gharries, and the Victorias, dog-carts, and 
phaetons, with their scarlet-clad mafoos and syces, 
mingle the sedan-chairs of magnates, the Chinese 
wheelbarrow, with the passengers balancing, on 
either side, and the brightly lined green and red 
jinricksha. There is the same cosmopolitan crowd 
on the pavements overflowing into the road, for 
the white ** ducks " and flannels of the Europeans, 

Shanghai and Honff-Kong, 


mingle with the bright blue, green, maroon, crim- 
son, brown and yellow coats of the merchants and 
compradores. For many of the hongs (as the places 
of business are called) are on the Bund— whilst 
the loose coats and shiny trousers of the Chinese 
ladies, with their smooth coils of black hair inter- 
laced with green jade hair-pins and long pendant 
earrings, are seen side by side with the flowing 
robes and turbaned heads of an Indian. 

We called at the British consulate, which lies in 
an enclosure of spacious green lawn with palms 
and flower-beds. There stands here a superb 
granite cross erected to the memory of the five 
victims, and companions of Sir Harry Parkes, and 
to avenge whose murder, the Summer Palace was 
burnt and looted by the French. Further along, 
on the Bund, is the statue to Sir Harry Parkes, a 
little man with large whiskers, but a very able 
diplomatist, whose death was universally mourned 
by the Europeans in China. The English cathe- 
dral and deanery lie at the back of the Bund. The 
streets are so broad and clean, the roads so firm, 
that it is a pleasure to be on them, particularly 
after those of Peking. It is because they are under 
the supervision of an English Municipal Council, 
and they deserve for them the greatest credit. 

At four o'clock we went to a meet of the Tandem 
Club, the last of the season, held in front of the 
bank. There are fifteen members, but ten only 


304 Newfoimdland to Cochin China. 

turned out, and were led off by the on^y tandem of 
horses. The other teams were all of the short- 
necked, thick-set, Chinese ponies driven in a modi- 
fied dog-cart. Then we strolled along on the grass 
under the trees to the gardens, to listen to the 
Manila band. These gardens slope with green 
lawns to the water's edge, and the wandering paths 
lead by beds, bright with heliotrope, geraniums, 
chrysanthemums, and tropical growths of banyan 
trees, palms, magnolias, indiarubber and castor- 
oil plants, amidst which pale-faced children arc 
playing in charge of their Chinese amahs. In the 
evening we dined with Mr. and Mrs. Robert Little. 
He is the able editor of the North China Daily 

On a lovely Sunday morning we embark on the 
steam tug, and once more, for the third and last 
time, go down to Woosung. In an hour we are on 
board the Messageries Maritime's s.s. CalMonicn^ 
critically surveying our home for the next five 

The Messageries line has the advantage of the 
P. and O. in that they are more generous in giving 
separate cabins, the cuisine is said to be better, 
and indeed they take trouble to make it so, send- 
ing the cooks every two years back to a restaurant 
in Paris. It is also an immense boon (which 
everybody who has travelled much will appre- 
ciate) to have fixed places for dinner only, and 

Shanghai and Hovg-Koiig, 305 

at the other meals a free choice of companions. 
The saloon is spacious, and there is a splendid 
promenade deck, which is, however, somewhat 
spoilt by the influx of too numerous second-class 
passengers, who share the privilege of using it. 

The north-east monsoon is with us, and in two 
days and a half from leaving Shanghai, and after 
passing through the Straits of Formosa, between 

Harbour of Hong-Kong. 

the mainland of China and the island of that name, 
past Foochow and Amoy, which are too far dis- 
tant to be seen, we anchor at Hong Kong at mid- 
night. Though dark, it is a starlight night. Hong 
Kong, or " Good Harbour," presents itself to us in 
bright electric arches of light, thrown far up on 
the sides of the peak, whilst its beautiful harbour 
is traced out for us by the twinkle of lights from 



I .M 



I .; 

306 Neivfouudlanci to Cochin China. 

the sampans, moored in hundreds along the wharf, 
by the swiftly moving jinricksha lights coursing 
along the road of the sea-shore, and the dots of 
lights on the rocking masts or the gleaming eyes 
of steam-tugs in the harbour. 

We have decided to give up Canton, see what 
we can of Hong Kong in the time the steamer 
stays, and not wait a week for the next mail. 

I was once told that no one has ever done justice 
to the beauties of Hong Kong, and as we landed 
at sunrise on the quay I was inclined to agree to 
this. The deep verandas of the Eastern -looking 
houses, with their pale pink and drab tints, the 
cool arcades, and above all the tropical wealth of 
vegetation, makes Hong Kong the prettiest of 
Eastern cities. 

Leaving Queen's Road, we are carried up in chairs 
under a lovely overhanging avenue of banyan 
trees, whose huge knotted roots lie round the path, 
whilst from the grateful shade of their thick leaves 
above, depend the long thread-like tendrils, form- 
ing a transparent crrtain. Past the grey, weather- 
stained cathedral we go, hidden away in a little 
recess under the hills, past the barracks, whence 
sound the bagpipes of Princess Louise's High- 
landers, to the station of the mountain railway up 
the peak. " The Peak " — what would Hong Kong 
be without this prominent feature ? True, by keep- 
ing off the sea-breezes and by penning the town in 

Shavs^hai and Hong-Kong, 307 

the narrow strip between the harbour and the 
mountain, it makes it steamy, unhealthy, fever- 
stricken and well-nigh uninhabitable in summer, 
but then it provides a sanatorium on the many 
summits of its heights, where every available plat- 
form is occupied by a house. 

Unflinchingly straight up runs the line of the rail- 
way, and as we ascend, wc look down on the roofs 
of the houses, perched v/ithout any sequence, up 
and down the side of the hills, into gardens and 
tennis courts, and the green waters of a reservoir 
below ; over the black and white speckled mass that 
stands for the town, further out to the harbour, 
a blue pond studded with black spots by the 
steamers, whilst the sampans are brown dots. The 
range of barren rocky mountains close round the 
harbour, and there is Koolong, with its wharves and 
godowns, on the Chinese mainland, whilst we are 
on the Island of British soil. It is a beautiful view, 
this bird's-eye panorama of the town and harbour, 
from Victoria gap. 

You must see the Peak to realize its real height, 
its scarcelyslopingshoulders, covered with tropical 
growth in the valley, growing scantier and scantier, 
until you reach the summit, bare and rocky. Two 
enormous hotels, and many houses, populate the 
spacy crest. And the peep over the other side of 
green rounded hills, running down to the sea, is 
simply lovely, whilst the views from every point 

X 2 


o8 NeiofoHudland to Cochin China, 


arc far-reaching and exhaustive. We take chairs 
and go to the point, but one degree lower than the 
topmost one, where stands the signal station, to 
the bungalow of Government House. Early as it 
is, and late in the season, we find the heat terrific. 
Everyone is obliged to come and live up here in 
the summer, the nights in Hong Kong bringing no 
relief, and the difference in the temperature is often 
as much as 9°. As we return we meet all the 
business men, in the coolest of white costumes, 
being carried in chairs by coolies in smart uni- 
forms of white with blue or scarlet sashes, to the 
station, going down to town for the day's work. 

In descending, we return to the main thorough- 
fare of Queen's Road, and after some shopping, go 
to the City Hall, and the marble palace of the 
Shanghai and Hong Kong bank, where I wait out- 
side to watch the ever-varying stream of passers-by. 
Chinamen in their cool cotton jackets and glazed 
pantaloons, coolies with their bamboo-slung bur- 
dens, sedan-chairs, jinrickshas, wheel-barrows, 
chairs, Sikh policemen with their scarlof- tu'-^nns, 
Cinghalese, Parsees, mingling wf^h r rictrs 

and soldiers, under the shad' eet 

And then we drive out t» the \ .ppy v^alley, 
and come suddenly upon that beaut' '"ul green lawn, 
lying so naturally in the midst of luxuriantly 
wooded hills. It is truly a felicitous little spot, 
with its racecourse marked out by white railing 

Shanghai and Hong-Kong. 309 

and Its Grand Stand. But it is the cemetery which 
fills us with admiration, and one would fain that 
the Happy Valley were not desecrated by the race- 
course, but rather con^jecrated to the peaceful 
repose of the dead. They are separated only by 
the breadth of the road. 

Of all the God's acres in all parts of the world, 
including the beautiful one of Mount Auburn, at 
Boston, but perhaps excepting the English ceme- 
tery on the heights of Scutari, at Constantinople, or 
that at Cannes, this one of the Happy Valley is the 
most perfect. Entering by a gate in the walls, you 
find yo'irself in a tropical garden, skilfully laid out, 
and growing around you in profuse luxuriance, — 
palms with graceful waving arms, mighty clumps of 
feathery bamboos, delicate spreading tree ferns, 
crotons of orange and yellow and variegated green, 
hibiscus with their single blood-red blossom, colias, 
camellia and azaleas, bushes gf flowering wax-like 
alamanders, trailing masses of purple buganvillea, 
all the hot-house flowers we prize at home, and 
that grow so unwillingly with us, when compared to 
this almost oppressive wealth of nature. Amongst 
the bright gravel paths and green lawns, rise mas- 
sive pillars, granite crosses and cenotaphs, me- 
morials erected by soldiers and sailors to their 
comrades — to many who, alas ! have perished from 
the deadly effects of a climate which yet produces 
all this beauty that is around us. 

■A : . t . • 

310 Newfottndlaiid to Cochin China, 

We return to luncheon at Government House, on 
the kindly invitation of General and Mrs. Barker, the 
acting-governor until Sir William Robinson arrives 
next month. With a scramble, and the aid of the 
Government steam-launch, we just catch the Cale- 
donien as she weighs anchor. We passed out 
through the southern passage of the Island, on our 
way to Saigon, the capital of French Cochin 





For the last two days we have been in sight of the 
coast of Annam. 

When shall we be at Cape St. Jacques } Shall 
we lose the tide ? This is the question which 
one asks of the other on board. And by 6 a.m. we 
find ourselves at rest, waiting outside the bar of the 
river Dannai, for the tide to turn, to ascend inland 
to Saigon. Saigon is the French capital of Cochin 
China, or Indo-China, as it is called, and is the 
chief city of the provinces of Annam, Tonquin, 
and before long of Gambogia, when the present 
King dies. 

Cape St. Jacques is a pretty green foreland, 
jutting out into the sea, fringed with cocoa-nut 
palms, and has a large white hotel, built by the 
Pilot. Surely by this roadstead upon the hills, 
courting the breezes of the north-east monsoon, 
with the ample anchorage in the rear, the French 
might have fixed the capital of Cochin China. But 



Neiofoitiidland to Cochin China. 

no. They placed it, as in olden time, far up a 
tortuous river, with a narrow channel. The delay, 
and the pilotage, frighten away the ocean grey- 
hounds of commerce. 

We weigh anchor. It is one o'clock. The sun 
is blazing hot, and there is not a breath of air. 
But it is cool, they say, compared to what Saigon 
will be. We Khali see. Now we are in the wind- 
ing channel. North, south, east, west, we steer. 
Larboard ! Triboard ! Four hours we steam up 
the river Dannai, with its flat banks of mangrove 
swamps, and tangle of tropical vegetation, where 
they say tigers come out to sun themselves on the 
sands. We sight at length the cathedral towers 
of Saigon. They are to the right of us. In 
another instant they will be to the left. Then we 
appear to have passed them, for we see the town 
on the starboard quarter. 

But at five we are at the quay, which is shaded 
by avenues of trees, with the hibiscus, blossoming 
garden of the agent's house opposite — an old 
temple with rows of fierce-tailed dragons guarding 
the roof On the wharf, the usual motley crowd 
thickening every minute as the news of our arrival 
spreads, whilst Victorias, drawn by those beautiful, 
though rr.t-like, ponies that are bred in Tonquin, 
are in waiting. These latter only come out at five 
in the evening, and in the daytime we must be 
content with the malabars, as the shuttered gharries 


Cochin China, 


arc called, from the Annamite name of the coach- 

We take the fashionable drive of Saigon, the 
tour d'i7ispection. Off we go, flying as the wind, 
past some native houses, built on piles over a 
green swamp, with waving palms above them. 
Here flourish the Cochin China pig, the real pig of 
original breed, with its pink, bow-shaped back, and 
earth-touching stomach, and the bright-plumaged 
Cochin China fowls. We should like to buy 
specimens of the animals that have made Cochin 
China celebrated at home, but doubt the warmth 
of our reception on board-ship if we return with 
them. We cross the bridge, and look over the 
hundreds of sampans that swarm up this creek of 
the river ; then drive along for a few yards by the 
steam tramway which connects the China town of 
Cholons with Saigon, out under the cool wide 
avenues of the Quai du Commerce, with its arsenal 
and Bureaux d'Afi'aires. The roads are as flat and 
firm as a billiard table. 

Beautiful boulevards, wide streets, great caf^s, 
where pale-faced Frenchmen sip absinthe and 
petits verres. It is Paris. Bravo, La France ! 
But it would be much better for these gay causeurs, 
to play lawn-tennis, and football, cricket, rackets 
and rounders, as do the English at Hong Kong, 
Singapore, and Colombo, thus defying, in large 
measure, or at least postponing, the action of the 

14 Nciofoundland to Cochin China. 

tropics. It is thirty years since the Frencli ac- 
quired Saigon and Cochin China. At one time it 
promised to be a prosperous colony. But that day 
is past. Commercial depression reigns supreme, 
and France wearies of the large subsidies swallowed 
up without results by Tonquin. That, though, is 
not our business. We rather admire the feats 
of engineering, of laying out, and the horticultural 

We see this in perfection in the Jardin d'Acclimi- 
tasion, but with a wealth of natural vegetation, 
how easy it is to make a garden such a paradise 
as is this. In the deep bend of the river are the 
green lawns and forest-trees of this botanical 
garden. There are banyan trees with their trellisc 
curtains of roots sweeping the ground, cacti in a 
mighty spiky group, standing apa.t. Single aloes, 
with their blooming crests, and the palms — they 
form a palmcry of themselves, with the various 
specimens of cocoa or tree palms, their straight 
grey stems tufted at the top ; of sago palms, with 
their graceful curving arms, shadowing the lawns ; 
of travellers, with their hands of mighty fingers 
outspread / 3m the single stem, all and every kind 
luxuriantly magnificent, a single one of which 
would assist in making the fortune of a London 
florist, such as we who see them dwarfed and frozen 
when exiled to our northern climes, are scarcely 
able to realize that they are of the same species. 


Page 3(4. 



Cochtn China, 


There are magnolias and camellias, growing to 
the height of our forest trees, bamboo clumps, 
whose single-jointed stems spring equally high, 
and mimosa trees, with their tender sensitive leaf, 
as spreading as our chestnuts. And all these trees 
are banked up with and grow out of brilliant beds of 
variegated green and yellow crotons, of caladiums, 
with their enormous boat-shaped leaves of pink 
oleanders, of crimson hibiscus, and purple bugan- 
villea, and convolvolus, whilst orange and lemon 
trees, indiarubber and mangoes, mingle with the 
heavy green and yellow melon-like fruit of the 
pommelo. In the midst of this is an aviary, and 
cages of rare animals, natives of these tropical 
regions. We particularly notice the white pigeon, 
with the single blood-red spot on the bosom. 

We wander about in the dusky growth of over- 
powering luxuriance, which to us appears so 
supremely beautiful, but which they say in its 
monotonous green, palls upon you when you live 
amongst it. We come upon a cool arbour,formed 
of green lattices overgrown with creepers and 
passion flower, containing an exquisite fernery, 
damp and green, with a collection of orchids of the 
rarest kinds — indeed, we saw several specimens of 
the hardier ones in purple and yellow, growing on 
the trees near the wharf The twilight of this 
little open-air conservatory is made darker by the 
enormous bananas outside, under whose pale green 


I ■ -n 

316 Nezu/oiinciland to Cochin China. 

sword-like leaves, cluster such heavy bunches of 
fruit, fifty or sixty on a single stalk. 

Night though closes quickly in, and if we would 
see the Annamite suburbs we must give rein to our 
impatient little black steeds and bowl swiftly out 
into the country, by some fields of brilliant pale 
green rice, where the monster grey water buffaloes, 
with branching horns laid backwards, strong and 
patient, are being driven home from working in 
them, by coolies, hidden under bamboo hats the 
size of umbrellas. The marshes have been in a 
measure drained, but the miasma rises thickly from 
the rice fields, near which cluster the wretched 
huts of thatched bamboo. 

On we go, now through an avenue entirely com- 
posed of the glossy leaved magnolia or another of 
feathery mimosa, broken only by groves of tufted 
cocoa palms. Then we reach the military boun- 
dary, and returning homewards another way, pass 
the cemetery where many a Frenchman lies low. 
Along these shady avenues, deep and cool, we see 
the walled compounds and overgrown gardens of 
the bungalows of officers and merchants, of whom 
about 1700 reside in Saigon. We meet many of 
them out for their evening drive, flying along in 
Victorias, to gain as much air as possible. There 
are many smart-looking officers in white uniforms, 
with their wives by their side — pale French ladies, 
but in Parisian fashions. Poor things, they appear 

Cochin China. 


sickly and enervated, yet robust compared to 
the shop-keepers, who look, if they do not say so, 
as if it was trouble enough to rise on the entrance 
of a customer, without serving them. 

But it should be a great colony The Governor- 
General's palace is magnificent — a Versailles, with 
its long flights of steps and spacious balconies. 
But his Excellency is always at Hanoi, vainly 
endeavouring to get things straight in Tonquin. 
The Cathedral, with its dim aisles and stained 
glass ; the Grecian colonnades of the Palais de 
Justice ; the post-offices ; the theatre, with its bi- 
weekly performances ; the Officers' Club, where 
the punkahs are lyslow waving to and fro in the 
balconies, — all betoken the great intentions of its 

And there arc statues of Francis Gamier, the 
intrepid and disavowed explorer of the way to 
south-western China, and in the centre of the 
great boulevard, leading to the Governor's palace, 
we distinguish a very large stout man on a great 
pedestal, his stomach far protruding. When we 
come near, we see whom it represents : Gambetta in 
the fur coat worn in the balloon whence he escaped 
from Paris during the siege, to instil life into 
France, with his outstretched finger pointing in 
the direction of Tonquin, as in the memorable 
day when he came to the Chamber, and said, 
* Messieurs, au Tonkin ! " A dying soldier, in the 



318 Neivfotmdlaud to Cochin China, 

act of falling, is on one side, and a sailor, with a 
bayonet peeping round as if in search of the enemy, 
on the other. The reverse side of this fine monu- 
ment bears the legend : " A Gambetta, le patriotc, 
defenseur de la politique coloniale." 

In the evening some went to the opera, Traviata, 
played by the subsidized company, to distract the 
garrison. The sight, however, of the house with 
its myriad waving fans, was enough for us. We 
could not face the heat. 

What an awful night we passed on board ! Four 
steam winches in charge of seventy shouting 
French, with ports shut, tropical heat, and mosqui- 
toes by the million. It was over at sunrise like a 
bad dream. But a sorry sight, the languid heavy- 
eyed passengers, with not a face but was severely 
wounded, presented next morning ; for none had 
slept, and all had come off worsted in the conflict 
with those venomous brutes. Glad we were of 
daylight to go on shore, and set off in a gharry at 
seven o'clock to the open arcades where the 
curio shops are. The black wood-work inlaid with 
mother-of-pearl that comes from Tonquin is very 
pretty, but otherwise we only see curiosities 
common to other countries. We drive past 
gardens, which, as in France, are unrailed and open 
to the public, to the market square, with its deep 
red-roofed market hall, where a busy scene of 
buying and selling is progressing. We notice 

Cochin China. 


many French cafes, the familiar little marble- 
topped tables, looking strange among the palm trees 
of the gardens. There are many French officers, 
in solar topees and cotton umbrellas, strolling in 
the streets, but though the French element pre- 
dominates, there is a wonderful mixture of races — 
of Chinese, Annamites with their heads bound in 
red cloths, Cinghalese with high tortoisehell comb, 
and Indians in sarong ; and the languages are as 
varied, for here the Chinese and natives have 
learnt French, instead of pigeon English. 

By nine o'clock the sun on the top of the gharry 
is overpowering. We are quite overcome by the 
heat, and abandoning all idea of going by the steam 
tramway to Cholons, the neighbouring emporium 
of the Rice of Annam, return on board. But 
at eleven o'clock the thermometer in the shade 
registered 95? Fahrenheit, and in the sun about 
130*^, and we lay on the deck ready to succumb to 
the awful breathless heat, just existing through 
the long midday hours of the worst part of the 

The tropical vegetation of Saigon had entranced 
us, but its charms faded before the experience of 
this equatorial temperature by which alone it can 
be produced. We were grateful when at five 
o'clock the twenty-four hours' sojourn required by 
the Government contract were over, and we left 
Cochin China on our homeward voyage. 

Hr'iH ' i.'f 

320 Newfoundland to Cochin China. 

\ ! 

It is a long, long journey home to England, this 
one of 10,000 miles from Shanghai to London — 
lasting for five weeks. 

Day after day goes by with the same routine, 
until we feel that we are automatons. Passengers 
come and go at the various ports, but " we go on 
for ever." Night and day there is heard the 
ceaseless throbbing of the engines, like the beating 
heart of some great monster. It lulls you to sleep, 
keeps you company in the silence of the night, and 
greets you in the morning, and when we are in 
port, we unconsciously feel that something is want- 
ing. It is a cheering noise, for every revolution of 
the screw brings us nearer home ; 4368 times does 
it revolve in one hour, and it takes 3,600,000 revolu- 
tions to bring us to Marseilles. We consume 52 
tons of coal a day, or 1800 tons for the whole 
voyage, whilst 8000 kilos of oil are used for the 

The ship is like a floating city with a cosmo- 
politan population, for we have over twenty dif- 
ferent nationalities on board : French, English, 
German, Spanish, Italian, Japanese, Russian, 
Chinese, Dutch, Austrians, Arabians, Indians, etc., 
and yet all goes smoothly, save for the passing 
incident of a passionate Frenchman, who came 
to ask the captain's permission to fight a duel with 
an officer from Tonquin, for usurping his place at 


Cochin China, 


It is a monotonous thirty-six days of life at 
sea, alternating with frantic rushes to land, when 
in port, and sometimes sleeping on shore, where, 
like at Singapore and Colombo, the ship is her- 
metically sealed for coaling. Then there is dire 
confusion on board, everyone loses his head, the 
stewards are beside themselves, and the organiza- 
tion becomes sadly out of gear. We arc thankful 
to put out to sea once more, into the breeze and 
calm, to sail away into that great trackless space 
so well defined '* as a circle whose centre is every- 
where, and whose circumference nowhere." 

We touch at Singapore, and spend the night at 
Government House, noting the growth of the 
town, and the great improvements since wc were 
there six years ago. Through the Straits of 
Malacca, past Achecn Head, the extreme westerly 
point of Sumatra to Colombo — Colombo with its 
beautiful sea-shore, where amidst palm groves, the 
blue breakers of the Indian Ocean arc ever rolling 
in, and casting their surf and foam on the golden 
sands. Through its tropical avenues we drive, past 
the barracks, where the pipe of the bag-pipes is 
heard, wailing in their far exile, and the handsome 
Cingalese merchants, with their checked sarongs 
and tortoiseshcll combs, tempt us with precious 
stones. Mount Adam, with his pillar-like peak, 
in the centre of Ceylon, does us honour by show- 
ing himself (a rare occurrence) as we put out once 

322 Newfoimdland to Cochin China, 

more to sea, through the magnificent breakwater 
of Colombo. 

Six days' steaming, and we cast anchor under 
rocky Aden, whose peaks so barren and sterile, 
are yet picturesquely deformed, and glowing with 
warm tints of cobalt and carmine. Then we enter 
the Red Sea, through the Straits c*" Babelmandeb, 
by England's key to the Eastern ^r^misphere, the 
Island of Perim, and pass fragran' Mocha on the 
sandy shore. 

One hundred hours through this inland sea, and 
we are at Suez waiting our turn to enter that great 
highway of nations, that sandy ditch cut through 
the desert, that connects the eastern with the 
western globe. In the daytime we have that 
strange fascination linked ' j the boundless plain 
of sand — the mirage flickering on the horizon, 
the clear pale blue and pink shades that steal 
over the desert at sundown, with the golden glory 
of the sunset sinking slowly into the waters 
of the Bitter Lake, whilst at night the banks of the 
canal are illuminated by the broad shafts of light, 
that sweep from the electric lamp in the bows of 
every ship. 

We spend a dreary Sunday at Port Said, amid 
its dirty streets, rubbishy oriental shops, thievish 
donkey-boys, and a population which gathers in 
the scum of the earth. 

The Harbour of Alexandria is entered at sunrise 

Cochin China. 


next day, and we look in the dull chill of early 
morning on its quays and forts, its mosqued domes 
and windmills, but ere the day is really begun we 
are on our way joyfully cleaving the waters of the 
Mediterranean, near, so near home now. The 
chill winds and the grey atmosphere would make 
us know we are in Europe once more. The hard 
even-coloured skies of the East, burning with 
brazen sun, have been left on the other side of the 
Canal, and now the skies are full of grey and purple 
clouds, silver-edged, soft and rounded. The 
Southern Cross has sunk below the horizon, the 
brilliant starlight nights, with the purple vault of 
heaven gemmed with diamond stars, have faded 
into the past. 

Now the snow-clad mountains of Candia or 
Crete rise up from the ocea above low-lying 
clouds. Then, the danger of avoiding Charybdit' 
to be wrecked on Scylla safely passed, we thread 
the green Straits of Messina between the toe of 
Italy and the Island of Sicily. The smoking cone 
of Etna is invisible, but the little island volcano of 
Stromboli shoots forth its black column of lava. 

The beacon lighthouses of the Straits of Boni- 
facio mark out our course between the islands of 
Sardinia and Corsica. And by the noxt afternoon 
the vine-terraced mountains and sunny shores of 
the Corniche arc near at hand, with the white 
villas of Toulon shining in the sunlight. 

Y 2 

'i ■■'■ ■' 



324 Newfoundland to Cochin China, 

The last day on board, the last packing, the last 
dinner, the last evening. What a pleasant bustle 
of departure, what a feeling of bonne camaraderie 
prevails ! With the contagious sympathy of joy, 
passengers speak to each other who have held 
aloof for the whole month's voyage. We are all 
restless and excited, and only able to discuss the 
hour of arrival — no, not the hour, it is the half- 
hours and quarters that we dispute and wager about. 

The sun goes down. The great white cliffs — for 
they are very near to us now — loom up ghostly in 
the dim twilight ; these are bathed in pink reflec- 
tions from the rosy sky. We see the little chapel 
perched on high, where the sailors implore the 
protection of the sainted Mary ere commencing a 
voyage — the gloomy dungeon fortress of Chateau 
d'lf on its island, and with the last gleams of day- 
light we sight the green Prado, the cathedral 
towers of Notre Dame, and the large seaport of 

For two days we linger in the s^nny south, under 
blue skies and warm sunshine, amid the palms, 
cacti, and hedges of roses. 

We reach Paris in time to sec the gorgeous 
obsequies at the Madeleine of Dom Pedro, the ex- 
Emperor of Brazil. Then ends our second journey 
round the world with a fearful gale in the English 
Channel, reaching Charing Cross in the raw cold 
and fog of a December night. 




-J *yN/>-/>.^ »•» N* 






Addressed to the Chamber of Commerce and Munufactiire oj 
Sheffield upon British and American Trade in the 
Dominion of Canada and the McKintey Tariff in t lie 
United States. 

September f 1891. 

Internal Trade. 

I. — It is necessary in the first place Lo state that the in- 
ternal trade of Canada has made vast progress during the 
past decade. Not only is this evident from the numerous 
Victories at the principal centres, but it is corroborated by 
the rapid extension and development of Toronto, Hamilton, 
Winnipeg and other towns. Manufacture has taken such 
rapid strides that not only is a very large proportion of the 
articles in daily use of home make, but the whole of the iron 
bridges and much of the plant upon the gigantic railway 
sy ,tem , and the greater part of the agricultural machinery 
are of Canadian construction, but there is a surplusage for 
export of certain manufactured goods, amounting in the 
fiscal year ending June, 1890, to 54 million dollars — up- 
wards of two-fifths of which were purchased by the British 



Increase of External Trade. 

2. — The external trade (imports and exports) has also 
increased from 153 million dollars in 1879, when the 
" National Policy "' was inaugurated by the late Right 
Honourable Sir John Macdonald, to 218 million dollars in 
the last statistical year. 

Imports from the United Kingdom and the 


3. — The imports from the United Kingdom of British and 
Irish produce have increased from 5,040,524/. in 1879, to 
7,702,798/. in 1889. 

In the twelve months, July ist, 1889, to June 30th, 1S90, 
the purchases by Canada from the British Empire amounted 
to 45f million dollars, or only 6^ million dollars less than 
from the United States with their 60,000,000 of people and 
conterminous frontier of over 3000 miles, running espe- 
cially close to the more settled and affluent portions of the 

This is the more satisfactory when it is considered that 
less than one-fourth of the British imports were admitted 
free of a duty averaging 25 per cent, ad valorem, while two- 
fifths of the American imports were from their nature un- 

Competition Between British 


AND American 

4. — The Union Jack upon the one hand, and the Stars 
and Stripes upon the other, are practically the only two com- 
petitors for the custom of Canada, and they absorb between 
them 98 million dollars worth of the import trade out of a 
total of 112 million dollars. 

Superiority of England. 

5. — In most of the grerit lines of manufactured goods, 
such as in the manufactures of iron .and steel : of cutlery ; 
of cotton and silk ; of wool and linen ; of lead, paper and 
lur ; of hemp, twine and earthenware, as also in hats, gloves, 
comhs, umbrellas, embroideries, ribbons, crapes, oilcloth, 
iron lurniture, fancy articles, and in bottled ale, beer and 
porter, England more than holds her own against the 
American Republic, 



Foreign Intermixture. 

6.— At the same time it is right to observe that a consider- 
able and increasing proportion of the imports officially 
attributed to British production were in reality of German, 
French, or other foreign origin, and this to an amount ex- 
ceeding last year six million dollars. 

They were obtained, however, through English distribut- 
ing houses instead of direct, partly by reason of transit 
facilities, but mostly on account of the long credit readily 

Lead of the United States. 

7. — The United States on the other hand take the lead with 
manufactures of brass and copper; of gutta-percha and 
India-rubber; of slate, stone, and wood ; of cork and glass ; 
of leather and tin ware, as also in edge tools, Britannia metal, 
bells, brushes, buttons, carriages, clocks and watches, 
jewellery, musical and surgical instruments, and in agricul- 
tural implements. 

Sheffield Trade in Canada. 

8. — In the staple trades of Sheffielil, with the exception of 
edge-tools, the ascendency of England is fairly well main- 


9. — Especially is this the case with regard to cutlery. 
Out of 311,897 dollars (say 62,500/.) worth of table knives, 
jack knives, pocket knives, and other cutlery imported into 
the Dominion during the past year, about two-thirds came 
from the United Kingdom. 

Of the remainder the United States supplied 27,900 
dollars worth, and Germany 43,500 dollars worth. 

Not a few importers of Sheffield cutlery speak anxiously, 
however, of the growing competition of Newark (New 
Jersey) and of Germany — especially in the production of 
attractively got up and elegantly carded knives at low 

In Canada itself only one attempt has, I believe, been 
made to establish a cutlery factory, and this recently at 
Halifax by a young Sheffield man, assisted by six or eight 
Sheffield trained artisans. They speak hopefully of their 
prospects and are meeting with much local encouragement. 





Plated Cutlery. 

It is right to add that although throughout the Dominion 
the table cutlery bears the names of the leading Sheffield 
houses, the more easily cleaned plated cutlery is coming 
into some use. During the past year 919 dozen were im- 
ported, to which the United States contributed 774 dozen 
and (Ireat Britain only 140. 


10. — In files and rasps the import from England amounted 
tf> 34.358 dollars (say 6S00/.), and from the United States 
to 45,724 dollars. 


II. — In saws the United States made even greater head- 
way with a total consignment amounting to 14,000/., while 
Great Britain sent scarcely 600/. worth. 

Edge Tools. 

12. — A like disproportion occurs with regard to edge tools, 
of which the United States supplied 15,000 dollars worth 
out of a total external purchase by the Dominion of 18,279 

This has been explained by the uwtiring efforts constantly 
made by American manufacturers and their employes to 
make all tools more and- more adapted for the purpose in 
view, lij^dUiT and more facile to the hand, without the 
slightest regard to former use, old ideas or customs. 


13. — It is frequently alleged that Sheffield lost the Canadian 
axe trade by adherence to the opinion that it was a better 
judge of the shape of the handle or the chopper than the 
backwoodsmen whose livelihood depended upon the skilful 
use of ihe axe. 

This niust, however, be legendary, for I am told we never 
had the Dominion axe trade. 

In any case, at the i)resent time nearly all the axes used 
in the vast lumber industry are of Canadian make, and out 
of a total import of 6751 dollars worth last year, the whole 
came from the United States, with the exception of a single 
a.xe contributed by France. 



Spades and Shovels. 

14. — Of spades and shovels 40CX5 dollars worth were im- 
ported from Great Britain against 6259 dollars worth from 
the United States. 


In scythes the two countries each supplied one half of a 
total import of 6731 dollars worth. 

Agricultural Implements. 

15. — But in other agricultural implements— ploughs, 
drills, harrows, .forks, rakes, mowing machines, harvesters, 
etc., America supplied no less than 117,000 dollars worth, 
against only 4000 dollars worth, from Great Britain. 

The explanation given is similar to that I have often 
heard in Australasia, that the high-priced, solid made, some- 
what heavy and durable machines and implements which 
find favour in England, are unsuitable for Colonists with 
small capital, who want a cheap, handy and light 
implement which can be replaced as soon as a year or 
two brings easier means, and sees improvements per- 

It is indeed stated in proof of the adoption of like ideas 
in the mother country that more Ontario-made self-binding 
reapers have been sold this year in Great Britain than any 
of English manufacture. 

Bar Iron, Pigs, Rails, etc. 

16. — It is, however, in bar iron ; in boiler or other plate 
iron ; in hoop, band, or scroll iron ; in iron, in slabs, blooms, 
etc. ; in iron pigs ; in railway bars, rails and fish plates; in 
rolled iron or steel angles, beams, girders, etc. ; in sheet 
iron, and in wrought iron or steel tubing that the United 
Kingdom asserts the greatest predominance with an import- 
ation last year into Canada amounting to 2,356,523 dollars 
against 642,129 dollars worth from the United States — that 
is, nearly fourfold. 

At Londonderry in Nova Scolia important rolling mills 
have been established, and at Toronto and elsewhere in 
Ontario there are prosperous foundries. 

17. — England though falls back again seriously in 

! ■ 

'J'.f ' i 



(ircat Britain supplied Canada with only 
worth, compared to 500,000/. froin the 

machinery, composed wholly or in part of iron, in locomo- 
tive, fire, or other engines, and in cast iron vessels, plates, 
etc., as also in builders', cabinet makers', carriage and 
harness makers' hardware, and in house furnishing hard- 

In these lines 
about 100,000/. 
United States. 

In connection with machinery it may not be amiss to 
mention the almost invariable practice, throughout the 
American continent, for all machinery under the control 
either of the State or public bodies being kept spotlessly 
clean and as attractive as possible, and, in the case of all 
stationary engines, allowing the pulolic to see them in opera- 
tion, from a gallery or other suitable place, so that humble 
mechanical i^enius may feast its eyes, and think out problems 
or improvements, which may advance their authors to wealth, 
and place further names upon the roll of the world's 

Electro-Plate and Britannl\ Metal. 

18. — In electro-plated ware and gilt ware of all kinds the 
import from Great Britain amounted last year to 51,041 
dollars, and to 98,669 dollars from the United States, while 
in manufactures of Britannia metal (not plated) the import- 
ation from America amounted to 40,000 dollars, or eight 
times that from Great Britain. 

Predominance of British Manufactures of Cotton 

and Wool. 

19. — It is not necessary to examine in like detail the 
relative trade in the Dominion of Great Britain and the 
United States in the manufactures which are not located in 
Sheffield. But it may be mentioned that the purchases by 
Canada of British cotton goods exceeded three million 
dollars last year against one-fifth that amount from the 
United States, in velveteens exceeded 82,000 dollars from 
Britain against only 356 dollars from America : while the 
sale to Canadians of British manufactures of wool were over 
ten million dollars, or 100 times that of the States. 

The Empire, Canada's uest Customer. 
20.— While, as has been shown, Canada bought last year 




of Great Britain and Ireland, and British possessions, to an 
amount exceeding forty-live millions of dollars, the Empire 
was in return the best customer of the Dominion, purchas- 
ing no less than 44.479,992 dollars worth of Canadian pro- 
ducts, or 11,156.785 dollars worth more than the United 
States, and admitting nearly the whole free of all duty. 

Prei'krential Tradk within thf. Kmpirk. 

21. — It is hardly to be expected that Canada, with her 
scanty and hard-working population could, with the example 
of every nation or colony (save one) before her, attempt to 
raise by direct taxation the twenty-four million dollars of 
public venue she now derives from customs duties. 

But there can be little doubt that if a preference was ob- 
tained for British over foreign goods in the tariff, it would 
give just that pecuniary advantage calculated to stimulate 
the undoubted partiality of most British colonists for British 
made goods, if they themselves arc unable to produce them 
in adequate quantity. 

Such preferential trade, large public meetings I have 
recently addressed in all the principal commercial centres, 
on behalf of the United Empire Trade League, have declared 
with practical unanimity and much support from both 
political parties, that Canada is willing to exchange with 
the mother country and the Empire, so soon as foreign treaty 
hindrances (treaties with Belgium and Germany of 1862 and 
1865) are removed — it being calculated that no policy would 
more certainly advance the prosperity, peopling and capital- 
ization of the whole country and the consequent augmentation 
of customers. 

Means of Commercial Negotiation. 

22. — No more efifective means either could probably be 
found to bring about that reduction of the United States 
tariff wall, so much desired both by the Dominion of Canada 
.and the mother country, for it would furnish her Majesty's 
representatives with a weapon of commercial persuasio:: 
they now wholly lack in negotiating with foreign countries. 

Effect of the McKinlev Tariff. 

23. — It may be too early perhaps to judge definitely as to 
the effect of the McKinley tariff upon British trade in the 
United States, There can, however, be no doubt that in 

I, I 

'> n o 


many industries, and especially among the receivers of wages 
in the United Kingdom, it will be very serious, and tend still 
further to extend the disproportion between the sales of 
America to (ireat JJritain and the purchases by America of 
IJritish goods, which have stood for some time m the adverse 
ratio of three to one. 

Much Chan(;k not to de kxpfcted. 

24. — It is necessary, therefore, to say that while the organs 
of the democratic party in the United States and the sanguine 
views of American importers who are in personal or corre- 
spondence relations with England, encourage a hope that 
the McKinley tariff will be repealed or considerably modified 
in the near future, I am convinced that, as matters stand, 
such belief is to a great extent delusive. 

In the first place the democratic majority in the House of 
Representatives, as at present constituted, is practically 
powerless in the face of a strong and hostile Senate, with 
an equal mandate from the people, and in the face too of 
an antagonistic President, to a great extent independent 
of either, with all his Ministers and machinery of govern- 

In the second place democratic leaders and advocates in 
every locality are eager to protest that they do not now 
desire free trade, do not dream of admitting duty free the 
productions of competing foreign workmen, and that they 
aim only at a reduction of the tariff. 

Again, it is now well understood that the alleged rise in 
prices at the time of the election last year for Congress was 
artificial and impressed upon voters by skilful wire-pulling — 
such as the hiring of itinerant pedlars to perambulate the 
agricultural districts with household wares marked up at 
double cost ; by urging democratic retail dealers to serve 
their party (and their tills) by demanding greatly increased 
sums for all goods during the campaign " in consequence of 
the new tariff." 


25. — There appears to be little doubt that the Federal 
Commission now sitting will find that, although in some dis- 
tricts there may have been speculating failures, employment 
was never upon the whole more plentiful or better remune- 
rated than at the present time. As in Canada so in the 
United States, it is work which is everyv/here seeking hands 



— and not, as with us, men searching, too often vainly, for 

On both sides of the border between Canada and the 
United States the necessaries of life — wheat, flour, bread, 
meat, are extraordinarily cheap and excellent, while artisan 
clothing, so often reputed dear and pressing upon the family 
purse, is readily obtainable, so old Shcftield men have 
assured me, in very fair quality at from 8 dollars 50 cents, 
to 12 or 14 dollars per suit, that is i/. 2/. i6.v. Indeed, 
before me is the advertisement of a New York house offering 
"Jersey Cloth (silk finish, new), blue, black or brown, per 
suit 14 dollars, quality XXX." 

Beyond question the whole standard of industrial life is 
higher than in Europe — higher too, I am sorry to have to 
admit, than in Great Britain. Neither poverty nor dislrebs 
are visible, while drunkenness, so far as it may exist, is kept 
carefully out of sight. 

American Reciprocity Treaties. 

26. — It will be probably less, however, on the industrial 
prosperity of American workers, on the success of the high 
tariff in compelling competitors for the custom of the 
American people, to employ their capital within the United 
States, to pay wages to Americans, and use American 
materials, that the Renublican party will appeal next year 
for a new Presidential lease of power (with what chance of 
success I do not pretend to prophecy), than upon the 
unexpected triumph that has attended Section 111., or the 
Reciprocity clause of the McKinley Tariff Act in the hands 
of Mr. Secretary Blaine. 

Already under its provisions free entry for American pro- 
ductions and manufactures has been secured into Brazil a 
market taking in 1889 6,232,316/. worth of Ihitish goods — 
in e.\change for the free entry of the raw materials and other 
commodities of that Republic so rich in natural wealth. 

The same result has been achieved, and will shortly come 
into force with regard to .Spanish possessions, taking to- 
gether 8,000,000/. worth of British products every yeir. 

To BREAK UP British Trade. 

27. — This latter treaty is viewed with especial concern in 
Canada, and the notice of terminating the Anglo-Spanish 
treaty of commerce which has been given, gives rise to a fear 








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1-4 11.6 




















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WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 








that the Americans will secure the trade with the Spanish 
Indies heretofore enjoyed by the Dominion. 

Both treaties will also very injuriously affect the interests 
of the fishermen of Newfoundland, who among the Catholic 
population of Brazil and the territories of Spain seek the 
principal market for that dried fish, the sale of which, until 
improved fish trade and other mercantile relations are 
established with England, as they might easily be, constitutes 
their principal means of existe: ce. 

A like treaty has been concluded with San Domingo, and 
others are in active negotiation. 

The vaunted object is '* the breaking up piece-meal of 
British foreign trade," and whether or no it obtains that aim, 
the untoward influence these treaties, placing American trade 
upon a preferential basis, are calculated to exert in that 
direction, is not, I fear, a circumstance well calculated to 
induce the masses of the American people, in their present 
frame of mind, very speedily to destroy the instrument. 

Effect of British Inaction. 

28. — It is a paramount duty to direct the attention of the 
Sheffield Chamber of Manufacture, as a body representative 
of the commercial and industrial community of Great Britain 
and Irelind, to this practical aspect of the present situation, 
lest buoyed up by a vain hope that the markets of the United 
States will be thrown open, England allows all opportunity 
to pass of following the example of America and Central 
Europe in establishing preferential trading relations on 
mutually advantageous terms. A commercial union richer 
in its prospects than any attainable by whatever phalanx of 
foreign nations, lies now, but not for much longer, ready to 
her hand— that of the British Empire, of a fifth of the entire 
world, peopled or fostered by her own people, capitalized by 
her own capital. 

Inaction much longer maintained on the part of the mother 
country will be ascribed by the energetic minds of Greater 
Britain to callous indifference to Imperial responsibilities, 
and can have no other effect than to expose Canada, New- 
foundland, the West Indies, British Guiana and British 
Honduras, aggregating not much short of half the area of 
the Empire, and not impossibly other Colonies, to the 
temptation of entering instead into commercial alliance with 
the United States, involving discrimination in favour of 
foreigners against the British flag, which even the loyalty of 
the most loyal Colonial subjects of her Majesty the Queen 



may not, with due regard to their material interests, be able 
to resist. 

American Pioneers of Commerce. 

29. — But in any event I must note the amazing energy and 
push shown by American business houses. On every journey 
in nearly every quarter of the globe you meet their repre- 
sentatives, who lose no opportunity of skilfully advancing 
American trade ; and while Germany, backed by a vigilant 
Government, is following closely in the same direction with 
astonishing results, the reports of her Majesty's Consular 
officers agree in declaring that the appearance of an English 
commercial traveller becomes more and riore rare. 

ntion of the 

Boards of Trade. 

30. — American Boards of Trade, corresponding to our 
Chambers of Commerce, are also very active organizations, 
sparing neither expense nor trouble. 

They occupy a like position in Canada, and in Toronto 
the Board of Trade— an enthusiastic meeting whereof 1 had 
the honour of addressing — has erected a palatial building, 
where business men meet daily for the mutual exchange of 
information and views. The turn of the market is recorded 
from hour to hour from the centres of commerce, and among 
the members there exists an admirable system of mutual life 

Canada as 

a Field for British Capital and 

31. — In conclusion, it is hardly possible to speak of Canada 
in exaggerated terms as a source from which Great Britain 
may most readily obtain the larger portion of the supply of 
corn, meat, and dairy produce, her increased population and 
diminished agriculture oblige her to purchase from over the 

The extremely fertile and virgin soil of the vast region 
occupied by Manitoba, the North-West Territories, and 
British Columbia — half the size of Europe, and lying be- 
tween Lake Superior and the Pacific Ocean — has now been 
provided by British Canadian enterprise with a complete 
network of railways, bringing it, so soon as Atlantic com- 
munication by Nova Scotia and Newfoundland has been 
improved, to within fourteen days' steam of Liverpool. 

U ■ 



Capital and immigration are alone needed for their 

A better field for the former could not be found if British 
Commercial Union made the market secure of forei^m 
caprice, while for steady industry under the old flag, under 
like institutions, under the same law, no wider scope exists 
in the universe. 




shire, upon 

British Trade with Japan. 

Progress of Japan. 

I. — Little idea can be formed of the progress anr' develop- 
ment of Japan without a personal visit. That the Japanese 
Empire should have heen brought in less than a quarter of a 
century from barbaric darkness and isolation to a leading 
place in the civilized world, is not the least remarkable event 
of the present generation. The fact that this great revolution 
has been accomplished without the pressure of external war, 
and practically without internal riot or bloodshed, renders it 
the more extraordinary. 

Some may affect to prefer the old order of things, may think 
that the transition has been dangerously rapid, may sneer at 
the wonderful adaptive faculty displayed. This is, however, 
certain, that in good order and sobriety; in cleanliness and 
politeness, in industry and contentment, the Japanese are 
already in the van of nations. 

The police, postal, telegraphic, and educational systems 
are tributes to their capacity, while over 1400 miles of rail- 
way are being efficiently worked by native employes. 

Care and caution will be undoubtedly very necessary for 
many years to come. But if reliance upon indigenous talent, 
and the new law that Japanese industrial undertakings must 
be represented by Japanese, are not carried to an extrava- 
gant point, the next decade or two may see the vast reforms 
not only matured, but carried onwards to a summit undreamt 
of, when, in 1868, the country was released from the chains 




) .,- 

1^ »- 


4 A 


of ages ; or even when a score of years later his present 
Imperial Majesty, the 121st Mikadoand Emperor of his race, 
voluntarily gave the nation one of the clearest constitutions 
in existence " in consideration of the progressive tendency of 
the course of human affairs and in parallel with the advance 
of civilization." 

Concurrent Growth of British Interests. 

2. — There is nothing more striking in this transformation 
than the constant growth of British interests in the Empire, 
with which it has been attended. 

Illustrated by large numbers of British Residents 
AND Mercantile Firms and proportion of Trade 
AND Shipping. 

This is clearly illustrated by the following notable 
facts : — 

(r?) That British residents, numbering 1500 souls, of which 
two-thirds are males, equal numerically the representatives 
in Japan of the whole of the rest of the world, excluding the 
adjacent Chinese. 

(/;) That a like state of affairs exists with regard not only 
to the number of foreign mercantile firms, located in Japan, 
but also in the proportion borne by the British flag of the 
external trade. 

{c) That since 1868, the first year of the new Japanese 
era, British shipping in the waters of Japan has. according 
to the calculation of her Majesty's Consul at Kobe, increased 
threefold in number and fifteenfold in tonnage. It carried 
last year two-thirds of the (extra Chinese) foreign trade, and 
71 per cent, of the whole, in over 1000 ships inwarc! • and out- 
wards, giving employment to more than 25,cxx) persons, and 
this notwithstanding the harassing exclusion of foreign 
vessels from any share in the large coasting trade between 
other than the six open ports. 

Volume of Japanese External Trade. 

3. — The external trade (imports and exports) of Japan has 
more than doubled in the past ten years. It amounted in 
1890 to 1385 millions of silver yen or dollars ' (say 21,000,000/. 

• The figures are expressed in yen as being more accurate than 
the taking of an arl)itiary rate of exchange, when it is constantly 



sterling) against 62 1 million yens in i88r. The exports, of 
which the British Empire took nearly a third, amounted to 
54J million dollars; the imports to 81^ millions. 

The Foreign Element as a Source of Wealth to 


4. — The financial value to the Empire of the foreign com- 
mercial houses is shown by the passage, through their 
agency, of 1 10 million dollars worth of the total external 

There is in addition the expenditure of many thousands of 
foreign visitors to the natural beauties of the country — of 
which 70 per cent, are calculated by Mr. Gubbins, secretary 
for Japanese to Her Majesty's Legation, to be British, — a 
sum estimated at an extreme minimum of three million 
dollars a year, or about 500,000/. 

The Passport System and Disability of Foreigners. 

There is hope that these important considerations may 
lead ere long to a modification of the stringent passport regu- 
lations, and of the disability attaching to the alien tenure of 
real estate, hindering as it must do the permanent invest- 
ment of capital. 

Proportion of External Trade with several 
Foreign Countries. 

5. — Foreign countries shared or divided in 1890 the ex- 
ternal trade of Japan in the following proportions : — 

(a) Great Britain 320 million dollars. 

\b) British Colonial Empire ... 27*0 ,, „ 

Total British Flag 59,000,000. dols. 

{c) United States 26*0 million dollars. 

(d) China i4'8 „ „ 

\c) France i4"o „ „ 

(/) German 9-0 „ „ 

(e) Corea (adjacent) 5*6 „ „ 

(//) Belgium 10 „ „ 

All other countries less than 
one million dollars each, 
and aggregating 9-4 „ ,, 

varying to the great inconvenience of commerce. A Japanese 
yen or dollar fluctuates in value between 3^. 2d. to y. 4J. An 
average of 6 dollars 20 cents, is usually olitained for the sove- 

Z 2 



Purchases ry Japan of British Goods. 

6. — The purchases by Japan from the British Empire ex- 
ceeded 41 million dollars (say 6,750,000/.), of which 26?, 
millions worth were obtained from the United Kingdom. 

Unfortunately, however, a not inconsiderable proportion of 
the imports credited to Great Britian, are stated to have 
been of German, Belgian, or other foreign make, and al- 
though obtained through English houses, the advantage to 
the artisan community at home was thereby materially 

False Marking. 

The observations on this head of Consul Longford, in his 
report for 1886, aie still deserving of attention : — 

" While fully recognizing that it is only reasonable and 
right that English merchants in Japan should go to those 
producing centres which show the greatest readiness to meet 
and satisfy their demands, it is at the same time unfortunate 
that they should import the goods which they obtained from 
Germany with English marks and chops on them, even 
though the latter are only intended to acquaint native dealers 
with the name of the firm supplying them and not in any 
sense to designate the country of origin or production . . . 
for means are thus placed in the hands of the Japanese 
middlemen or the ultimate retailer, which may aid him con- 
siderably in selling (inferior goods) as English." 

Merchandise Marks Acts. 

The enactment in the United Kingdom of the Merchandise 
Marks Act of 1887, so largely due to the Cutlers' Company, 
has no doubt modified this evil at its base. It has not, how- 
ever, stamped it out, partly because foreign goods can still 
be imported into England, plain and devoid of any indica- 
tion of origin, and the detection of subsequent false marking 
by the few dishonest, prior to home sale or foreign exporta- 
tion, is practically impossible ; and partly because few 
foreign nations have adopted a corresponding law, or if they 
have, it is rarely enforced. 

The Japanese Trade Mark Regulations of October, 1884, 
do not touch the question, and moreover have been judicially 
held, so Mr. Consul Hall informs me, not to apply to 
foreigners or foreign goods 

Appendix, 34 1 

Purchases by Japan of Shkffikld Goods, 

7. — The purchases by Japan from Great Britain of those 

productions of iron, steel, and hardware, in which Sheffield 

is mainly interested, compare favourably with those from 
other foreign nations. 

Iron Pig, Bars, Rods. Rails, etc. 

8. — In pig iron, iron bars, rods, plates, sheets, and rails, 
Japan bought last year from England 1,424,000 dollars worth 
(say 235,000/.) against one-fourth that amount from Germany, 
and only 20,000 dollars worth from F'rance. Even this large 
figure shows some shrinkage on the British import in 
1888-89, while the German, although so far behind, has in- 

Pipes and Tures. 

9. — In iron pipes and tubes Great Britian supplied Japan 
in 1890 with 1 59,000 j'tv/ worth, out of a total purchase of 
i66,coo dollars — an increase of 98,000 dollars worth in two 


10. — In nails, however, Great Britain has fallen behind 
and given place to Germany. Indeed, her Majesty's Con- 
sul at Yokohama says in his report for last year : — 

" The consumption of wire nails is steadily increasing. 
The demand for nail rod is now almost extinct — manufac- 
tured nails being taken instead. These nails are now 
mostly of German, and a few of Belgian origin." 

This is corroborated by the purchase irom England of 
nails having fallen from 342,000 dollars worth in 1888 to 
134,000 dollars worth in 1890. 


This is the more remarkable as in iron screws, Great 
Britain holds the market with a supply of 70,000 dollars 
worth in 1890, against only 20C0 dollars worth by Ciermany, 
and a like amount by France. 


II. — In steel 162,000 dollars worth was obtained from 
England out of a gross importation amounting to 194,000, 





France supplying 23,300 dollars worlh, and Germany, subject 
to the observations in paragraph 6, only 3900 dollars. 

Mr. Consul Troup has observed "that the steel imported 
by the Government for the making of barrels at the small- 
arms factory at Tokio, and for the Osaka arsenal is mostly 
French, German, or Italian, and at the Yokosuka dockyard 
there is a certain preference for Creuzot steel." 

With the approval of the Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
whose great courtesy I take leave to acknowledge, and by 
permission of the Minister of War, I visited the Osaka 
arsenal to ascertain the cause. 

Osaka Arsenal. 

12. — It is an admirably organized institution with canal 
service direct to the sea, provided with the best English, 
German, French, Italian, and Austrian machinery, employ- 
ing 1400 hands at an average wage of ten pence for a ten 
hours' day, and turning out 24-ton guns, besides all other 
material for a standing army, 80,000 strong, formed on the 
French model with German improvements, and reserves 
240,000 in number, but deficient in officers. 

Advantage of the Metric Scale. 

The Director, Lieutenant-Colonel T. Ota of the Imperial 
Artillery and European trained, was so good as to give me 
for the Cutlers' Company, on hearing that it included the 
members of the great iron and steel firms, a complete set of 
photographs, illustrating the workshops, the guns, and the 
target experiments. He expressed himself as fully sensible 
of the excellence of the metal manufactures of Sheffield, and 
their superiority, both in cost, quality, and workmanship, for 
original productions. Upon the other hand, though, he 
frankly said that there was so much risk of error in the 
measurement by " feet " and by " inches," that it saved much 
anxiety and trouble, when specific and exact size was required 
to order from Creuzot, or from Krupp, in the metric scale, 
adopted by Japan of " metres and millimetres." One well- 
known English firm has in consequence, I understand, 
determined to follow the German example, and to render 
specifications to foreign governments or individuals in their 
own lineal and currency calculations. 

Partiality of Students for Country of 

13. — In this connection the Consul at Yokohama calls 



attention to another important matter. He says "the 
Government official prefers the material of the country where 
he has received his training." 

The Japanese authorities have in the last fifteen years 
sent large numbers of students to Europe. Many have given 
since their return solid proof of their industry, perseverance, 
and natural aptitude. More than one Continental Cabinet 
has taken an active interest in these students. But not so, 
I understand, her Majesty's Government Several have 
consequently gone to France, Germany, Austria, and Ital)-, 
who might with advantage have come to England, as well as 
those studying ship-building and engineering. It is a 
matter not to be lost sight of in the future, for there are 
other backward lands likely to be stimulated by the bright 
example of Japan, and to endeavour to follow it. 

Cutlery, Knive.s. 

14. — The imports of cutlery have averaged 21,000 dollars 
(say 3000/.) during each of the past three years, and practi- 
cally the whole came from Sheffield. It is a trade capable, I 
believe, of great development. At the present time, the use 
of table cutlery is confined to the foreign population and 
visitors, and to a small proportion of the Japanese, perhaps 
100,000 out of the forty millions. 

But this number is likely to increase every year, and, in- 
deed, every day, as European ideas, habits, and costume, 
encouraged, by the Imperial Court, the nobility, and the 
leaders of commerce and thought, gain a firmer foothold. 
It is illustrated intir alia by the wide adoption of English 
head gear on the top of the native costume, and the con- 
sequent importation of a million dollars worth of English 
hats and caps in the last triennial period. 

Encouragement of Table Cutlery. 

At a recent industrial conference with some of my con- 
stituents, an artisan asked if nothing could be done to 
encourage Eastern races to abandon "chop sticks" in 
favour of knives and forks. The question created some 
amusement, but it showed much intelligence and acumen. 
It has since occurred to me that possibly advantage might 
be taken of the Japanese and Oriental generous custom of 
present-giving to stimulate a taste for our cutlery, by 
enabling donors to obtain at a small cost a gift knife and 
fork, attractively got up either upon a card or in a case. 
In any case an experiment would not be ruinous. 



Razors, Scissors, and I'ocket Knivks, 

15. — I have obtained for the information of the Sheffield 
trade, specimens of the razors, scisscrs, and pocket knives 
now in use amonjf the Japanese, and shall on my return 
forward them to the Cutlers' Hall As will be seen, they 
are of a very rou^di and |jrimitive description. 

Skill ok Japanksk as Cutlers. 

Time was when, according to Professor Rein, the German 
scientist sent by the Prussian Government to report upon 
" The Industries of Japan," " anions; the nations of Eastern 
Asia the Japanese were known as skilful workers in iron, 
which their celebrated armourers transformed into famous 
weapons of excellent steel. The forgincj and polisiiing of 
swords was a wearisome work demanding much skill and 
practice. The tempering of the edge was carefully done in 
the charcoal furnace, the softer backs and sides being sur- 
rounded up to a certain point by fire clay, so that only the 
edge remained outside. The cooling was in cold water. 
Skilful sword cutlers gained for themselves high social 
position, and won great glory and fame with their swords." 

It now survives only in collections of old weapons. An 
Imperial edict forbade the carrying of swords, and in a few 
weeks the most costly arms were a glut in the market. 

Demand for Razors. 

It is noteworthy that the Japanese very rarely allow any 
hair to grow upon the face, and the humblest peasant is 
regularly shaved by the barber, " dry," and with a rude 
handleless razor . 

There is scope here. Indeed, a contract has just been 
concluded with an English house in Japan, for the supply 
of a considerable quantity of soft " German " steel, for the 
blocking out of razors, and I noticed one considerable shop- 
keeper announcing himself as " manufacturer of all kinds of 
European hardware," 

Locomotive and other Engines. 

16. — In locomotive engines Great Britain supplied Japan 
in 1890 with 474,000 dollars worth out of a total of 659,000 
dollars, Germany following with 81,000 dollars worth, and 
the United States with rather more than half that sum. In 
other engines and boilers 253,000 dollars worth came from 




I'ln;;land out of ;i total iiiipoil of 345,cxx) dollars, wliik; of 
railway caiiia^'es the United Kitii^dom supplied iOjOckj/. 
worth, or the whole save 600/, 


17. — In zinc, however, Ciermany took the lead with con- 
signments amounting,' to 141,000 dollars against 89,000 from 
(ireat IJritain. As the prosperity of the country advances 
the use of zinc, especially for roofm<:f purposes, is likely to 

Woollens and Flannels. 

18. — While in woollen cloths Kn<,dand holds her own in 
Japan with the supply of three-fifths of a {,aoss import ex- 
ceeding last year a million dollars, she falls far behind in 
woollen yarns and flannels. In the former (lermany led in 
the proportion of 3.J to i, and in the latter by a sale of 
715,000 dollars worth out of 927,000 dollars, and I under- 
stand that the representative of a well-known English house 
recently found the trade much overrun and business exceed- 
ingly difficult. 

Apprehended Decline of English Cotton Trade. 

19. — It is, however, the cotton trade of Lancashire which 
is likely to feel a serious change ere long in its relations with 
Japan. Her Majesty's commercial representatives have 
given warning of it for some time, and shown not only the 
danger to be apprehended by English operatives from the 
competition and cheap labour of India, but also from the 
establishment of cotton spinning factories in Japan, and the 
growing preference for the home made article. 

In 1885 there were only 62,000 Japanese spindles at work. 
Now there are over 313,000 in 35 mills. Some have not 
done well owing to defective management. But others are 
working day and night. The importation of raw cotton has 
quadrupled in the last three years, while that of cotton on 
the seeds has doubled. A million dollars worth of the most 
improved British spinning machinery was laid down last 
year, and much attention is being given to the cultivation o. 
the cotton plant, although, owing to the typhoons, with m- 
different success. 

While British cotton velvets, satins, and handkerchiefs 
have not lost ground, and grey shirtings, T cloths, and 



Italian cloths came almost entirely from England, as also 
turkey reds and victoria lawns, the work of the Japanese 
mills is evidenced by a decline in the importation of cotton 
yarns by over three million dollars since 1888, of which two 
million fell on Great Britain, and a diminution in the pur- 
chase of foreign cotton drills by two-thirds. In shawls also 
there has been a shrinkage. 

A Fresh Market for Lancashire. 

It is clear, therefore, that Manchester will have before 
long 10 a great extent to replace her Japanese market, of 
which she had, until lately, a monopoly. This may probably 
be done most advantageously and effectively in the direction 
of United Empire trade. 

Proposed Increase of Japanese Tariff. 

?.o. — Closely allied with this question is the almost certain 
increase in a year or two of the Japanese tariff. The amount 
collected at the present time by the Customs Bureau (whose 
returns are compiled with much care and despatch) comes to 
about 5 per cent, ad valoron (60 cents per 100 catties or 
I33^1bs. of steel, and 30 cents per 100 catties of manufac- 
tured iron in rods, bars, etc., and 15 cents per 100 catties of 
pig), and yielded last year 4,488,384 dollars, or nearly double 
the customs revenue of 1881. 

It is highly probable that this rate will be doubled, or even 
increa'^ed to 11 or 12 per cent, in accordance with the 
demand of national manufacturers and operatives. 

Powerlessness of Her Majesty's Government. 

Partiality of the Japanese for the 


21. — Under present fiscal conditions in the United 
Kingdom Her Majesty's Government is powerless to 
negotiate for a special arrc^ngement as regards England. 
Were we differently situated it is not impossible that the 
Emperor's Government might be willing to treat pre- 
ferentially with Great Britain, not only by reason of the 
preponderance of British interests in Japan and Japanese 
waters, but also on account of the popular partiality through- 
out the empire for our countrymen and their productions. 
This is evidenced in a thousand ways in the national life of 
this most attractive people, and not least of all by the 




a<ioption of English as the secondary official and commercial 
language, to an extent so great as to render it ample for 
travel in all but the remote districts. 

A Close Alliance with Japan most Desirable. 

22.— It is much to be desired that this feeling may receive 
all possible encouragement. No question is likely to disturb 
the harmony of Anglo-Japanese relations, and no alliance 
is calculated to be of greater mutual advantage to both 




Having regard to the apprehension caused by the danger 
in which foreigners in China have been lately placed, many 
of my constituents desire to know the result of recent 
inquiries at Peking and elsewhere, into the condition of 
affairs as affecting British Trade and Industrial 
Employment. I have the honour, therefore, to submit the 
following report. 

The details have been collected partly from official sources 
and partly from the views of authorities in various spheres 
who have favoured me with opinions founded for the most 
part upon long personal experience. 

Extent of Chinese Empire. 

I. — It may be desirable, in the first place, to call to mind 
the area and population of the Chinese Dominions, and the 
system of government. 

The Empire of China proper is about 1,500,000 square 
miles in extent, or twelve and a half times the size of the 
United Kingdom ; sevenfold the area of France or of 
Germany ; yet less than one-sixth the British Empire. To 
this must be added the dependencies of Mongolia, Manchuria, 
Thibet, &.C., say 2,000,000 square miles. 


2. — This vast and productive Empire, bordered upon the 
West and South-West by the possessions of the British in 
India and Burmah, and by Thibet ; upon the North by Asiatic 
Russia, and upon the South-East by French Indo-Chma, is 
estimated to contain about four hundred millions of what 
an English authority has described as "the most cheerfully 
industrious, orderly, and wealthy nation in Asia." 




The Emperor of China. 

3. — Over them despotically reigns, from the absolute 
seclusion enforced by tradition of The Forbidden City at 
Peking, the youthful descendant of The Conqueror who, two 
centuries and a half ago, placed for the second time the 
Tartar sceptre over the Chinese, and assumed the style of 
" The Son of Heaven." 

The Crown does not devolve by primogeniture, but by the 
posthumously declared selection of the reigning Emperor 
among the male members of a younger line of the Imperial 

The Imperial Government. 

4. — The Central Government is regulated by an Inner 
Chamber, a Grand Council, and the following six Ministries 
or Boards : {a) Civil Office, {b) Revenue, (' ) War, {d) Works, 
{e) Ceremonies, (/) Punishments. Each Board is composed 
of Manchus (Tartars) and Chinese in equal numbers, with 
two Presidents — a system excluding individual power or 

The executive orders go from the Throne, and are obtained, 
according to ancient custom, on petitions presented by the 
Presidents of Boards or Members of the Grand Council, upon 
their knees, at or before sunrise, — the course of the Vermilion 
Pencil of the sovereign being, it is said, much influenced by 
the Empress Dowager, who, during the Imperial minority of 
seventeen years, skilfully administered the Regency. 

Foreign Affairs. 

5. — The relations of China with Foreign Powers are con- 
ducted through a special Board or office — the " Tsung-Li- 
Yamen," — consisting of eleven members of the Grand Council 
and six Chief Secretaries, a considerable number of whom, 
with a large retinue of servants, receive, round a sweetmeat- 
covered table, the official visits of diplomatic representatives. 
This collective conduct of state business, added to the 
difficulties of a language which, although monosyllabic^ 
contains over 20,000 characters, and the necessity of all 
communications passing through interpreters (except in the 
case of the French Minister, who speaks Chinese), much 
restrains and practically prohibits the confidential and 
personal negotiations which, in other countries, so much 
facilitate the satisfactory conclusion of public affairs. 

.1"'"' '. 




Provincial Administration. 

6. — For purposes of provincial administration, China is 
divided into several Viceroyalties, each invested with a large 
amount of sovereign power, including taxation, internal order 
and defence. It is subject, however, to many ingenious 
checks. In the first place, a Tartar General is attached to 
each Viceroy, in a semi-independent position, and his assent 
to many administrative matters is essential. Secondly, there 
is a rule against the appointment of a Chinese Viceroy over 
any province or provinces whereof he is a native. There is 
also the vigilance of a Board of Censors, established 160 
years B.C., and theoretically consisting "of the most en- 
lightened, righteous, and firm persons," whose duty it is to 
warn the Emperor direct of anything done to the public 
detriment, not excepting even Imperial laches ; for the 
Chinese maxim runs — " To violate the law is the same crime 
in the Emperor as in a subject." 

There are, within the Viceroyalties, 18 provinces, over 
each of which is an Imperially-appointed Governor, a Trea- 
surer, a Judge and Comptrollers of the Salt Monopoly and 
the Grain Tribute. Every province is again subdivided into 
prefectures, departments, districts, and townships under 
small Mandarins, and into village communes under Head, 

The territories of Mongolia and Manchuria are adminis- 
tered martially ; in Thibet and Corea there are " Residents " 
representing the Chinese Suzerain. 

The Mandarinate. 

7, — The Mandarinate is not[hereditary, save in the case of 
a few princely families, largely debarred from public life, and 
the still surviving hous' Confucius, which was elevated to 
a Dukedom, 1500 yer ev the death of its founder, in 

479 15.C. 

Public Offices. 

Public Offices ire filled by nominated Mandarins of 
various grades. They obtain their posts partly by pro- 
ficiency in successive urban, provincial, metropolitan, and 
palace open competitive examinations in Chinese classical 
lore, and partly by purchase or judicious bribery. 

The former literary tests were established twelve centuries 
ago, and at least iioo years before merit or study had much 
place in European patronage. 



ame crime 

nces, over 

The brilliant <Traduate of humble origin rarely lacks, more- 
over, the pecuniary support necessary for the prosecution of 
his studies, or for official recognition of his examination 
laurels. Localities, banks, and capitalists are usually ready 
to stand behind a man of promise, as an investment, to be 
liberally recouped by ulterior *' squeeze," — on his attaining 
place,— smally paid in itself, however exalted, but prolific in 
indirect sources of enrichment. 

Influence of the Literati. 

8. — Nothing is declared to press so heavily upon the social, 
political, and national progress of China, as the adverse 
influence of the " educated '' classes. So it was even in the 
time of the great monarch who, 200 years before Christ, con- 
solidated the Chinese Empire, and built the still-enduring 
Great Wall, in hopes of thereby defeating Tartar incursions. 
To overcome the opposition of the Literati, he ordered all 
their books to be destroyed. 15ut the fact remains that the 
vigorous heads among 'he people, who, in other lands, have 
had to carve their io- \ path, by agitation and revolution, 
through the barric . bocial rank, caste, and the privileges 
of wealth, have had for ages in China an open avenue to 

Thus it is that the student tendency, instead of being, as 
in every other part of the world, in the direction of reform, 
is applied to the most absolute maintenance of the present 
system, and to the rejection alike of the methods and 
appliances of the Western world. 

Students sent to Europe. 

9. — It is true that a few youths have, from time to time, 
been sent to Europe and America, but their studies have 
been either cut short, or the palace circle has succeeded in 
relegating them, on return, to distant posts. Some also have 
gone back, not imbued, like the Japanese, with ardent 
enthusiasm for reforms, but apparently more embittered than 
ever against the foreigner.' How little influence they have 

^ A Chinese literate, who had been to Paris for study, expressed 
his opinions of Europe in the following terms. He freely acknow- 
ledged tbe superiority of our intellectual enterprise, without being 
at all persuaded that it was a thing for which we were to be 
envied: — "The eyes of your intelligence," he used to say, "arc 
more piercing than ours, but you look so far that you do not see 




had, and how little is really known of the West, may be 
illustrated by the belief said to have been expressed by a 
provincial functionary in high office, that foreigners came 
to China, from the barren rock of Europe, to obtain 
" rice " as a means of subsistence ; and to the opinion of 
another, that we owed scientific progress, not to our own 
discoveries, but to having obtained a copy of the ancient 
Chinese classics, saved from the above-mentioned Imperial 

National Result. 

10. — 'The national result is that, although recent events 
have hastened forward the completion of a telegraph 
system, there is throughout the Chinese Empire but one 
short railway, no proper road communication, and defective 
attention to the unrivalled waterways, no uniform system of 
taxation, no reliable administration of justice, no Chinese 
currency (other than brass cash), no postal system, and 
little regard for the public health and welfare ; yet, where- 
withal, there is great respect for private property and the 
due transmission of the small holdings into which the land is 

Prospect of Reform. 

1 1 . — That a people sometimes accounted ** the active race 
of mankind " ; as keen and reliable in business as any in the 
universe ; the reputed first inventors of the mariner's compass, 
of gunpowder, of ink, printing, and paper (which have con- 
tributed so much to England's greatness), should be content 
with such a condition of things may well pass belief. Am- 
bassadors have of late been sent to Europe, Diplomatists, 
consuls, traders, and missionaries have endeavoured to show 

about you. You have a bold spirit which must make you success- 
ful in many things ; but you have not enough respect for what 
deserves to be respected. This perpetual agitation in which you 
live, this constant want of diversion, clearly indicates that you 
are not happy. With you, a man is always as if he were on a 
journey, whereas we like to be at rest. As to your governments, I 
am willing to believe they have some good in them ; but if they 
suited you as well as ours suits us. you would not change them 
so often as you do. I am quite sure to find, when I go back to 
my country, the same institutions as when I left it ; and I see 
that not one of you would guarantee me, for even a couple of years, 
the solidarity of your government as it is to-day." 



the light. The example of Japan is at hand. Vet no man 
can say, upon any foundation of actual fact, that a change is 
probable or imminent. 

It is true that fully two millions of industrious Chinese 
emigrants can testify to their speedy acquirement of com- 
parative wealth under liappier conditions, despite laws of 
exclusion in America. The majority are said, however, to 
return quietly home and settle down (awaiting interment in 
one of the family burial places which cover the surface of 
the country and much prevent the sale of land) to that 
worship of ancestors, filial obedience, and veneration for 
authority, which are quoted with pride as contrasting 
favourably " with a society where each generation despises 
the one which immediately preceded it, and strains after the 
future without respect to the past." 

Want of Leaders. 

12. — There is also an undoubted want of men willing to 
champion, or capable of leading, a party of reform. 

The two most conspicuous statesmen in the Empire — and, 
indeed, the only ones — are the Viceroy of the Metropolitan 
Province of Chilhi, and the Viceroy of Hupeh. 

The former is His Excellency Li Hung Chang, who, for 
40 years, has possessed a great and beneficial influence. To 
the viceregal functions are united those of Grand Secretary 
of the Empire and Commissioner for Northern Trade, in 
which capacity His Excellency is consulted on all foreign 
and naval matters. He has the forts on the Peiho in good 
order, the troops well trained and armed— not with match- 
locks or bows and arrows, as in other viceroyalties, but 
with modern weapons, replenished from arsenals at Tientsin, 
under foreign direction. A railway ' runs, moreover, under 

' Owing to the multitudes of men who liiid euipluyment in China 
by tracking or towing junks and boats up and clown the rivers, 
canals, and other waterways, once in a splendid condition, but now 
much neglected, as also in carrying tea, salt, and other produce on 
their backs, over paths inaccessible to horse or cart, there is as 
much, or more, popular prejudice against railways as prevailed 
in England 60 years ago. One writer says : — " Whenever the 
effects of our scientific niach nery in abridging labour are explained 
to a Chinaman, the first idea that strikes him is the disastrous eflfect 
that such a system would work upon his over-peo})led country, if 
suddenly introduced inio it, and he never fails to deprecate such 
an innovation as the most calamitous of visitations," 

A a 



English mana<,'einent. to the Gulf of Pechilhi, and its 
extension to within 14 miles of Peking was once authorized, 
but subsequently disallowed. 

Unfortunately, Li Hung Chang, who has given not a few 
proofs of his good-will and preference for England, is over 
70 years of age, and his brother, the Viceroy of Canton, who 
also vainly seeks to build a railway to Kowloon, opposite 
Hongkong, is still older. 

His Excellency Chang Chih Tung, Viceroy of Hupeh and 
Houan, is a different stamp of man, in the prime of life, and 
energetic. But the regeneration of the Chinese must be, he 
contends, by the Chinese, and not by foreigners. To carry 
out his project of a railway from Hankow to Peking, he was 
transferred from a superior viceroyalty, and to this end an 
iron foundry has been established at Hanyang. The rails 
and the plant are all, however, to be of Chinese make, so 
that the commencement, not to say the opening of the line, 
is still in the Greek Kalends. 

Secret Societies. 

13. — The influence of secret societies is also prejudicial to 
reform. They exist in every province, but their objects arc 
often merely local and devoid of revolutionary aims. Their 
existence has, however, been put forward upon more than 
one occasion in extenuation of popular excesses. 

Some, moreover, like the " Kolao Hui," or Association of 
Elder Brethren, mainly formed of disbanded soldiers eager 
for employment, have spread widely, and could bring about 
serious trouble. Others, like the " Broken Coffin Society," 
so well repressed by the British among the vast Chinese 
population of the Straits Settlements, have predatory aims. 

it is not, however, thought that the overthrow of the 
system of government, or of a dynasty, which has extermi- 
nated its rival, is held in serious contemplation, except by 
extremists, who may, however, get the upper hand. Very 
summary proceedings and execution tend to damp the 
enthusiasm of active agitation. Moreover, the difficulty the 
Southern Provinces, speaking Cantonese, or the Centre and 
Western Districts, speaking other dialects, have in making 
themselves understood by Northerners, speaking Mandarin, 
or the official language,' coupled with the practical absence 

' It is very common io find that Chinese, meeting on boaril .ship, 
or elsewhere, with distant countrymen, are obliged to resort to 



of a press (besides the Official Ciazette), restrains revolu- 
tionary propaganda by means more effectual than police 


14. — At the same time the intercourse of China with the 
outer world has undergone frequent change, and especially 
during the present gi neration. The leading incentor to 
French activity in the Far East, says — " Yesterday Chinese 
trade did not exist for Europe, but to-day it puts thousands 
of arms in motion in England, and amounts to millions " 

This is literally true. The Dutch and the Portuguese 
were before us. Even as early as a.d. 971, a superintendent 
was appointed at Ningpo to overlook foreign trade, and 
before that, there was such a functionary stationed at 
Canton. Until the latter part of the last century the British 
flag had hardly appeared. But now we have outstripped 
the competition of the whole of the work!. 

Fifty years ago England sent to China barely half a 
million worth of goods. The first war Her Majesty was 
obliged to wage in the interests of British trade, brought 
about the opening of new ports, and in 1844 the English 
exports to the China Sea exceeded /2, 300,000. Then were 
forced upon us the operations of 1857-58, and the war of 
i860, resulting in the Treaty of Peking Within the next 
decade British commerce rose to ^9,000.000 a year. Now 
it is half as much again. Apart, then, from the indemnity, 
and the anterior cession of Hongkong, become one of the 
greatest, as well as most beautiful, ports in the world, the 
cost of the operations has been defrayed many times over 
in increased wages to British artisans. 

Benefit to China. 

15. — Nor has the advantage been one-sided. The gain to 
China has beeri even greater. The value of the Chinese 
foreign trade for 1890 is given by Sir Robert Hart, the 
Inspector-General of the imperial Maritime Customs (an 
Englishman whose eminent services to China receive uni- 
versal recognition), at 214 million Haikwan taels (the average 
value of which, for last year, was 5,?. 2}^/.), say, in round 
numbers, ;/^53,ooo,ooo, or double tb.c total of a few years age, 
while in the last decennial period the imports have increased 
by 48 million taels, and the exports by 9 millions. 

•* Pidgeon " or English business jargon as their only means of 
linguistic communication. 

A a 2 

" I 



Tkkaty Ports. 

1 6. — Under various treaties, mainly ncsotialcd by England, 
twenty-one ports and places have been opened iox forei<^n 
trade and residence, of which five are on the River Vanj;tze, 
penetrating over a thousand miles into the heart of the 
interior. Two other places were added in i88g, under 
agreement with France. 

At most treaty ports a portion of the urban area has been 
assigned to the foreign community, who are left free to 
provide for its regulations — a duty which is usually dis- 
charged by the help of tolls on shipping and house rates, 
as to roads, lighting, public conveyances, and buildings, in 
a manner which sets the most isuccessful example of muni- 
cipal work to the neighbouring native administration. 

Duty upon Foreign Goods. 

17. — An import and an export duty, each averaging 5 per 
cent, ad I'aloreui, is levied upon goods conveyed in foreij;n 
vessels, which are, upon the other hand, exempted from the 
" Likin " or war tax, and freely granted transit passes, clear- 
ing them from the prefectural tolls, which do not a little fo 
embarrass the native trader in the interior. 

The duty upon foreign goods is collected by the Imperial 
Maritime Customs — a splendid service, employing 700 
Europeans and 4000 Chinese. It yielded, in 1890, a 
revenue of 22 million taels (say ^^5, 500,000) to the Chinese 
Government, or a third more than ten years ago, and further 
supervises the lighting and buoying of the coast. 

Duty upon Native Goods. 

18. — The import and the export duty upon goods conveyed 
in Chinese junks is levied by the Chinese Customs Service ; 
and it is said that many shipments are so made to escape 
the vigilance and the higher taxation of the European Ad- 
ministration, and arc subsequently transferred to foreign 
bottoms at Hongkong or elsewhere. 

! ■ 

British Shark of Foreign Trade. 

19. — Three-fourths of the entire foreign trade of China fell, 
last year, to the share of the British Empire, or mi>re, by 
three million taels, than that done by the entire Continent 
of Europe and the United States of America. The trade 


with the United Kinfjdom, indiuling that passing through 
Hongkong, exceeded 2 ' 5,000,000 

The Commissioners of Customs at Tientsin, Newcliwang, 
Ningpo, and other treaty ports, all speak of" the increased 
demand for British goods." in spite of much distress 1' st 
year, owing to floods in many places ; and while Shanghai 
reports that " German figures fall off decidedly,'' the Com- 
missioner at Kinkiang states that '' the British and Chinese 
had all the trade to themselves." 

British Shipping in Chinese Waters. 

20. — This fortunate state of affairs is strikingly illustrated 
by the British shipping in Chinese waters. The red ensign 
of England, which appeared on the first steamer in the 
Yellow Sea, in 1830, floated in 1890 upon 16,897 of the 
20,530 foreign vessels which entered and cleared at Chinese 
ports, while the British tonnage amounted to {;ths of the 

Our next competitors were the Germans, with whom we 
have so much in common, and who are sparing no effort to 
develop their China trade. They entered and cleared 2140 
vessels last year, or 622 fewer than in 1888, with a diminu- 
tion of 227.000 tons burthen. 

A good proportion of the coast-carrying trade was also 
done by British-built steamers, carrying the dragon flag, 
and wholly owned by Chinese merchants. But, with very 
few exceptions, insurance companies and underwriters insist 
upon such vessels being commanded and officered by British 
or Americans. Besides this, the majority of the pilots on 
the Peiho and other rivers arc British, a state of affairs 
pointing to the necessity of nothing being omitted by the 
Board of Trade to afford every possible facility to the 
merchant marine to acquire the technical knowledge 
necessary to maintain this world-wide reputation of the 
English for superior nautical skill. 

Prepondp:raxce of British Interests. 

21. — These facts show the enormous preponderance of 
British interests in China, — a condition of things existing 
also in Japan, — not only over those of the whole world, but 
especially as regards those of France, Germany, Russia, or 
any other European power. 

They are corroborated by the establishment in China of 
327 British firms, or double the number of the mercantile 



''' ' ■ % 

bousos of every other nation, and by the residence at the 
treaty ports of over 3300 IJritish subjects, out of a total 
foreifjn population of about 8000 

(jcrmany comes next with 80 firms and 640 residents ; 
followinfT her, America, with 32 firms ; and then Franco, 
with 19 firms and 590 persons. 

Rei'RKsentai'ion' of the Uritish I'koplk. 

22. — I'nder such circumstances the British public cannot 
be otherwise than f;lad tliat Her Majesty the Queen is fitly 
represented at I'ekinjf by what is not unfrequcntly described 
in the vernacular as *• The Great English Legation." 

The consular service of Britain in China is also manned by 
some three-score officers, each one of whom is an accom- 
plished Chinese scholar, a large majority having passed 
through the arduous Student Interpreter Course, which 
is ready to fill junior vacancies, as they occur, with young 
men evidently as well selected as they are carefully trained. 

Diplomatic and Consular Assisjance to Britl'^h 


23. — At the same time it would be idle to deny that, in 
spite of recent improvements, British traders generally com- 
plain in China, as elsewhere, of the lack of diplomatic and 
consular assistance in the advancement of English trade, 
and the apparently little official interest shown therein. 

The French have a like grievance, and the work of 
German representatives for their nationals is often cited 
with envy. It is said, though probably with exaggerated 
truth, that German Ministers and Consuls are unflagging 
in their efforts to advance German commercial interests, to 
show that German traders have government recognition and 
approval, and that the employment of Germans, instead of 
English or French, is much appreciated by the Emperor 

It is possible that the out-of-date view that diplomatic 
and consular officers are purely political agents may be ex- 
cessively retained in some instances, and that the assist- 
ance rendered by Her Majesty's Consuls to British trade 
might advantageously receive more encouragement and 
departmental recognition. 

There can be no doubt, however, of the difficulty which 
would ensue by consular espousal of the interests of a par- 
ticular firm to the inevitable prejudice of a rival house. 



Nor is the presti^'e small or unimportant which Her 
Majesty's service derives from tlie fact tliat any expressions 
of opinion, or any advice tendered, are known to be wholly 
free from any interested motives. 

Iron ani) Stkim- Tkadk in China. 

24. — In examining; the position in China of particular in- 
dustries, attention must first be directed to the iron, stee', 
and hardware trade. 

The standard work (Williams' " Middle Kint^dom ) 
says : — " Handicraftsmen of c\ery name are content with 
coarse-lookinj,' tools compared with those turned out at 
Sheffield ; but the work produced by some of them is far 
from contemptible. The bench of the carpenter is a low, 
narrow, inclined frame, on which he sits to plane, groove, 
and work his boards, using his feet and toes to steady them. 
His augers, bits, and gimlets are worked with a bow ; but 
most of the edge-tools employed by him and the blacksmith 
are similar in shape, but less convenient than our own. 
They are sharpened with bows, on grindstones, and also 
with a cold steel like a spokesh.ive, with which the edge is 
scraped thin. 

" Steel is everywhere manufactured in a rude way, but 
the foreign importation is gradually supplying a better 

Importation of Metai.s. 

25.— This is illustrated by the importation, in 1890, of 
242,000 taels (60,500/.) worth of steel, besides 800,000 taels 
worth of iron sheets, plates, bars, hoops, nail rod, pig and 
old iron, and 500,000 taels worth of copper bars, nails, wire, 
&.C., — a purchase exceeding 400,000/., — the greater part of 
which was from the United Kingdom. 

The Statistical Secretary of the Imperial Maritime Cus- 
toms states that "iron of all kinds maintained, in 1890, a 
" steady consumption of 1,100,000 piculs (each picul equals 
1332- lbs.), and steel rose from 39,000 to 56.000 piculs, — an 
increase of 43 per cent., — although it is noticeable that the 
import is very variable from year to year." 

The Commissioner at Newchwang states that " importa- 
tions of metals advanced to the enormous extent of 113 per 
cent, over 1889 — the most conspicuous being nail rod;" 
while his colleague at Tientsin speaks of " the increasing 
demand for manufactured iron nails, which are cheaper and 



better than those made by native blacksmiths;" .ind Chin- 
kiang states, from the Central Provinces — " For iron of all 
kinds, 1890 totals have not been cciualled.'' 

S n i', 1' I- 1 F, ij J 1 ■: N I l', K i • R I s !•: . 

26. — The enterprise of Sheffield has not been behindhand. 
In 1843, after the Northern ports had been opened, a Times 
correspondent reported " that an eminent Sheffield firm 
sent out a large consignment of knives and forks, and 
declared themselves prepared to supply all China with cut- 
lery. The Chinamen, who knew not the use of knives and 
forks (or, as they say, abandoned the use of them when they 
became civilized), but toss the rice into their mouths with 
chopsticks, would not look at these best balanced knives. 
They were sold at prices which scarcely realized their 
freigh , and shops were for years afterwards adorned with 
them, formed into devices, like guns in an armoury.'' 

A somewhat similar fate has attended the efforts of another 
prominent, but younger firm, whose dust covered sample 
cards were shown me in Shanghai. 

Although in 1S85 Germany sent a considerable quantity 
of cutlery to Tientsin, Chefoo, and elsewhere, Sheffield 
evidently meets the demand of foreign residents as regards 
table articles, for some of our leading names are present at 
every meal.]) for Razors. 

11. — The demand for razors is, however, enormous. It is 
staled that, having regard to the artificially caused excess of 
the male population, some 180 or 200 millions of men have 
their heads and faces "painfully" shaved once a week by a 
razor of the rude specimen I am sending, with others, to the 
Cutlers' Hall, and which cost about 5 cents, or 2\d. Three- 
quarters of a Chinaman's head is always kept clo:ely shaved, 
and custom prohibits either whiskers or beards, and even 
moustaches, unless before then a grandfather ! 

At Canton, a well-known Hallamshire trade-mark is 
reported as selling freely on razors at 20 cents. But in other 
places, more removed from British example, I v/as assured 
that it is quite hopeless to induce Chinese barbers to adopt 
the Sheffield shapes, unless they wish to empty their crowded 
shops. For the Sheffield-made C/ii?tesi: paticni, however, a 
vast demand might possibly be brought about by careful 
agents, if only it can be done at the low price the Chinese 
are willing to pay. 



Demand for Large Foroinc.s. 

28. — 'I'herc is already a considerable request for large 
forgings, and the arsenals under the control of Englishmen 
are steadfast believers in the undoubted superiority of English 
manufacture. But all agree that it is nothing compared to 
what will come when China really begins to go ahead, and 
to open up for her people the vast wealth of the Empire. 
The representatives of Messrs. Krupp and of M. Creuzot 
are very vigilant, active, and skilful. 

Adoption of Metrical Measurement. 

29. — In connection with this matter, it is important to men- 
tion that a rcrommendation is about to go forward from a 
high authority, to wnom attention is paid, that China should 
adopt, as Japan has already done, the metrical system of 
measurement of France and Germany. Unless this is 
fully realized, there may be a loss of valuable business, for 
dthough there are measures which render feet and inches 
in metres and millimetres with the utmost nicety, foreigners 
contend that there is sometimes an inevitable plus or minus, 
which upsets calculations. 

It is 
(icess of 
ek b}- a 
to the 

Want of Uniform Monetary Standard. 

30. — In the same direction, too, it may not be amiss to give 
expression to the general mercantile complaint of the 
absence of a uniform and international decimal monetary 
system. Not only are many firms ruined by unexpected 
and often unaccountable fluctuations of exchange between the 
29 principal currencies of the world, but the clerical labour 
involved, not to speak of constant misunderstandings, is 
stated to be most prejudicial. 

This can be appreciated when it is considered that trade 
in the East is conducted in rupees, piastres, Mexican and 
American dollars, Japanese yen, silver shoes, shapes, and 
bars ; Haikwan, Shanghai, and Tientsin taels — the latter 
unrepresented by coins or notes, and all varying in value 
from day to day. The Shanghai tael, for instance, which 
was worth 4,s-. 3^^/., on February 28th, 1890, rose to 5.9. 3^^/., 
by September 5th. — a difference of 23 per cent.. — and fell 
back again 13 per cent, in the next two months The rupee, 
too, worth 2s at par, was at a discount of eightpencein 1889, 
but early in 1890 all but touched \s. 9^/., until, in November, 
it fell to IS, 5^^.— each penny of fall occasioning not only 



great loss to individuals, but it is calculated many thousand 
lacs of rupees to the Indian Government. 

It is difficult to say which decimal system has the most 
advocates, — probably dollars and cents, — but all agree that 
pounds, shillings and pence, and English coins on which 
the value is not stated, entail more trouble than any standard. 

" I 

C(rrTON Goods. 

31. — The vast present and the enormous future interest 
Lancashire has in China, as also the British capitalist in 
India, is shown by the Imperial customs report for 1890. It 
runs thus : — " Cotton ^oods boimded upwards in value from 
36 million taels in 1889, to 45 millions (say 11,000,000/.) in 
1890 — an increase of 25 percent. Cotton goods of nearly 
every texture were infected with the general contagion of 
increase, and expanding in quantity and value, while cotton 
yarn, and more particularly that from India, poured into 
China in a higher ratio of increase than ever heretofore, 
having risen from 108,000 piculs in 187S, to over a million 
piculs in 1890, representing 19^ millions of taels (say nearly 
5,000,000/.), or 50 per cent, more than in the previous 

It is not nccessiiry to add anything to this authoritative 
statement, unless it be that the French efforts to force their 
"cotonnade" upon the Annamites, by prohibitory duties 
upon all foreign goods in Indo-China, are unavailing, and that 
the prospect before Manchester is unlimited so soon as the 
South-West of China is opened from Burmah. It is tem- 
pered only by the establishment of mills to turn Chinese- 
grown cotton into yarn. 


32. — In woollen goods there was, in 1890, an importation 
of 3^ million taels worth — a slight falling off compared with 
the previous year, mainly in English camlets and lastings. 

Export of Silk. 

■Nothing, perhaps, more eloquently exhibits the im 
portance of China as a commercial factor in the world, and 
the necessity of foreign trade to her people, than the silk 
industry, which employs many tens of thousands of persons. 
Fifty years ago not a bale was exported, at least to England ; 
but last year over 30^ million taels' worth were sent abroad. 



Even that larf^e quantity showed a fallinij away, owing to 
transient circumstances, of 16 per cent, over the previous 

The Tka Trade. 

34 — The staple export of China, and the one with which 
the Celestial Empire is most closely identified in the popular 
mind, is, of course, her tea. 

In 1670, eighty pounds of China tea were exported into 
England, and, despite export duties, varying in China and in 
the United Kingdom from 400 per cent on the productive 
cost to 100 per cent, at the present time, the trade increased 
to 108 million pounds in 1880. 

Indian Tea. 

35. — Since then there has, however, been a serious decline, 
increasing so much, from year to year, as to jeopardize the 
entire industry. This is declared to be mainly owing to the 
fortuitous development of tea-planting in India and Ceylon, 
and to the preference shown by the English consumer for 
tea of British growth. 

Twelve months after the Queen's accession, 400 lbs. of 
Indian tea were sent to England as an experiment. In 1890 
the consignment was over 100,000,000 lbs., and Ceylon sent 
nearly half as much. The efifect has been that, while, in 
1865, out of every 100 lbs. of tea sold in England 97 lbs. 
were Chinese and only 3 lbs. Indian, in 1890 the Chinese 
pro])ortion had fallen by about 50 per cent., and the cost to 
the British tea drinker was also in like degree reduced. 

One reason put forward by the experts, consulted by the 
Maritime Customs, is that " a good stout tea, that will stand 
several waterings, is what suits the mass of English con- 
sumers, and this India provides much better than China."' 
The English merchants at Shangai and Foochow affirm, 
however, that this greater strength is purchased by the 
retention of deleterious properties. 

Apathy of the Chinese. 

36. — It is in vain that the attention of Chinese cultivators 
has been called to the condition of the tea industry by all 
concerned. Moreover, four years ago, the Inspector-General 
of Customs thus addressed the Imperial authorities: — 

'* To a government, its people's industries must be of 
higher importance than revenue. I would, therefore, advise 




that taxes be remitted, in order that industries may be 
preserved. Think for the people, and forego revenue. 
Export duties ought to be Hght, in order that the surphis 
production of a people may go for sale elsewhere. Import 
duties, on the contrary, arc the duties which ought to be 
retained ; but the use to be made of each commodity ought 
to be well weighed. If it is something people cannot do 
without, it ought to be exempt from duty ; but if it is a luxury, 
it ought to be heavily taxed. On the right application of 
these principles depend the nation's wealth, and the people's 

Nothing whatever has been done. From Foochow the 
export has declined by one-half in ten years, and deprived 
the revenue of a million taels a year, and the people of five 
million taels in wages. The opinion is indeed general " that 
the gradual extinction of the China tea trade is practically 
assured, unless something retards Indian and Ceylon pro- 
duction, or drastic measures are adopted." 

The " Shanli,'' or hill tax ; the " Likin." or war tax, and 
the export duty, are all maintained intact, and the unfortu- 
nate Chmese growers have to compete with the untaxed tea 
of India and Ceylon. What distress is likely soon to ensue 
may be gathered from the fact that the production of one- 
half only of the output of the Assam Company, with its few 
hundred employes, affords the main sustenance of 4500 
Chinese families, or, say, about 20,000 persons. They are 
themselves, moreover, so apprehensive that the introduction 
of the machinery in vogue in India and Ceylon will diminish 
employment that the Government has not felt itself strong 
enouj.;h to protect its use. 

Foreign Opium Traffic. 

37. — The opium question excites much interest in England. 
Some philanthropists have feared that the revenue of over 
5,000,000/. a year, derived by the Indian Government from 
the licensed and carefully-restricted cultivation of the raw 
material of the valuable drug, is in major degree responsible 
for the reported influence upon the Chinese of opium smok- 
ing. They may be somewhat reassured by the result of a 
careful European inquiry, officially instituted throughout the 
Empire. It shows that imported opium is only smoked by 
the affluent, the luxurious, and well-to-do, or, at most, by 
one-third of one per cent, of the population ; that is, by about 
three per thousand. 

The annual importation used to amount to an average of 



100,000 chests, yielding, for smokinpf, about 4000 tons of 
boiled opium. They cost the consumers upwards of 
17,000,000/., of which 3,000,000/. went to the Chinese revenue. 
But it is a rapidly declining clement in Chinese finances, and 
the deficit may, before long, have to be made up by increas- 
ing the duties upon other imports. 

Native Oprm. 

38. — Native opium was known, produced, and used in China 
long before any Europeans began the sale of the foreign 
drug. The records of the loth century prove this ; and 
opium figures as an item in the tariff of 1589, and again in a 
customs list of the r7th century. Hundreds of square miles 
are devoted to the cultivation of the poppy, which, accord- 
ing to the late Dr. Williams, " is now grown in every pro- 
vince, without any real restraint being anywhere put on it."' 
Native opium sells for half the price of the foreign article, 
and its smokers are consequently more numerous among 
the people and younger practitioners {i.e., those from 25 to 35 
years of age). It is, in short, say the latest reports, '' forcing 
foreign opium out of consumption with triple energy. " 

Number of OpiuiM Smokers. 

39.— The best authorities concur that the whole of the 
smokers, of either foreign or native opium, do not exceed 
two-thirds of one per cent, of the population, or adding a 
margin, say, seven per thousand (Replies to Circular No. 
64, Second Series, Inspectorate General of Customs) — a 
state of affaiis which is corroborated from the great town of 
Tientsin, with its million of inhabitants. The Commissioner 
of Customs reports " that but little opium is consumed, 
owing to the growing influence of Abstention Societies, the 
40,000 members of which neither smoke the drug or tobacco, 
nor drink liquors of any kind." 

Effect of Oimum-smok.i\g. 

40. — Theetiect of opium-smokmg, injurious and wasting of 
vital power though it may be, is certainly not apparent to 
the ordinary traveller ; and the American clergyman, whose 
work on China, founded on the experience of a lifetime, 
aided by keenest judgment, has been adopted by every 
foreign legation as the Text Book for aspiring Consuls, thus 
records his opinion : — 



"A dose of opium does not produce the intoxication of 
ardent spirits, and, so far as the peace of the community and 
his fiimily are concerned, the smoker is less troublesome 
than the drunkard. The former never throws the chairs 
and tables about the room, or drives his wife out of doors 
in his furious rage ; he never goes reeling through the 
streets or takes lodgings in the gutter, but, contrariwise, 
he is quiet and pleasant, and fretful only when the effects 
of the pipe are gone." 

MissioxARY Work in China. 

4 1 .-The missionary work of endeavouring to reclaim China 
from the faith which was first introduced 65 years before 
Christ, and whereof the leading principles are stated as the 
worship of ancestors and of sky and earth, has become, 
during the last 30 years, of political as well as of religious 
importance, for it constantly gives rise, and has done so 
very lately, to serious international difficulties. 

Although there are many who regard the missionaries as 
doing valuable secular service in accustoming the nat'v\; 
population in remote districts to the sight of European faces, 
and in prompting inquiry as to the source of their evenly 
balanced and steady lives, constituting them thus as pioneers 
of trade, it is undoubted that the great majority of foreign 
residents are openly sceptical as to the fertility of the 
missionary field. They are especially apprehensive of the 
effect when the ground is tilled by fragile mothers and young 
ladies in the teeth of deep and apparently ineradicable 
prejudice against the public work of women, and particularly 
in conjunction with the opposite sex, for as an incendiary 
proclamation, calling on Wuhu '• to chase out all the bar- 
barian thieves," ran, "This breach of morality and custom is 
in itself a violation of the fixed laws of the State." 

Roman Catholic Missionaries. 

42. — The first missionary labourers were the Italian Jesuits. 
They came to China three centuries ago, and by toleration 
of some of the least objectionable tenets of Buddhism, and a 
jv licious employment of their European learning, obtained 
such imperial favour as to be put at the head of the Astro- 
nomical Board, and to be employed to build the celebrated 

•nmer palace. There seemed, indeed, every possibility, at 
one time, of the wholesale conversion of the Chinese to the 
Roman Catholic Church, termed by the Emperor, K'anghi, 



" the vSect of the Lord of the Sky." But then came Christian 
dissension, and following it soon, as in Japan, their persecu- 
tion, slaughter, and expulsion. 

Now the Church of Rome is stated to have, in China, 60 
Bishops or Vicars Apostolic, some 600 European Priests (of 
whom 65 per cent, are French), and al)out 400 Chinese clergy. 
It claims, also, close upon 700,000 adherents (in Japan the 
proportion is one in every 905 persons) — a calculation which 
should, however, be read probably in conjunction with the 
officially published fact, that of 13,684 baptisms in the metro- 
politan diocese between August r5th, 1891, and August 14th, 
\S(j\, 1 1,583 were " baptisiiii pucronitn injidcliinn in nyticulo 

X\. the same time recognition should be given to the general 
respect entertained by foreigners of opposing Christian creeds 
for the life-long devotion to their task, on the slenderest sti- 
pend, of the Roman priesthood. Their success as to number.^ 
is also said to be much aided by their care of the mundane 
interests of the converted, who, loath to continue subscribing 
to family memorial halls for communication with ancestors, 
and to extravagant funeral rites, if not also to that support 
of aged parents which is obligatory on Chinese Buddhists, 
are shunned by their kindred, and often find private employ- 
ment, even in foreign families, as impossible to obtain as a 
public office, 

Protestant Missions. 

43. — Nor have the Protestant Churches, although later in 
the field, been backward in sending out representatives. A 
considerable proportion of the thirteen hundred thousand 
pounds, which is on an average annually subscribed in the 
United Kingdom for the support of Foreign Missions, goes 
from " Darkest England '' to Ciiina. The United States are 
even more liberal, and school buildings have been erected by 
Americans, on an extensive scale, in many places. 

Forty-one Protestant Societies were represented in 1890, 
by 589 men, 391 wives, and 316 single ladies, — a total of 1296 
persons, of whom 724 were British, 513 American, and 59 
Continental, — assisted by 1660 natives. These numbers 
may now be slightly larger. 

As regards persuasions, 7 per cent, of the Protestant 
Missions belong to the Church of England, 20 per cent, are 
Presbyterian, 14 per cent. Methodist, 12 per cent. Congrega- 
tional, 9 per cent. Baptist, and the larger number, or 38 per 
cent., unclassified. 



There are upwards of 550 Protestant Churches, distribut- 
ing, in 1889, 7oo,cxx) Bibles and 1,200,000 tracts, and over 
60 hospitals and 50 dispensaries. 

The result of the work since 1 842, reported to the Protestant 
Conference, held in 1890, was, in round numbers, 37,300 
communicants (of whom over two-thirds are stated to be 
Nonconformists), or about one in tf .< thousand of the popu- 
lation ; 19,800 pupils ; while 348,oc</ -lersons were returned 
as having,' received medical aid, or al least to have visited a 
missionary dispensary — a work which is acknowledged by 
all to be of the utmost value, to be of real national benefit, 
and to be appreciated by the people. It is much en- 
couraged by the Rev. Hudson Taylor, himself a surgeon 
and native of Barnsley, who from Shanghai directs, with 
great tact, the undenominational China Inland Mission, the 
members of which adopt, like the Roman Catholics, the 
Chinese costume, and, like them, are smally remunerated, 
the expenses of the Mission, exceeding ^38,000 a year, being 
met by unsolicited contributions. 

The Recent Disturbances. 

44 — The disturbances on the Yangtze in 1 891, like those at 
Tientsin in 1870, had for ostensible cause the fixed popular 
suspicion that the succour of foundlings by the Roman 
Catholic sisterhoods is for nefarious medicinal purposes. 
Many of the female children, purposely exposed to die, 
are necessarily, as indeed in Europe, in a moribund condition 
when brought in, and the mortality is very high. This is con- 
firmed by the baptismal figures above quoted. The freedom 
of access, anywhere and to anybody, which is inseparable 
from Chinese life, and is tolerated, however disagreeable, by 
the most experienced missionaries, has also sometimes been 
attended, it is alleged, with difificulty, especially from native 
converts, and irritation has resulted. 

The facts disclosed in the British Parliamentary Paper 
(C. 6431) appear to be that, on May 9th, 1891, two Chinese 
nuns were visiting a sick family at Wuhsueh, on the river 
Yangtze. As the disease of the parents was infectious, they 
removed the children. On the way to the Mission they met 
a relation, who demanded their restoration. This being 
refused, the nuns were taken before a magistrate, who, how- 
ever, on the requisition of the fathers, immediately released 

This excited much popular agitation, and three days 



afterwards, a woman came to the Mission to claim a child 
alleged to have died therein. As she was accompanied by a 
small crowd, which assembles in the narrow teeming streets 
of China on the slightest pretext, admission was apparently 
refused. Then commenced the work of destruction, costing 
two Englishmen, who gallantly went from some distance to 
render help, their lives, and imperilling many others, not 
only in the locality itself, but.later on, elsewhere on the river. 
Much foreign property was destroyed, and a very serious 
state of affairs seemed likely to supervene, for, as The Times 
recently wrote, and experience has often shown, " Native 
feelings of hostility, once roused against the white man and 
whetted by the intoxication of success, cannot be expected to 
take account of an imaginary dividing line between two 

ANTT-FoRKif;\ Feei.ixg. 

45. — In attributing the outbreak to Chinese hatred of the 
foreigner, two observations appear in this instance to claim 
consideration. The first is by Mr. Consul Gardner, in his 
despatch of June g : — 

" The mob was composed of many hostile from mere 
ignorance, many from the force of contagion, some from fear 
of others, a few really friendly, who, like the soldiers, led a 
lady to a place of safety under pretence of robbing her of a 
ring, and others who sheltered them from blows, while very 
few deliberately meant mischief."' 

The other is by the Rev. David Hill, a Wesleyan mis- 
sionary of much experience, who officially employed to 
inquire into the facts. I'nder date June 12th. 1891, he 
writes : — 

"One thing which the sight of the house impressed on me 
was the evidence which it gave of the hold on the people's 
mind which the rumours as to the destruction of infant life 
have gained. On the upper story, the ceiling had been 
inspected by means of a ladder, which evidently had been 
brought up for the purpose. On the ground floor the boards 
of one of the rooms had been fired, and a large aperture 
made. Below the ground floor the ventilators outside had 
been torn open, as though search had been made for 
inissing infants, and, of course, the lath and plaster 
walls in all the rooms where they might be found were 

This latter view is confirmed by the Rev. Father de 
Ouellec, who, writing in the Missions Catholiqiies, describes 

?> b 




how, at another place, on the night of iMay 23rd, a dead 
child, from whom the eyes had been removed, was placed on 
vacant land near the Mission. A crowd assembling next 
morning, cried out, "It is the European devil who has torn 
out the eyes and heart of this child ! " The house was 
stormed, but fortunately a magislr.ate arrived with troops 
more under command than is usual in China, and the mob 
was dispersed. " Hut," adds the Father, " eight out of ten 
believe that we take out the eyes and store them in the 
cellars of the Mission." 

It is contended that, under such antagonistic circum- 
stances, rescue work should be guided by the greatest care, 
for otherwise its use, to the prejudice of both missionary 
efforts and European trade, by reactionaries, is inci'itablc. 
Their sinister influence, once asserted, may at any moment 
call into fatally destructive play, as indeed recently, the 
anti-foreign feeling entertained by a largo proportion of the 

That this anti-foreign feeling exists ail agree. It is urged 
that it must never be forgotten — for what renders it 
especially serious in China, is the frequent evidence of its 
being fanned from above — and that the authorities have no 
efficient machinery of civil order on which reliance can be 
placed. Nor is the Central Government always able to en- 
force its will on distant provincial authorities, or even to 
prevent their varying the orders of the Throne. 

At the bame time, say others, the hostility may be ex- 
aggerated. The employment of over 100,000 Chinese by 
foreign residents, many in highly confidential capacities, 
both in the office and the household, and as many more on 
board foreign ships, tends to confirm the general verdict that 
the people, in an individual sense, are civil, obliging, and 
even hospitable towards the foreigner, and well-disposed 
especially towards the English trader, who treats them fairly 
good-humouredly, and without offending their national 
prejudices. This is supported, even from Wuhu itself, for 
the last Trade Report says : " The trade in goods classed 
under Foreign Sundries has increased rapidly during the 
past two years, and shows a gain of 70 per cent."' 

Summary of British Position in China. 

46. — It remains but to summarize the position of affairs as 
regards British interests in China, so far as I have been able 
to grasp it. 



{a) That three-fourths of the foreign trade is in British 
hands, and a still larger proportion of the shipping 
in Chinese waters. 

{h) That British commercial firms and residents are in a 
large majority among the foreign population. 

{c) That the contiguity to China of British India. Bunnali. 
and Hongkong, and the large numbers of Chinese 
residents in Ihitish territories, give England an 
especial interest in the welfare of the Empire, and 
in the gradual opening of the vast markets in the 
VVest, South-West, and Centre. 

{d) That while British interests outweigh, in their magni- 
tude, variety, and extent, not only those of every 
other (ireat Power, but those also of the whole 
world, Russia upon the North and North-West, and 
from her adjacent port of Vladi vostock ; France, her 
ally, upon the South from Tonquin ; and (Jermany 
upon the coast, are anxious and watchful competitors. 

Policy of liRiiAix. 

47' — The course of policy best calculated, under such a 
condition of things, to maintain and extend British commerce 
is a matter for the P^Iectorate to decide. Those who share 
the feeling of the majority in Shcftield, that the undeviating 
conduct of the foreign affairs of the Empire is essential to 
the expansion of foreign trade and its wealth of home em- 
ployment, will probably consider — 

{a) That the liritish Industrial interests at stake in China, 
and also in Japan, are too great to be necessarily 
linked to the comparatively trivial concerns of any 
other nation. 
(/;) That as they are mainly dependent upon the safety 
of the resident standard iDcarers of British trade, 
Her Majesty's ships in Eastern waters ' should 
always be sufficiently numerous and ready at any 
moment to protect them, unaided, in their persons 
and properly. 
((•) That the trade route from Europe to Asia, and its 
line of defence — Gibraltar, Malta, Cyprus. Egypt, 

' Her Majesty's fleet rountl Cliiiia and japan consists, exclusive 
of torpedo boats, of 22 ships, aggregating 45,100 tons, with 137 
large guns. The next naval power is Russia, with 8 ships and 
18,100 tons, and 61 guns. The Japanese have 29 vessels; the 
Chinese 20, but all with native officers. 

B b 2 



Aden, Ceylon, Singapore, and Hongkong— should 
always be kept in British hands, and secure against 
any possible attack. 
{d) That at the same time, no accession ol friendly territory 
being desired, and only mutuality of commerce on 
equitable terms, the I'mperor of China and the 
Imperial (iovernment should be enabled, by the 
(Queen's representatives, to feel that the support of 
England will always be forthcoming in any step 
for the advancement of the Chmese nation, the 
development of amicable relations, and the security 
of the Empire against any unwarranted maritime 


I. — The nearest trade road from Europe to the Far East 
lies through the Suez Canal, down the Red Sea, past 
I'erini, to Aden ; thence to Ceylon ; from there to 
Singapore, and to Hongkong in the China Sea. 

2. — As three-quarters of the external trade of both China 
and Japan is in British hands ; as the IJritish residents 
are nearly equal, numerically, to those of all foreign 
nations combined ; and as British ocean steamers are 
more numerous than those of the whole world, and 
eightfold those of Germany, the second on the list, it 
is only fitting, independently of the possession of India,, 
that this trade route should always be retained, as at 
the present time, in the hands of England, whose 
position is greatly strengthened by the possession of 
Gibraltar, Malta, and Cyprus in the Mediterranean. 

3. — So long as this sea road is held intact and properly de- 
fended, CJreat Britain remains the dominant commer- 
cial and naval power in the China Sea. 

4. — To pass Perim or Aden in the Red Sea, and so gain 
access to the Indian Ocean, would be almost impossi- 
ble for any European power at war with England. 

5 — Singapore likewise commands, to a great extent, the 
entrance to, and exit from, the China Sea. 

6. — Apart, though, altogether from the active power of 



fortifications ;iiul artillery, torpedoes ami submarine 
mines, there is the e(|iially ctVectivc one of want ot 
/• — Even supposing that (ierniany, Russia, Austria, or Italy 
were able to coal at Port .Said, — a stale of afl.ius 
whieh, while we occupy Ilj^ypl, would not be jxts^ible 
in a state of belli^a-rency,— their steamers could not 
traverse the 7(xx:) miles to the coast of China withovu 
fresh fuel ; and, against the will of England, lhi-> 
would not be attainable. 

S. — Erance alone, by coaling at ihock, opposite Aden, ard 
I'ondicherry, might take the outer channel of Singa- 
pore, and so reach Saigon, a distance of 2300 miles ; 
or even Haiphong, in Tom|uin, an additional 600 
miles ; but the vessels could only steam very slowly. 

9. — The defensive value to the l^mpire of the Colonies 
guarding this great trade road is therefore clear. 

10. — But these prosperous Colonies are also commercially 
valuable to the Empire in themselves, and particularly 
Ceylon, the Straits Settlements, and Hongkong. 

II. — Ceylon does a trade of 6,000,000/. a year with the 
Empire, whereof half is with the United Kingdom, 
which she is now supplying with 50.000,000 lbs. of 
tea annually. 

12. — The Straits Settlements ha\e a population of 5(^7,000; 
and of the external trade of 178 million dollars, 78 
millions are with the Empire. There is no public 
debt, and the Colony contributes (as also Ceylon and 
Hongkong) 100,000/. a year for its defence, which is 
now, for the first time, ujjon a proper footing. 

I J. — Hongkong, ceded to the British 50 years ago, has 
become a jjort of lirst-class importance. Although, 
not barring the approach to the Upper China Sea, 
the Yellow Sea, and the waters of Japan, it does so to 
a large extent, in a practical sense, owing to the coal- 
ing difficulty. 

14. — The shipping trade of Hongkong has doubled in the 
past 20 years. Of 130 million tons of shippmg, pass- 
ing in and out of the harbour in 1890, 7 million tons 
were British, 4 million Chinese, and 2a million foreign. 
British ships numbered 5500 (an increase of 136, 
and 400,000 tons in three years) ; foreign ships num- 
bered 2600 (an increase of 307, and 225,000 tons), 
and Chinese junks 55,600 — a total of 64.000 vessels. 

15. — The population of Hongkong is about 200,000, of which 



10,000 are European, and the remainder Chinese. 
Emigrants from China, to the number of 42,000, passed 
through the port, and of these. 36,000 were bound for 
places under the IJritish tlag, while 850,000 Chinese 
visited the island in the course of the year. 

16. — The general impression of Hongkong, in a commercial, 
maritime, defensive, and picturesque sense, has been 
fittingly summed up by the late Governor: " It may 
be doubted whether the evidence of material and 
moral achievement make, anywhere, a more forcible 
appeal to eye and imagination, and whether any 
other spot on the earth is thus more likely to excite, 
or more fully justifies, pride in the name of English- 

17. — Provided, therefore, the British hold firmly by this 
trade route, and, in friendly alliance with China, do all 
that is possible to develop mutual trade between 
Burmah and the Yunnan district, there is nothing to 
fear from the rivalry of any other power, for so long 
as South Africa remains loyal to the Empire, the long 
sea road by the Cape is absolutely impossible to any 
other nation. If, however, the short route be cut off 
at its base, by the British abandonment of the magnifi- 
cent mercantile position established in Egypt, not only 
will the labour of ten years be thrown away, but the 
whole of the gigantic trade with the East be im- 

iS. — The only foreign powers capable of injuring us, in a 
naval sense, in Chinese waters are Russia and the 
United States. The former has a formidable fleet, 
based upon the splendid fortified harbour of Vladivo- 
stock, and could move land forces upon Corea. The 
reinforcement of the squadron from Europe should, 
however, be impracticable. As regards the United 
States, hostility is happily not a likely contingency ; 
but, in any case, the 4500 miles across the stormy 
Pacific Ocean, devoid of any coaling station, unless it 
be Honolulu, is a formidable barrier. 

21, 12, 1891. 


OOO Mil 





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CALL, Annie Payson, Power 

thrnujh Repose, 3s. Gd. 

CALLAN, IL, U.A., Wander- 
ings on Wheel and Foot thro'igh 
Europe, Is. Gd,. 

Cambridge Trifles^ 2«. GU, 

A Select List of Books 

Cambridge Staircase, 2a. 6d, 
CAMPBELL, Lady Colin, 

hook nf the Running Brook, 5fl. 

T. Soe Choice E'litions. 

CANTERBURY, Arcubishop. 

See Proachera. 
CARLETON, Will, City 

Ballaif.t, illusb.'12s. Gd. 

City Legends, ill. 12^. 6c?. 

Farm Festivals, ill. 126*. 6d. 

See also Rose Library. 

CARLYLE, Irish Journey in 
18i9, 7s. 6(Z. 

CARNEGIE, Andrew, Ameri- 
can Four-in-hand in Britain, 
\0s. Gd. ; also Is. 

■ Rouml the World, 1 Os. 6d. 

■ Triumjiliant Democracy ^ 

Gs. ; new edit. Is. Gd. ; paper, Is. 

CAliOVB, Story without an 
End, illust. by E. V. B., 7s. Gd. 

Celebrated Racehorses, 4 vols. 

CJ^LI^RE. See Low's Stan- 

dard Books. 
Changed Cross, &c., poems, ^s.Qd. 
Chant-hook Companion to the 

Common Prayer, 2s. j organ ed. 4s. 

CIIAPIN, Mountaineering in 

Colorado, 10s. Gd. 
CHAPLIN, J. G., Bookkeeping, 

2s. Gd. 
CH ATTOCK, Notes on Etching 

new edit. 10s. Gd. 



yard Series. 

Choice Editions of choice books, 
illustrated by 0. W. Cope, R.A., 
T. Creswick, E.A., E. Duncan, 
Birket Foster, J. C. Horsley, 
A.R.A. , G. Hicks, B. Redgrave, 
R.A., C. Stonehonse, F. Tayler, 
Q. Thomas, U. G. Townsond, 

Choice Editions'— 'Continued. 

E. H. Wehnert, Harrison Weir, 
&o., cloth extra gilt, gilt ed^ca, 
2s. Gd. each ; ro-ipsuo, l.i. each. 

Bloomfield's Farmer's Boy. 

Campbell's Pleasures of Hope. 

Coleridge's Ancient Mariner. 

Goldsmith's Deserted Village. 

Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield. 

Gray's Elegy in a Churchyard. 

Keats' Eve of St. Agnes. 

Milton's Allegro. 

Poetry of Nature, by H. Weix*. 

Rogers' PleaRures of Memory. 

Shakespeare's Songs and Sonnets. 

Elizabethan Songs and Sonnets. 

Tennyson's May Queen. 

Wordsworth's Pastoral Poems. 

CHREIMAN, Physical Culture 
of Women, Is. 


the Earth, 6s. 
Mrs. K. 

Dark Place of 
M., Southern 

Cross Fairy Tale, 5s. 

CLARKE, C. C, Wntei's, 
and Letters, 10s. Gd. 

Perot, Three Diggers, 6s. 

Valley Council; from T. 

Bateman's Journal, 6s. 

Classified Catalogue of English- 
printed Educational Works, 3rd 
edit. 6s. 

Claude le Lorrain. See Great 

CLOUGH, A. H., Plutarch's 

Lives, one vol. 18s. 
COLERIDGE, C. R., English 

Squire, Gs. 
S. T. See Choice Editions 

and Bayard Series. 

Low's Standard Books. 

COLLINSON, Adm. Sir R., 

H.M.S. Enterprise in Search of 
Franklin, 14s. 

CONDER, J., Flowers of Japan; 
Decoration, coloured Japanese 
Plates, 42s. nett. 

In all Depart Dtents of Literature. 

Sco Great 



COWLEY. Soo Bayard Soric3. 
COX, David. Sec Great Artists. 
COZZENS, F., American 

Yachts, pfs. 211. ; art. pfs. 31^. ]0.s. 
See also Low's Standard 


CRADDOCK. See Low'.s 

Standiird Novels. 
CREW, B. J., Petroleum, 2\^. 
CRISTIANT, R. S., Soap and 

Candles, 42s. 

Perfumery, 25.'?. 

CROKER, Mrs. B. M. See 

Low's Standard Novels, 
CROUCH, A. p., Glimqises of 

Feverland (West Africa), Gs. 
071 a Surf -hound Coast, 

7s. Cnl. ; new edit. 5s. 


Great Artists. 

CUDWORTH, W., Abraham 
Sharp, 26s. 


Thought-reader's Tho%tfihts,lOs. Gd. 
See also Low's Standard 

CUNDALL, F. See Great 


J., Shakefipeare, 3s. Qd., 

5s. and 2*. 
CURTIN, J., MytJis of the Eus- 

sians, 10s. 6d. 

CURTIS, C. B., Velazquez and 

Murillo, with etchings, 31s. ficZ. 

and 63s. 
GUSHING, W., Anonyms, 2 

vols. 52s. Qd. 
Initials and Pseudonyms, 

25s. ; ser. II., 21s. 

Fishing, new edit. 3s. 6d. 

DALY, Mrs. D., Digging, 
Squatting, Sfc, in N. 8. Australia, 


D'ANVERS, N., ArcJiifedvre 
and Sculpture, now edit. 5a. 

Elementary Art, Archi- 

tecture, Scnlpfnre, Painting, now 
edit. 10s. Gd. 

Elementary History oj 

Music, 2s. Gd. 
Painting, by F. Cundiill, 

DAUDET, A., My Brother 

Jaclc, 7s. Gd. ; also Hs. 
Port Tarascon, hy H. 

James, 7s. Gd. ; new odit. 5s. 
DAVIKS, C, Modern Whist, 

DAVIS, C. T., Brirl-s, Tilr^, 
Sf'c, new edit. 25.v. 

Majiufacture of L^afhrr, 

52s. Gd. 

Manufacture of Paper, 28,\ 

Steam Boiler Incrustation, 

%s. Gd. 

G. B., International Lau\ 

10s. Gd. 

DAWIDO^VSKY, Glue, Gela- 
tine, (^'c, iL's. Gd. 

Day of my Life, hy an Eton I)oy, 
new cd'xt. 2s. Gd. ; also \s 

DE .101 N VI r.LE. Sen Bayard 

DE LEON, Edwlv, Under the 
Stars and Under the Crescent, 
2 vols. 12s. ; new edit. Gs. 


Dey^mark and. Iceland. See 
Foreign Countries. 

DENNETT, R. E., Seven Years 

nmnvq the Fiort, 7s. Gd. 

DERRY (Bishop of). See 

DE WINT. See Great Artists 
DIGGLE, J. W., Bishop Era- 

ser's Lancashire Life, new edit. 

12s. 6d. ; popular ed. 3s. 6d. 
Sermons for Daily Life, 5s 


A Select List of Books 

DODSON, Austin, Hogarth, 

with a bibliofjrapliy, Ac, of 
priuts, illust.ii4s.; 1. paper 52s. 6(i. 

►*"J(3C5 also Great Artists. 

DODGE, jNIrs., Hans Briulccr, 

the Silver Skate:^, uew edit. 5s., 
3.S. Cd.. 2s. 6,1. ; text only, l,^ 
"DON KIN, J. G., Trooper and 

Jfed.-'liin ; N. W. monntod police, 
Ciumda, 8». (jd. 

])ONNELLY, Ignatius, ^i^/a«- 

lis, the Antediluvian World, new 

edit. 12s. C)d. 
0(/.vrt/i?Co?wmn, authorized 

edition, 3s. 6d. 

Doctor J/uf/uet, Ss. Qd. 

■ Great Criiptocjram, IJaoon's 

Ciplior in Sliakespearo, 2 vola. 


Ragnarok : the Age of 

Fire and Gravel, 12s, Od. 

DORE, GUSTAVE, Life and Re- 
miniscences, by Blanche Roose- 
velt, fully illust. 24s. 

DOS PASSOS, J. R., Law of 

Sfnckbrokers and Stock Exchan'jes, 
DOIJDNEY, Sarati, Godiva 

Dnrleiqh, 3 vols. 31s. GJ. 

DOUGALL, J. D., Shooting 

Appliances, Practice, §'c., 10s. 6d.; 
new edit. 7s. 6(/. 

DOUGHTY, H. M., Friedand 
Meres and the Netherlands, new 
edit, illnst. 10s. ed. 

DOVETON, F. B., Poems and 

Snatches of Songs, 5s. ; now edit. 
3.9. 6d. 

DU CHAILLU, Paul. See 

Low's Standard Books. 
DUNCKLEY C'Yerax.") See 
Prime Ministers. 


Prairie and Bush, Gs. 
DUrer. See Great Artists. 
DYKES, J. Oswald. See 


Echoes from the Hearty 3«. Gr/. 

EDEN, C. II. See Foreign 

EDMONDS, C, Poetry of th^ 
Anti'Jacohin, new edit. 7s. Gd, 
and 21s. 

Educational Catalogue. Sue 
Classified Catalogue. 

EDWARDS, American Steam 

Engineer, 12s. Gd. 

Modem Locomotive En^ 

gines, 12s. Gd. 
Steam Engineer's Guide^ 

12s. Gd. 
H. Sutherland. See 

Great Musicians. 
!M. 13., Dream of Millions, 

3^c., Is. 

See Low's Standard Novels. 

EGGLESTON, G. Gary, Jug- 

gernaut, Gs. 
Egypt. See Foreign Countries. 
Elizabethan So tigs. See Ciioico 


EMERSON, Dr. P. 11., EaH 

Coast Yarns, Is. 
— English Idylls, new ed. 2.:?. 
Naturalistic Photography, 

new edit. 5s. 
Pictures of East Anglian 

Life ; plates and vignettes, 105s. 

and 147s. 
and GOODALL, Life on 

the Norfolk Broads, plates, 12t)s. 

and 210s. 
Wild Life on a Tidal 

Water, copper plates, ord. edit. 

25s. ; edit, de luxe, G3s. 

R. W., by G. W. COOKE, 

8s. Gd. 

Birthday Book, 3s. Qd. 

In Concord, a memoir, 

73. Gd. 
English Catalogue, 18G3-71, 

423.; 1872-80, 42s. j 1881-9, 

52s. Gd. I 5s. yearly. 

In all Departments of Literature, 

3«. Or/. 

/ of th/i 
,. 7s. G'l. 

e. Seo 
I Steam 
ive Ell' 
\ Guide, 
D. See 

•tl Novell. 
,RY, /«:/- 

CO Choice 

II., Ead 

cw ed. S.'*. 

^ttes, 105c--. 

ites, 12t)s. 

a TiJrtZ 
ord. edit. 


is. Qd. 


English Catalogue, Index vol. 
1837-5(1, 26s.} 1856-76, 42s.; 
1874-80, 18s. 

Etchings, vol. v. 45.>j 

25s. ; vii., 2.")S. ; viii., 42s. 

; VI., 

English P/dlut'.op/iers, edited by 
E. B. Ivan Miillor, M.A., 3s. 6d. 

Bncon, by Fowler. 

Hamilton, by Monck. 

Hartley and Jamos Mill, by Bower. 

Sliafteabnry «& Ilutcheson ; Fowler. 

Adiim Smith, by J. A. Farrer. 


Seo Low's Standard Books. 

ERICH SON, Life, by W. C. 

Church, 2 vole. 24s. 
ESMARCH, F., Handbook of 

Surgcrij, 24s. 

Ei^says on English Writers. 

Seo (lontlo Life Series. 
EVANS, G. E., liepentanee of 

Magdalene Despar, ^'c, poems, 

S. & F., U2>per Ten, a 

story, Is. 
— ^ W. E., Songs of the Birds, 

n. ed. 6s. 
EVELYN, J., An Inca Queen, 


' John, Life of Mrs. Godol- 

phin, 7s. 6(1. 
EVES, C. W., West Indies, 

n. ed. 7s. Gd. 


Familiar Words. Sec Gentle 

Life Series. 
FARINI, G. A., Kalahari 

Desert, 21s. 

FARRAR, C. S., History of 

Sculpture, S/'c, 6s. 

— — Maurice, Minnesota, 6«. 
FAURIEL, Last Days of the 

Consulate, 10s. 6d. 

FAY, T., Three Qermanyt, 2 
Toll. 86«. 

FEILDEN, II. St. J., Sovie 

Public Schools, 2s. Gd. 

^Irs., My African Home, 

7s. ed. 

FENN, G. :Manvillb. Seo 
Low's Standard Books. 

FENNELL, J. G., Book of the 
Roach, n. ed. 2s. 

FFORPE, B., Subaltern, Police- 
man, and the Little Girl. I?. 

Trotter f a Pouna Mystery ^ 


FIELD, Maunsell B., Memo- 
ries, lOs. Gd. 

FIELDS, James T., Memoirs, 
12s. Gil. 

Yesterdays with Authors, 

Ifis. ; also 10s. Gd. 

Figure Painters of Holland. 

Hee Great Artists. 
FINCK, Henry T., Pacijic 

Coast Scenic Tour, 10s. Gd. 
FITCH, Lucy. See Nursing 

Record Series, Is. 
FITZGERALD. See Foreign 

Percy, Book Fancier, 58. 

and 12s. Gd. 

Cruise in the ^jean, 10s. Gd 

Transatlantic Holiday , 

10s. Gd. 

FLEMING, S., England and 
Canada, 6s. 

Foreign Countries and British 
Colonies, descriptive handbooks 
edited by F. S. Pulling, M.A. 
Each volume is the work of a 
writer who has special acquaint- 
ance with the subject, 3«. 6<2. 

Australia, by Fitzgerald. 

Austria-Hungary, by Kay. 

Denmark and Iceland, by E. O.Ott^. 

Egypt, by 8. L. Poole. 

France, by Miss Roberts. 

Germany, by L. Sergeant. 

Greece, by S. Bering Gould. 

T T 


A Select List of Books 

Foreiyu Cuunlries, &c, — coiif, 

Japan, by Muaainan. 

Pi'iu, by li. Markbum. 

Russia, by AIui till. 

Spain, by Wobster. 

Sweden and Norway, by Woods. 

West ludioB, by C. H. Kdon. 

FOREMAN, J., PhUit>pine 

Idanda, 21s. 


Nyassaland, 7s. 6(/. 
FOWLER, Japan, China, and 

fiulia, 10a. 0(7-. 




DHL SAETO. Sco Great Artists. 
ERANC, Mauu J KANNE, JScai- 

rlce Melton, 4s. 

Emilifs Choice, n. eJ. bs. 

— — Golden Cifts, 4.s'. 

Hall's Vinei/ai'd, 4j. 

Itdo the Liyht, is. 

Johii's Wife, As. 

Little Mercy ; fur letter , 

for worse, 4s. 

Marian, a Tale, u. etl. 5.s'. 

Master of Ralston, 4^•. 

- Minnie's Mis.Uon, a Teni- 
'perance Tale, 4s. 

—— No lo7i(jer a Child, As. 

' Silken Cords and Iron 

Fetters, a Tale, 48. 

— — Two Sides to Every Ques- 
tion, 4s, 

— — Vermont Vale, 5s. 

A plainer editiun is ]^nihlislied at 

2s. 6d. 

France. See Foreign Countries. 

FRANCIS, F., War, Waves, 
and Wanderings, 2 vols, 24s. 

See also Low's Staiidard 


Frank's Ranche ; or, My Holi- 
day in tlte Rockies, n. od. 5a, 

ERANlvEL, Julius, Starch 

Qlucime, ij'o., 18f. 

ERASER, Bi.sHoi', Lancashire 
Life, u. od. Vls.Gd,] popular ed. 
3s. (J(i. 

ER K E M A N, J ., Melhourne Life, 

Uiiht.i iiiid shadows, Os. 
EREXCII, V.,Home Fairies and 

Heart Flowers, iiliist. 24s. 
French and Ent/lish liiitltday 

Book, by Kato I).' Clark, 7s. G-/.. 
French Revolution, Ldhrs frurii 

Paris, translatoil, Id.-', (id. 
Frc<h Woods ami Pas/ures New, 

by tbe Author of "An Angler's 

Uavs," 5s., Is. iid , Is. 
FRIEZE, Duprc, Florentine 

Sculptor, 7s. Gd. 
ERISWELL, J. n. See Gentle 

Life Series. 
Froissart for Boys, by Lanier, 

new od. 7s. 6d. 
EKOUDE, J. A. See Prime 

GainshoroiKjh and Constable. 

See Great Artists. 
GASPARIN, Sunny Fields and 

Shady If^oods, 6s. 

GEFECKEN, British Empire, 
Is. Gd. 

Generation of Judyes, n.e. Is.^d. 

Gentle Life Series, editetl by J. 
Hain Friswell, sm. 8vo. Gs. per 
vol.; calf extra, 10s. Gd. ea.; Kinjo, 
2s. Gd., except when price is giveu. 

Gentle Life. 

A.bout in the World. 

Like unto Christ. 

Familiar Words, Gs. ; also 3s. Gi. 

Montaigne's Essays. 

Sidney's Arcadia, Gs. 

Gentle Life, second series. 

Varia; readings, 10s. Gd. 

Silent hour ; essays. 

Half-length Portraits. 

Essays on English Writers. 

Other People's Windows, Gs. & 2s. GJ. 

A Mau'a Thoughts. 

/;/ all Departments of Liter ainre. 



nccinh ire 
tpular od. 

me Life, 

irie.A and 


, 7s. ^jd. 
'(. rs from 

res New, 


jcj Gcnllo 

^ Lanier, 

e Prime 


iblds anil 


.e. 7s.(jd. 
eil by J. 
o. Gs. per 
ea.; Umio, 

33. C(2. 



Oenrf/e Eliot, by G. W. Cooko, 

10,?* e»t. 
(iermAinj. Soc Foreign C<>un-, KoMOLO Taswa, S'ven 

Years in tiw. Souihiti, \H.<. 


Seo Grenfc Artists. 
GII.ES, E., Australia Twice 

Trnvcrsi'd, 1872-70, 2 vols. SOv. 
OILTj, ,). 8('c Low'vS Readers. 
(IJLLKSPIIO, W. ^r., Snrrf'i/. 

inrj, n. od. 21k. 
Gio/lo, by Harry Qniltor, ilhist. 


Spo also Great Artists. 

GlTiDLE STONE, C, Pr irate 

Di'V(>ii')n<, 2s. 


GLENELG, P., Dcnl and the 

Di)cti>r, Is. 

GLOVER, R., Lirjht of the 

Wnrl,l,n. od., 2s. 0?. 
GLiJCK. See Great Musicians. 
GocfJie'x Faustns, in orig. rhynio, 

by irnth, 5s. 

From, l)y C. A. TJncliheiin 

(Low's German Series), 3s. He?. 

GOLDSMITH, O., She Stonpa 
to Conquer, by Austin Dobson, 
illusfc by E. A. Abbey, 8k. 

Seo also Choice Editions. 

GOOCU, Fanny C., Mexicans, 

GOODALL, Life and Land- 

scape on the Norfolk Broach, 12fis. 
find 210s. 

&EMERSON, Pictures of 

East AnijUan Life,£o 5s. and £7 7s. 

GOODMAN, E. J., The Best 

Tour in Norway, 6». 

N. Si A., Fen Skatinrj, 5#{. 

GOODYEAR, W. IL, Grampiar 

of the Jiotv,^, Ornament and Sun 

Worship, 63.<f. nett. 

G(JRD0N, J. E. H., Phi/sicnl 

Treatise <)» J'Jlertriritii and Maj- 
netiavi. 3rd ed. 2 voIh. •I2.<. 

E/rrtric Li'jhtinif, lH.i. 

School Elrr/i'ici/i/, ,'').•, 

]\ri.s. .]. E. ir., JJccuratiiy. 

Electrlcitv, iilusf. 12,-. 

(K^WKR, Lom.RoNALP, JLwd. 

hixdc t(i the. Art (lalleries nf Ji> hjimn 

n)id IlnJlnntt, 5.t. 
Northhrnok (iallcnj, (ills', 

and 10')s. 
J^ort raits at Castlrllmrard. 

2 vols. 12(;s. 

• • S(M! Great Artisl.-<. 

GRAKSSI, TfaJian Dic/inaori/, 

3,s. (!>/ . ; r( an, 5*1. 
GRAY, T. See Choice Eds. 
Great Arti.ff'<, Bioijrdphi'';^ 

illustrMtod, ( iil)lonmticiil liind- 

incr, 3s. Cvl. ])(r vol. ox('r[)t whpio 

the jirico is f^'ivon. 
Hiu'hi/nii School, 2 vola. 
Claudo le Lorr.iiii. 
Correi^'L'io, 2.«'. M. 
Cox WW Do Wint, 
(Jcorgo L'l'nik.^hiuik. 
Delia J{obI)i;i and CoUiiil, 2s. HL 
Alhrecht Diiror. 
Figure Paint iiigfi of Holland. 
Fra Angclico, Masaccio, <fec. 
Fra Bartolominoo, Ac. 
Gainsborough and Constable. 
Ghiberti and Donatelln, 2x. M. 
Giotto, by II. Qniltor, I's. 
Ilogarlh, by A. Dobson. 
Hana IIull)ein. 

Landscajjo Paintora of Holland. 
Land seer. 

Leonardo da Vinci. 
Littlo Masters of (Jcrnianv, by 

Scott ; el. dc luxe, ]0s. ivL 
Mantogna atid Francia. 
Moissonior, 2.v. Gd. 
Mul ready. 

Muiillo, by Minor, 2.'?. Gd. 


A Select List of Books 

Great Artists — continued, 



Bomney and Lawrence, 2s. 6(2. 

Bubens, by Kett. 

Tintoretto, by Osier. 

Titian, by Heath. 

Turner, by Monkhouie. 

Vandyck and Hals. 


Vernet & Delaroclie. 

Watteau, by MoUett, 2s. 6d. 

Wilkie, by Mollett. 

Great Musicians, edited hy 
P. Hueffer. A series of bio- 
graphies, 3s. each : — 

Bach, by Poole. 




F'nglish Charoh Composer!, 




* Marcello. 



*Pale8trina and the Roman School. 


Bossini and Modern Italian School. 



Biohard Wagner. 


♦ Are not rjet published. 

Greece. See Foreign Countries. 
GRIEB, German Dictionary, n. 

ed. 2 vols. 21s. 
GRIMM, H., Literature, 8s. 6d. 
GROHMANN, Camps in the 

Rockies, 12s. 6d. 

GROVES, J. Percy. See 

Low's Standard Books. 
GUIZOT, History of England, 

illust. 3 vols. re*issae at 10s. 6d. 

per vol. 
History of France, illust. 

M4Bine, 8 rols. 10s. 6<2. each. 
^-~— Abridged by G. Masson, 6«. 
QUTON, Madame, IA/b, 6«. 

IIADLEY, J., Roman Law, 

Is. 6d. 
Half-length Portraits. See 

Gentle Life Series. 
HALFORD, F. M., Bry Fly- 

fishing, n. ed. 25s. 

Floating Flies, I5s. &30.?. 

HALL, How to Live Long, 2s. 
ILVLSEY, F. A., Slide Valce 

Gears, 8s. 6c?. 


E. Fly-fishing, 6«. 

See En dish 


10s. 6cZ. 

Riverside Naturalist, 14.9. 

HAMILTON'S Mexican Hand- 
hook, 8s. Qd. 

HANDEL. See Great Musi- 

HANDS, T., Numerical Exer- 
cises in Chemistry, 2s. 6d. ; with- 
out ans. 2s. ; ans. sep. Qd. 

Handy Guide to Dry-fly Fishing^ 
by Cots wold lays, Is. 

Handy Guide Book to Japanese 
Islands, Cs. 6d. 

HARDY, A. S., Passe-rose, 6s. 
Thos. See Low's Stand- 
ard Novels. 
HARKUT, F., Conspirator, Gs. 

HARLAND, Marion, Honie 

Kitchen, 5s. 

Harper's Young People, vols. 

I,_VII. 7s. 6d. each; gilt 8s. 
HARRILS, A. See Nursing 

Becord Series. 

HARRIS, W. B., Land of the 

African Sultan, 10s. 6d. ; 1. p. 

31s. C)d. 
HARRISON, Mary, Modern 

Cookery, 6s. 

SMI fid Cook, n. ed. 58. 

Mrs. B. Old-fashioned 

Fairy Book, 6s. 

W., Ixmdon Housetf Illust. 

n. edit. It. 6<I., 6s. net ; ft 2s. 6d. 

r» LatVf 

)ry Fly- 

,-. & 30;?. 

mg, 2s. 
le ValcG 


Qs. and 

list, 14.9. 
m Iland- 

it Musi- 

caZ Exer- 
5d. ; with- 

/ Fishing, 


i-rose, 6s. 
's Stand- 

\rator, ^s. 

)le, vols, 
gilt 8s. 

id of the 
|6rf. ; 1. p. 


led. 5^. 

\«it Illust. 
it 2i. 6(1. 

/« «// Departments of Literature. 



English Philosophers. 

II ATTON, Joseph, Journalistic 

London, 12s. Gd. 

Seo also Low's Standard 


II AWEIS, R.n.,Broad CJmrch, 

' Poets in the Pulpit^\0,^.Qd. 

new edit. Gs. ; also 3s'. Gd. 

^[rs., Housekeeping, 2s. Gd. 

' Beautiful Himscs, i:S., new 

edit. Iv. 
HAYDN. Sec Great Musicians. 
IIAZLITT, W., Hound Table, 

2s Gd. 

HEAD, Percy R. See Illus. 

Text Books and Great Artists. 
HEARD, A.F., Eussian Church, 

HEARN, L., You7n<r, 5s. 
HEATH, F. G., Fern World, 

12s. Gd., new edit. Gs. 

• Gektuodk, Tell us Why, 

2s. 6cL 
HELDMANN, B., Mutiny of 
the " LcanJer," 7s. Gd. and bs. 

- See also Low's Standard 
Bonks for Boys. 

HENTY, G. A., Hidden Foe, 
2 vols. 21s. 

- See also Low's Standard 
Books for Boys. 

- Richmond, Australiana, 

HERBERT, T., Salads uud 

Sandwiches, Gd. 
HICKS, G. S., Our Boys, and 

ivhat to do with Them; Merchant 

Service, 5s. 
■ Yachts, Boats, and Cannes, 

10s. Gd. 

HIGGINSON, T. W., Atlantic 

Essays, 6s. 

History of the 17.5., illust. 


HILL, A. Staveley, From 

Home to Home in N.- W, Canada, 
21s., new edit. 7s. 6(1. 

^— G. B., Footsteps of John- 
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:^LVTTHEWS, J. W., Incicadi 

Yami, \\s. 

]yi AURY, M. F., Life, 1 2.-^. Qd. 
— — — Piiysical Geo(jrai)hy and 

]\[eteoroloqy of the Sea, new ed.,Os. 
l^IEISSNER, A. L., Children's 

Own German Book (Low's Series), 

Is. Gd. 
■ Fird Gei'man 

(Low's Series), Is. Gd. 
- - Second German 

(Low's Series), 1*. Gd. 





Prime Miniatera. 

MELIO, G. L., Swedish Brill, 
Is. Gd. 

1729-1847, Letters and Journals, 
2 vols. 30s. ; new edit. 30s. 

See also Great Musicians. 

:RrERRlFJELD, J., Nautical 

Astrnno)!!!/, 7s. Gd. 

]\Ii<:RRY^LEES, J., Carlsbad, 

7s. Gd. and !)s. 

MESNEY,W., Tunyking,Zs. 6d. 

Metal Workers' Recipes and 
Processes,hy \V. T. Biannt,12s.G(/. 

MEUNIER, V. See Low's 
Standard Books. 

Michelangelo. See Great Art- 

MILFORD, P. Ned Stafford's 
Experiences, 5s. 

MILL, James. See English 


MILLS, J., Alternative Elemen- 
tary Chemistry, Is. Gd. 

^— Chemistry Based on the 
Science and Art Syllabus, 2s. Gd. 

Elementary Chemistry y 

answers, 2 vols. Is. each. 

MILTON'S Allegro, See 
Choice p]ditions. 

MITCHELL, D.G.(Ik. Marvel) 
Unglish Lands, Letters and Kings, 
2 vols. 6s. each. 

Writings, new edit, per 

MITFORD, J., Letters, ds. 6d. 
Miss, Our Village, illust. 

Modem Etcliings, G3s. & 318.66?. 
MOLLETT, J. W., Dictionary 

of Words in Art and Archaeology, 

illust. 15s. 

— — Etched Examples, 31«. Qd. 

and 63s. 
See also Great Artista. 

in, ;-'l 


^ Select List of Books 

MONCK. Soo English Philo- 

ISrONEY, E., The Truth Ahnnt 

AuH'ricu, S.". ; now edit. 2.'<'. {\d. 
MONKIIOUISE. SeoG. Artists. 
Montaigne's I'JttsayH, revised by 

J. llaia Fri8well,'2s. Gd. 
•^-^ Seo (jcntlo Life Scries. 
INIOOKE, J. IVr., New Zealand 

for Emiijrant, Invalid, and Tourist, 

^tOKFlLL, W. R., Eu,<sia, 

3s. Cvl. 

IMORLKY, ITkxrt, J'hi'/lhh 

Literature in the Reign of Victoria, 

2s. Gd. 
—— Five Centuries of Kngtish 

Literature, 2.<. 
^lORSE, E. S.,Japa7icse Homes, 

new edit. lO.*. Gd. 

]\IORTEiV, Hospital Life, \s. 
MORTIMER, J., Chess Planer's 
Pockvt-Book, new edit. Is. 

MORWOOD,V.S., Our Gipsies, 

MOSS, F. J., Great South Sea, 

8s. Gd. 
MOSSMAN, S., Japaii, 3s. Gd. 
MOTTI, PiETUo, Elementary 

Russian Grammar, 2,s. Gd. 
— — Russian Conversation 

Grammar, 5*. ; Key, 2s. 
MOULE, H. C. G., Sermons, 

'is. Gd. 

INIOXLEY, West India Sana- 
torium, and Barliados, 3s. Gd. 

MOXON, W., Pilocereus Senilis, 
3s. Gd. 

I^IOZART, 36-. Gr. Musicians. 

MULLER,E. See Low's Stand- 
ard Books. 

MULLIN, J. P., Moulding and 
Pattern Making, 12s. Gd. 

MULRKADY, 3.«.-. 6d, Great 

MURILLO. See Great Artists. 

IMUSGRAVE, Mrs. See Low's 
Standard Novels. 

— — Savage Londo7t, n. e. 3.'?. H/. 

il/// Coniforfnr, tj'C, ReHginm 

Poems, 2>'. Gd. 
Napoleon I. See Piayard Sorii'-. 
Napoleon I. and Marie Lanis", 

7s. Gd. 
N ELS OX, AVoLFRED, Panama, 

N el son^sWord sand Deeds, 3,s\ <!-/. 
NETIIERCOTK, Pi/tehlr;/ 

Hunt, 8s. Gd. 
New Democrarg, Is. 
New Zealayid, chromes, by Par- 

rand, KiSv. 
NICHOLSON, Briti><h As^u,. 

ciation Work and ]Vorkers, 1«. 
Nineteenth Century, a Moiitlil y 

Review, 2.'!. ()'/. per No. 

NISRET, HuMK, Life awl 

Nature Studies, Gs. 
NIXON, story of the Transvaa', 

12s. Gd. 
NordenskidhV s Voi/a'/e, trans. 


NORDIIOFF, C., Califn-nui, 

new edit. 12s. G(7. 
NORRIS, liAcriEL, NiirsiiiQ 

Notes, 2s. 

NORTH, W., Pmnan Fern-, 

Northern Fair)/ Tides, ^s. 
NORTON, C. L., Florida, 5.9. 
NORWAY, G., Hoio Martin 

BfOike Found his Father illus. .'s. 

NUGEN T'S Freiich Dictionar//, 

now edit. 3s. 
Nuggets of the Gouph, 3«. 
Nursing Record Series, text 

books and manuals. Edited by 

Charles P. Rideal. 
1. Lectures to Nurses on Antiseptics 

in Snrgery. By E. Stanmoro 

Bishop. With coloured plates, 


In all Departments of Literature. 


18. Soo Low's 

9n, n. p. S.*?. r»J. 
re, RoJitjioiii 

Marin Lani.^", 

iKO, PanruHd, 

lDcP(U, 3,s-. (I-/. 

"imos, liy 

Briiixh yl.svo- 

•?/, a Moiitlily 

)r No. 

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^he TrarwaiV^ 

(>l/ai/o, trims. 

, C(ili/(irni((, 

EL, A\rf^ii/r) 

oman Ferry, 

'lies, 5^'. 
Florida, 5s. 
//o?w Martin 

tthcr illiis. Tis. 

7j Dicfioiiari/, 

iph, 3«. 
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Is. Edited by 

on Antiseptica 

B. Stantnovo 

loured plates, 

Nurdiuf Record Series — coiitin. 

2. NnrHinj? NotcB. Afedicul and 
Surgical information. For Hos- 
pital Nurses, &<!. With illustra- 
tions and a glossary of terms. 
By lliicliol Norris {nee Williams), 
late Acting Superintendent of 
Royal Victoria Military Hospital 
at SuoK, 2^. 

3. Priictical Electro-Therapeutics. 
liy Arthur llarrios, M.l)., and 
11. Newman Lawrence. With 
photographsanddiai,'rams, Is.Gci. 

4. MnssHgo for Beginners. Simplo 
and easy directions for luaruing 
and remembering the dill'erent 
inuvemouts. By Lucy Fitch, 

O'JiRIEN, Fifty Years of Con- 
cession in Ireland, vol. i. 16s. ; 
vol. ii. IGs-. 

Irish Land Question, '2s. 

OGDEN, James, Fly - tying, 
2s. 6(Z. 

OGRADY, Bardic Literature 
of Ireland, Is. 

History of Irtland, vol. i. 

7s. G(?. ; ii. 7s. *()(?. 

Old Masters in Photo. 73s. Gd. 

Orient Line Guide, new edit. 
2s. Gd. 

OKLElJArv, Sa7icta Christina, 

Other People's Windoivs. Sec 
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OTTfi, Denmark and Iceland, 
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Our Little Ones in Ilcaren, ^s. 

Out of School at Eton, 'Is. Gd. 

OVERBECK. See Great Art- 

OWEN, Douglas, Marine In- 
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Oxford Days, by a M.A., 2s. Gd. 

PALGRAVE, Chairman's 

Handbook, new edit. 2s. 

■^— Oliver Cromwellf lOs. Gd. 

TALLTSER, China Cullector'a 

CumiHinum, 5s. 

]fistori/of Larc, 11. ed. 2\s, 

V2\KlON,IImcs of Tasto,2s.Gd. 
TAHKl-:, Fmin Pasr.a Iteliif 

Expedition, 21s. 
I'AKKER, E. Ii., Chimve Ac- 

count 0/ the Opium ^yar, Is. Gd. 
PARSONS, J., Principles of 

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T. P., Marine Insurance, 

2 vols. G3s. 
PEACH, Annals of Swaiitswirk, 

10.-. G(/. 
Peel. See Prinio Ministers. 
I'ELLESCIir, G., Gran Chacn, 

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PENNELL, II. C., Fiohiny 

Tackle, 28. 
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Penny Postage Jubilee, Is. 
PEK'RY, NouA, Another Flock 

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Pern, ?>p. Gd. Foreign Countries. 
PIIELi'S, E. S., Struggle for 

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Samuel, Life, l».y W. i\r. 

Phelps and Forbes-llobertson, 

I'lllLLIMORE, C. M., Italian 

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PHILLIPPS, W. M., English 

PIIILliPS, L. P., Dictionary 
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\V., Lata of Insurance, 2 

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PHILPOT, II. J., Diabetes 

Mellitus, 5s. 

Diet Tables, Is. each. 

Picture Gallery of British Art. 
I. to VI, 18s. each. 

— — Modern Art, 3 vols. 3ls. Gd, 


A Select List of Books 

riNTO, IIow I Crossed Africa, 

2 vols. 42.9. 

Playtime Ldhrary. Soo Hum- 
phrey and IlantiDgdon. 

ricamiit History of Reynard the 
Fox, trans, bj T. Roscoe, illas. 
7». Gd. 

POCOCK, R., Oravesend His- 

tnrian, 5s. 
rOE, by E. C. Stcdman, 3x. Gd. 

Itaven, ill. by G. Doro, 63s. 

Poems of the Inner Life, bs. 
Poetry of Nature. See Choice 


Poetry of the Anti-JacohiUyls. Gd. 

and 21s. 
POOLE, Somerset Customs and 

Legends, 5s. 
— — S. Lane, Egypt^ 35. Gd. 

Foreign Countries. 
POPE, Select Poetical Works, 

(Uornhard Tauohnitz Collection), 


PORCHER, A., Juvenile 

French Plays, Is. 
Portraits of Racehorses, i vols. 


POSSELT, Structure of Fibres, 

— Textile Design, illust. 28.^. 
POYNTER. See Illustrated 

Text Books. 
Preachers of the Age, 3s. Gd. ea. 
Living Theology, by His Grace the 

Archbishop of Canterbury. 
The Conquering Christ, by Rev. A. 

Vcrhum Crucia, by the Bishop of 

Ethical Christianity, by H. P. 

Sermons, by Canon W. J. Knox* 

Light and Peace, by H. B. Reynolds. 
Faith and Duty, by A. M. Fairbairn. 
Plain Words on Great Themes, by 

J. O. Dykes. 
Bermons, by the Bishop of Bipon. 

Preachers of the Age — continu(< L 
Sermons, by Rov. C. U. Spnrgeoii. 
Agonice Chriati, by Dean Lofruy, of 

Sermons, by H. C. G. Moule, M.A. 
VolumeH will follow in quick tuccv!i- 

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Prime Ministers, a sorios df 
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Stuart J. lloid, 3,>\ Gd. each. 

1. Karl of Boaconefleld, by J. An- 
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2. Viscount Melbourne, by Henry 
Diinckloy (♦' Verax"). 

3. Sir Robort Peel, by Justiu 

4. Viscount Palmerston, by tho 
Marquis of Lome. 

5. Karl Russell, by Stuart J. Rei'l. 

6. Right Hon. W. K. Gladstone, by 
G. VV. E. Russell. 

7. Earl of Aberdeen, by Sir Arthur 

8. ^Marquis of Salisbury, by H. D. 

9. Knrlof Derby, by George Saints- 

*^* An edition, limited to 250 copies, 
is issued on hand-made paper, 
medium 8vo, hound in half vellum, 
cloth sides, gilt top. Price for the 
9 vols. 41. 4s. nett. 

Prince MoftJciloff. See Low's 
Standard Novels. 

Prince of Nursery Playmates, 

new edit. 2.«. Gd. 

PRITT, T. N., Country Trout 

Flies, 10s. Gd. 
Reynolds. See Great Artists. 
Purcell. See Great Musiriim'? 
QUILTER, H., Giotto 

Sfc. 15s. 
RAMBAUD, History of Russia, 

new edit., 3 vols. 21s. 
RAPHAEL. See Great Artists. 
REDFORD, Sculpture. See 

Hlustrated Text-books. 
REDGRAVE, Engl. Paintert, 

lOi. ed. and 12«. 

In all Dcparlments of Literature, 


(3 — continued. 

U. Spnrgeou. 

oan Lefroy, <ȣ 

L Moulo, M.A. 
n quick 8UCCI.S- 
;now» men, 

a sories df 
lies, edited Ly 
, G(Z. each, 
iuld, by J. A ti- 
me, by Uenry 
b1, by JuBtiu 

rston, by tlio 

Stnart J. Rei'l. 
. Gladstone, by 

I, by Sir Artbur 

bury, by H. D. 

George Saints* 

led to 2C}0 copies, 

id-made paper, 

in half vellum, 

, Frice for the 

See Low's 

[/ Playmates, 

\ountry Trout 

reat Artists, 
it MusiriauB, 

lory of h... ma, 

rreat Artists. 
^pture. See 
\gl. Painten, 

KKEI ), Sir E. J., Modem Ships 
of War, \0i, C(Z. 

T. B., Iio(jer Ingleton, 
Minor, Us. 
»*>'//• Ludar. See Low's 

Standard Books. 

KKIJ), iSlAYNi:, Capt., Stories 
of Stnuhje Adventures, illust. 5s. 

Stuaut J. See rrimo 


T. Wkmyss, Land of the 

Tiey, 10s. Gd. 
Jirniar/i-aMe Bindings in British 
Museum, 168.s. j O-is. Gd.; 73s. 67. 

1 Pit 

K lai BRANDT. Seo G Art- 

Romlnii'-ncncpsof a Boyhood, 6x. 

liE>[USAT, Memoirs, Vols. I. 
and II. new ed. IGs. each. 

Select Letters, 1 G.'. 

KKYNOL! )S. See Or. Artists. 

LIknky R., LJght ^' Peace, 

Si'c. ScDimns, 3s. Gd. 

niUUAKDH, J. W., Alumi- 

ninm, new edit. 21s. 

RICHARDSON, Choice of 

/ioc/i-v, 3*. Gd. 

R LCI ITER, J. P., Italian Art, 

See also Great Artists. 

RIDDKLL. See Low's Stand- 
ard Novels. 

R IDEAL, Women of the Time, 

."AULT, Colours for 

I'ntinri, 31s. Cid. 

i S, iloio the Other Half 

.tiCS, lOs. Gd. 
VA PON, Bp. of. See Preachers. 
ROBERTS, Miss, Fra7ice. See 

Foreisrn Co'iatries. 
W., J dish Bookselling, 

earlier his- v. 7s. Gd. 
RO BIDi^ , Toilette, coloured, 

la. Gd, 

ROBINSON, '' Borneo " Coatcs, 
7«. Gd. 

Noah's Ark, n. ed. ?ts. Gd. 

Sinners Sf Saints, \0s. (id. 

Seo also Low's Standard 

Wealth and its Sources, 

W. C, Laio of Patents, 

3 vols. lOos. 


Bayard Series. 
R0CK8TR0, History ofMusir^ 

now od. H.v. 

RODRIC.UES, Panama Canal, 

ROE, E. P. Seo Low's Stand- 

ard Series. 
ROGERS, S. Soo Choice 


ROLFE, Pompeii, 7s. Gd. 

Romantic Stories of the Legal 
Profession, 7s. G(/. 

ROMN EY. Seo Great Artists. 

ROOSEVELT, Blanche R. 
Uowe Life of Longfellow, 7s. Gd. 

ROSE, J., Mechanical Drawing, 

Practical Machinist, new 

ed. 12s. Gd. 

— - Key to Engines, 8<?. Gd. 

Modern Steam Engines^ 

31*. Gel. 

Steam Boilers, \'2s. Gd. 

Rose Lihrary. Pojjular Litera- 
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Alcott (L. M.) Eight Cousins, 2s. ; 
cloth, 3s. Gd. 

Jack and Jill, 2s. ; cloth, 5s. 

Jimmy's cruise in the Pt/m- 

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Little Women. 

Little Women Wedded ; Nog. 

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I 'I 


/I Select List of Books 

Roi^e Library — eo7itinnc(l. 

Alcott (L. ^r.) Old-fashioned Girls, 

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Rose ia Uloom, 2s. ; cl. 3s. Gd. 

Silver Pitchers. 

— ■ — Under the Lilacs, 2s. ; cloth, 

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Woik, A Story of Expoiiencc, 

2 voIb. iu 1, cloth, 3s. 6ii. 
Btowo (Mrs.) Pearl of Orr's Island. 

Minister's Wooinj?. 

We and Our Neighbours, 2s. 

■ My Wife and I, 2s. 

Dodge (Mrs.) Hans Brinker, or, 

The Silver Skates, Is. ; cloth, 5s. ; 

3s. 6(1. ; 2s. 6 L 
Lowell (J. R.) My Study Windows. 
Holmes (Oliver Wendell) Guardian 

Angel, cloth, 2s. 
Warner (C. D.) My Summer in a 

Garden, cloth, 2s. 
Stowe (Mrs.) Dred, 2s. ; clo'.h gilt, 

3s. 6rf. 
Carlcton (W.") City Ballads, 2 vols. 

iu 1, cloth gilt, 2s. G7. 
Legends, 2 vols, in 1, cloth 

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Farm Ballads, 6fi. and OiL ; 3 

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Farm Festivals, 3 vols, in 1, 

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Farm Legends, 3 vols, in 1, 

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Clients of Dr. Bernagius, 2 vols. 
Howolls (W. D.) Undiscovered 

Clay (C. M.) Baby Rue. 

Story of Helen Troy. 

Whitney (Mrs.) Hitherto, 2 vols. 

cloth, 3s. (j(?. 
Fawoett (E.) Gentleman of Leisure. 
Butler, Nothing to Wear. 

KOSS, Mars, Caniahna, 21.9. 
ROSSINI, &c., Seo Gioat 

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Roughing it after Gold, by Rux, 
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Standard Books. 

RO WROTH A^r, F. J., rrairi. 

Land, 5s. 
Royal Naval ExJiihifion, a smi- 

venir, illus. Is. 
RU B ENS. See Great Artist ■^^. 
RUGGLKS, H. J.,Shake.<pear'\i 

Method, 7s. 6d. 


Soo Primo Ministers. 

W. Clark, Mrs. Di)i'> 

Jewels, 2s. fid. 

NeJfion^s Words and Deri-, 

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Sailor's Langua'ie, illn;. 
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VV. Howard, Prince <>/ 

Wales' Tour, illust. 52s. fi'V. ami 

Rutisla. Soo Foreign Countri' s. 
Saints and their Symbols, 'Ss. Cyf. 
SAINTSBURY, 'G., Earl nj 

Dcrhy. See Primo Ministers. 
SAINTINE, Picciola, is. CvJ. 

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SAMUELS. See Low's Stan- 

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Spanish Grammar (Key, 

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Spanish Reader, new edit. 

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SAUNDERS, J., Jaspar Deane, 
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F. J., Prairi'' 

lihitiony a K<'n- 

Great Artist >. 


, Mrs. Diii'^ 


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lOw's Standanl 


RD, Prince "f 

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SymhnU, 3.'>'. CvK 
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ouD. SeePriiii" 

e Low's Stan- 

nan Primer, I.-". 
ujull Rock, 2 '. 
Standard Series. 
HoiD to Develop 

"arnnar (Key, 

%logues, Is. G'/. 
ammar (Kt'V, 

ider, new edit. 

Jaspar Deanc, 

In all Departments of Literature, 


SCHAACK, M. J., Anarchy, 

for technical Bchoulg, lOs. 6(Z. 

SCHEREK, Essays in Enylish 
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SlJHERR, Enylish Liierature, 

history, 8s. 6d. 
SCHILLER'S Prosa, selections 

by Buchheim. Low's Series 2.'>\ Gd. 
SUHUBERT. See Great Musi- 


SCHUMANN. See Great 


Standard Library. 
Scientip'c Education of Dogs, 'os. 
SCOTT, Leader, Renaissance 

of Art in Italy, 31s. 6d. 

See also Illiist. Text-boolcs. 

Sir Giluebt, Autohio- 

liography, 18s. 
W, B. See Great Artists. 

SKLMA, Robert, Poems, 5s. 
SERGEANT, L. See Foreigti 

Shadow of tlie Rock, 2s. 6d. 


SHAKESPEARE, ed. by R. G. 
White, 3 vols. 36s. ; 4dit. de luxe, 

Annals ; Life ^ Work, Is. 

Hamlet, 1603, also 1G04. 

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Hamlet, by Kail Elze, 

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Macbeth, with etchings, 


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Songs and Soniitts, 

Choice Editions. 
Taming oj the Shiew, 

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wrapper, Is, 

See Gentle Life 
See Gentle Life 

SHEPHERD, British School of 
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eewed, Is. 

SHERIDAN,/^im/.s col. platos, 

52s. 6(i. nott; art. pr. 105s. nett. 

SHIELIJS, G. 0., Big Game 
of North America, 21s. 

Cruisings in the Cascades^ 

10s. 6(i. 

SHOCK, W. H., Steam BoiU'n:, 

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Silent Hour. 

SIMKIN, Our Armies, plates in 

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at Is), Gs. 
SIMSON, Ecuador ami the 

Piittimayor, 8s. 6d. 

SKOTTOVVE, Hanoverian 

Kings, new edit. 3*. 6d. 

SLOANE, T. 0., Home Expert. 

vients, 6s. 

LEGROS' Freiwh Dictionary, 2 

vols. 16s., 21s., and 22s. 

SMITH, Edward, Cohbett, 2 

vols. 24s. 
— — G., Assyria, 18». 
Chaldean Account of 

Genesis, new edit, by Sayce, 18». 
Gerard. See Illustrated 

Text Books. 
T. Roger. See Illustrated 

Text Books. 
Socrates. See Bayard Series. 
SOMERSET, Our Village Life, 

Spain. See Foreign Countries. 
SPAYTH, Draught Player, 

new edit. 12s. Gd. 
SPIERS, Erench Dictionary, 

2 vols. 18s., half bound, 2 vula., 

SPRY. See Low's Stand. Library. 


A Select List of Books 


STANLEY, 11. M., Congo, 2 

vols. 42s-. and 21s. 
In Darkest Afnca, 2 vols., 

— - EmirCs Rescue^ \s. 
See also Low's Standard 

Library and Low' a Standard 

STAllT, Exercises in Mensura- 
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STEPHENS, F. G., Celebrated 

Flemish and French Pictures, 

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STKRNE. See Bayard Series. 
bTERRY, J. AsHBY, Cucumber 

Chronicles, 5s. 

STEUART, J. A., Letters to 
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See also Low's Standard 


STEVENS, J. W., Practical 

Worliings of the Leather Manu- 
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T., Around (he World on 
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STEWART, DcGALD, Outlines 
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STOCKTON, F. R., Casting 

Away of Mrs. Leeks, Is. 

T/ie Dumntes, a sequel, !.•?. 

Merry Chanter, 2s. Qd. 

Personally Conducted, 

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Rudder Granuers Abroad, 

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— — — Squirrel Inn, illust. Gs. 
• Story of Viteau, illust. 6s. 

now edit. 3s. 6d. 

Three Burglars, \s. & Is, 

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STORER, F. IL, Agriculture, 
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STOWE, Edwin. See Great 

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■ Life . . . her oion Words 
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■ Life, told for boys ami 
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Little Foxes, cheap edit. 

Is. J 4s. 6(1. 

Minister's Wooing, \s. 

Pearl of Orr's Island, 

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